Lauren Julius Harris

Lauren Julius Harris
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

160
Publications
15,443
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2,882
Citations
Citations since 2017
8 Research Items
601 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120

Publications

Publications (160)
Article
Full-text available
The self-generation effect refers to the finding that people’s memory for information tends to be better when they generate it themselves. Counterintuitively, when proofreading, this effect may make it more difficult to detect mistakes in one’s own writing than in others’ writing. We investigated the self-generation effect and sources of individual...
Article
Full-text available
Musical expertise exists along a continuum, with some musicians demonstrating far greater mastery than others. What accounts for this variability in skill? Could anyone, given the right conditions, reach a level of skill necessary to play for a first-rank orchestra? As a more extreme example, could anyone compose a symphonic masterpiece or play the...
Chapter
Of the main principles of human neuropsychology, the best known may be cerebral specialization: the left and right hemispheres play different roles in language and other higher-order functions. This chapter discusses when and how and by whom the differences were found. It begins with an account of Gall's cortical localization theory, which set the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and dolls but not books or packages on the left side. One reason may be that attention is more often leftward in response to infants, unlike emotionally neutral objects like books and packages. Women's stronger bias may reflect greater responsiveness to infants. Previously, we tested the attention hypothe...
Article
Full-text available
Does music matter? Judging from the ever-diminishing support for music education in public funding, the message is that it is just a frill to be cast aside for more pressing needs. The pleasure of listening to music is worthy in itself and reason enough for support, but what happens when people are more deeply engaged, such as when they learn to re...
Chapter
Fencing masters in the past knew that left-handers have an advantage and agreed that it came from practice; as a minority, left-handers had more chances to compete against right-handers than right-handers had to compete against them. Fencing masters today have the same view. So do scientists, who credit the advantage to what is now called a “freque...
Article
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Objective: The transition from childhood to adulthood is characterized by improved motor and cognitive performance in many domains. Developmental studies focus on average performance in single domains but ignore consistency of performance across domains. Within-individual variability (WIV) provides an index of that evenness and is a potential mark...
Article
Thirty-two adults judged which two of three figures were most alike and also which two were most different. The figures differed in shape and internal design. Twenty-four different triads of figures were presented. Twelve Ss significantly preferred shape, 10 preferred internal design, and the remainder had no preference. However, only 4% of the tot...
Article
Full-text available
Most adults prefer attractive individuals and treat them more favorably. It has been proposed that this bias is adaptive for choosing high-quality mates because attractive individuals are more likely to carry fitness-enhancing genes. If offspring can inherit fitness-enhancing genes, the offspring's attractiveness might serve as an additional cue fo...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty children between 2V1/2 and 6 years of age traced a series of mazes under three different conditions of stimulus (crayon color) constancy. On the basis of several different measures, older children proved to be substantially more variable than younger children and, for all children, variability tended to increase with increasing stimulus vari...
Article
Full-text available
In the usual conservation-of-length task, one of two horizontally aligned sticks is displaced to the left and S is asked whether or not the sticks, previously judged equal in length, are now unequal. On the possibility that this procedure confounds a left-right discrimination task with the conservation task per se, 18 nonconserving first-grade chil...
Article
Full-text available
Sixteen preschool children each had four 1-min (familiarization) trials with two toys, identical except for color, from each of two different sets of toys. On each trial, S chose one of the two toys. Sixteen other children had 16 familiarization trials with each toy set. Alternations of choice on successive trials significantly exceeded chance in b...
Article
Full-text available
Lasko & Lindauer (1968) concluded from their study that recognition thresholds for perception of a trick card were higher than that for normal cards. It is suggested that their conclusion is inappropriate in the absence of basic control measures.
Article
Parental care and alloparental care are major evolutionary dimensions of the biobehavioral repertoire of many species, including human beings. Despite their importance in the course of human evolution and the likelihood that they have significantly shaped human cognition, the nature of the cognitive mechanisms underlying alloparental care is still...
Article
Full-text available
Albert Israel Rabin, professor emeritus of psychology at Michigan State University (MSU), died on October 24, 2010, at age 98. Over six decades, Al published nearly 200 empirical reports, reviews, books, and chapters on personality, child development, psychopathology, and the use of the Rorschach and other projective and measurement techniques, inc...
Article
Full-text available
For parents anxious "lest their children should be left-handed", the American author Mary Palmer Tyler offered advice and reassurance in her 1811 child-care manual The Maternal Physician. This article provides a brief biography of Tyler and the text of her remarks, along with notes on the text and the author's sources.
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies show that in the sport of fencing left-handers have an advantage over right-handers. This was recognised by fencing masters as early as the sixteenth century. They also agreed that the advantage was due to left-handers' numbers-that being a minority gave them more opportunities to compete against right-handers than right-handers had...
Article
Full-text available
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and objects representing infants, such as dolls, preferentially on the left side. The attention hypothesis credits the effect to left-directed attention for perception of emotionally salient targets, faces being prime examples. Support comes from studies showing stronger left visual hemispace (LVH) biases...
Article
Full-text available
Most women hold infants on their left side. They do the same when depicted in works of art. Does the latter accurately reflect the real-life bias, the artist's own aesthetic preference, or something else, such as the artist's handedness, sex, direction of attentional bias, or even the artist's own side-preference for holding infants? As a first ste...
Article
Roberts Bartholow's 1874 experiment on Mary Rafferty is widely cited as the first demonstration, by direct application of stimulating electrodes, of the motor excitability of the human cerebral cortex. The many accounts of the experiment, however, leave certain questions and details unexamined or unresolved, especially about Bartholow's goals, the...
Article
Full-text available
Most adults hold human infants on the left side, with the infant's head to the left of their own body midline. The discovery of this bias is credited to Lee Salk, who first reported it in 1960, but the same was reported at least 300 years earlier and many times again through the early decades of the twentieth century. Along with the left-side repor...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the relationship of (a) reactive inhibition and right-lateralized emotion processing to each other and (b) to executive control of response suppression, and (c) with regard to ADHD in 134 children ages 7-12 years. Reactive inhibition was indexed by child ratings of sensation seeking on the Sensation Seeking Scales, executive co...
Article
In many species, symmetry enhances physical attractiveness of the face and body. In humans, facial attractiveness is also enhanced by symmetrical decoration in the form of facial paint [Cárdenas, R. A., & Harris, L. J. (2006)]. According to the good-genes hypothesis [e.g., Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (1999)], symmetry is preferred because it...
Article
Photographic and direct-observation studies show that most adults hold infants on the left side. This basic directional effect is well established, but other details are still uncorroborated, uncertain, or inconsistent across studies. These include the overall strength of the bias, the role of the sex, parental status, and experience of the holder,...
Chapter
The chapter discusses fragments of the mind and brain. If the left bias for holding infants looked simple at the start-little more than a product of handedness-it has proven to be less simple the closer one looks. For collaborators and other investigators, it has also proven to be far more interesting and has taken them into domains of theory and r...
Article
Lateral preferences in parents' cradling and holding of their infants were assessed in a longitudinal study commencing 1–3 days after birth and ending at 18 months. Right-handed parents showed a consistent left-side preference, which declined slightly as the infants grew older. Left-handed mothers showed an initial left-side preference and then mor...
Article
In humans and several other species, face and body symmetry have been found to enhance physical attractiveness. A proposed explanation is that symmetry is a phenotypic indicator of biological fitness. Throughout the world, symmetrical designs also are a common feature in face and body painting and the decorative arts. The implication is that symmet...
Article
to vallortigara & rogers's (v&r's) evidence of everyday directional asymmetries in the natural environment of a variety of species, we offer one more example for human beings. it is the bias for holding an infant on the left side, and it illustrates several themes in the target article.
Article
Full-text available
Studies show that 65–85% of mothers hold their infants on the left side of their own body and that this left-bias may be reduced or reversed when mothers have symptoms similar to depression or dysphoria (de Château, Holmberg, & Winberg, 1978). No studies, however, have used diagnostic criteria to assess the mother's psychological state. The current...
Article
On the question. "What to do about your child's handedness?", parents have never lacked for advice. Over more than two millennia, however, their advisors have rarely spoken with one voice. Instead, they have disagreed on virtually everything, including the desirability of handedness, its origins in nature or nurture, and especially the acceptabilit...
Article
On the question "What to do about your child's handedness?", parents have never lacked for advice. Over more than two millennia, however, their advisors have rarely spoken with one voice. Instead, they have disagreed on virtually everything, including the desirability of handedness, its origins in nature or nurture, and especially the acceptability...
Article
Three hundred university undergraduates were asked to imagine holding in their arms first an object (either an "expensive vase" or an "old shoebox") and then a young infant. For all three tasks, side biases were found that were significantly different from chance and from one another: 81% of the subjects reported holding the imagined vase in their...
Article
A prior study (Carbary, Almerigi, & Harris, 2001) of adults' judgments of emotional chimeric faces showed that the left visual hemispace (LVH) bias normally found on a free-viewing chimeric faces test is reduced when the task is judged to be difficult. Taking into account theory and research on hemispheric differences in styles, or strategies, of i...
Article
When asked to hold an infant, 60-85% of adults hold on their left, so that the infant's head is to the left of their midline (Brüser, 1981; de Chateau, 1983; Saling & Tyson, 1981). The same group bias has been found even when persons are merely asked to imagine holding an infant (Nakamichi & Takeda, 1995; Harris, Almerigi, & Kirsch, 2000). A number...
Article
In 1962, the psychologist Lee Salk reported finding that 80% of mothers held their infants on the left side of their body, so that the infant's head was to their left. Salk's finding has been amply confirmed, with new studies of mothers as well as other adults reporting figures for left-side holding ranging from 60 to 85% (e.g., de Chateau, 1983; H...
Conference Paper
When asked to hold an infant. 60-85% of adults hold on their left. so that the infant's head is to the left of their midline (Bruser, 1981 de Chateau, 1983: Saling & Tyson, 1981). The same group bias has been found even when persons are merely asked to imagine holding an infant (Nakamichi Takeda, 1995; Harris. Almerigi. & Kirsch, 2000). A number of...
Conference Paper
A prior study (Carbary, Almerigi, & Harris. 2001) of adults' judgments of emotional chimeric faces showed that the left visual hemispace (LVH) bias normally found on a free-viewing chimeric faces test is reduced when the task is judged to be difficult. Taking into account theory and research on hemispheric differences in styles, or strategies, of i...
Conference Paper
Three hundred university undergraduates were asked to imagine holding in their arms first an object (either an "expensive vase" or an "old shoebox") and then a young infant. For all three tasks, side biases were found that were significantly different from chance and from one another; 81% of the subjects reported holding the imagined vase in their...
Conference Paper
In 1962, the psychologist Lee Salk reported finding that 80% of mothers held their infants on the left side of their body, so that the infant's head was to their left. Salk's finding has been amply confirmed, with new studies of mothers as well as other adults reporting figures for left-side holding ranging from 60 to 85% (e.g., de Chateau. 1983: H...
Article
Schiff and Lamon (1989) proposed that unilateral face contractions induce positive or negative changes in emotion depending on the side of contraction; support for this proposal, however, has been mixed. In a new test, 40 right-handed and 38 left-handed men performed four alternating face contractions (LRLR or RLRL) and, after each one, completed a...
Article
When asked to hold a young infant in their arms, most adults hold on the left side (Harris, 1997). In a prior study, we found the same bias when we asked adults merely to imagine holding an infant in their arms (Harris, Almerigi, & Kirsch, 1999). It has been hypothesized that the left-side bias is the product of right-hemisphere arousal accompanyin...
Article
When people make judgments of visual-spatial forms, they generally perform better if the information is presented in their left visual hemispace (LVH), whereas for verbal material, they generally show a right visual hemispace (RVH) bias. For verbal material, the strength and direction of the effect also has been linked to task difficulty, with the...
Article
Scientists today who seek clues into the evolutionary origins of human handedness make extensive use of evidence from comparative studies, that is, studies that ask whether handedness occurs in other species, especially apes and monkeys, as the Darwinian principle of continuity would seem to imply, or whether it is uniquely human. Early investigati...
Article
Five hundred one right-handers (150 men, 351 women) and 53 left-handers (15 men, 38 women) were asked to imagine holding a young infant in their arms. Right-handers reported significant left-side biases--in 68% of the men and 73% of the women. For left-handers, side preferences were weaker, the left-side bias dropping to 47% for men and 60% for wom...
Article
This study was conducted to obtain normative data on foot preference and to compare footedness and handedness in a large sample (N = 866) of college students in Korea, where left-hand use for writing and other public acts is severely restricted (Kang & Harris, 1993). Based on scores from Korean-language versions of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventor...
Article
Reviews Face and Mind (see record 1999-02187-000 ). The reviewers note that aspects of mind can be divined, if not from the face directly, then from understanding how we perceive faces, and this is the subject of Andrew Young's book. Face and Mind is not a new work. Except for Chapter 1, it is a collection of 13 reprinted research and review articl...
Article
When people are asked to make judgements about mirror-image composite human faces, they usually draw preferentially on cues in their left visual hemispace (LVH). Not all faces, however, elicit an LVH bias. In two studies of faces which elicited biases ranging from LVH to RVH, we tested the hypothesis that the LVH bias is directly related to task di...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an account of early theory and research on hemispheric specialization. It begins by tracing theory and research on localization of function that set the stage for the discovery of hemispheric specialization. After that, it describes the studies of Paul Broca, John Hughlings-Jackson, and others on hemisphere specialization and...
Conference Paper
To study footedness and lexicon size in African Grey parrots, an international survey of parrot owners was conducted. Responses were obtained from 524 individuals, including 70 owners of African Grey parrots (all animals greater than or equal to 10 months old). Right-footed African Grey's (N = 36) had significantly larger lexicons than left-footed...
Article
To study footedness in parrots, an international survey of parrot owners was conducted. Responses were obtained from 524 individuals, including 70 owners of African Grey parrots (all animals ≥10 months old). All respondents were given a 10-item questionnaire and a standard method for testing foot preference in their pets, and they were asked to cou...
Article
In 1949, the neurologist Juhn Wada reported the first use of a new procedure for determining the localization of speech and language in neurological patients: examination of the effects on speech and language after injecting a barbiturate, sodium amytal, into the internal carotid artery of each hemisphere in succession. By the 1960's, Wada's Intrac...
Article
The intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP) is currently regarded as the best method of the determination of hemispheric specialization for speech, and it is universally relied on as a prognostic test for patients with medically refractory epilepsy who are candidates for neurosurgical intervention. Since its initial development, the IAP als...
Article
College students' reports of their parents' handedness were compared with data provided by the parents themselves. The students' reports of their parents' writing hand were highly accurate, the reports of their parents' general handedness somewhat less so. For the latter measure, the students were asked, ''What is your mother's (father's) handednes...
Conference Paper
Developmental dyslexia is typically associated with major difficulties in tasks of phonological awareness, which require to identify and voluntarily manipulate the sounds of words. We report the case of a young adult suffering from disabling sequellae of severe childhood dyslexia, in whom extensive neurospychological assessment as well as brain ima...
Article
Past studies have suggested that parrots may be unique among animals in showing limb preference - footedness - that is similar to human handedness. Most of these studies, however, have relied on relatively small samples of genera from different zoographical regions, and few have sought to control for certain variables that could influence foot pref...
Article
218 college students (96 men and 122 women, including nearly equal numbers of right-handers and left-handers) were administered a modified version of the "Gallup Geography Test." Men outperformed women, and left-handed women outperformed right-handed women. We suggest that these results cannot be easily explained by any credible sociocultural model...
Article
College students' reports of their parents' handedness were compared with data provided by the parents themselves. The students' reports of their parents' writing hand were highly accurate, the reports of their parents' general handedness somewhat less so. For the latter measure, the students were asked, ''What is your mother's (father's) handednes...
Article
The current study compared the effects of three typeface characteristics (script-likeness, or resemblance to cursive writing; confusability, or likelihood of confusing one letter with another; and difficulty, as indexed by naming latency) on letter identification in a divided visual fields test. It also asked whether and how these effects change wi...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-sectional life span studies of handedness typically show decreasing percentages of left-handers in older age groups. In an article in Psychological Bulletin, S. Coren and D. F. Halpern (1991) argued that this age trend reflects the shorter life span of left-handers than right-handers. They presented 2 studies of their own providing what they...
Article
A convincing case for longevity differences between right- and left-handers remains to be made. The new, positive archival data cited by D. F. Halpern and S. Coren (see record 1994-00695-001) must be interpreted cautiously, as they themselves elsewhere acknowledge, in the light of other new and negative archival data. More significantly, a new pro...
Article
A convincing case for longevity differences between right- and left-handers remains to be made. The new, positive archival data cited by D. F. Halpern and S. Coren (see record 1994-00695-001) must be interpreted cautiously, as they themselves elsewhere acknowledge, in the light of other new and negative archival data. More significantly, a new pros...
Article
In my analysis (Harris, 1991) of Broca's views (1865) on the relationship of handedness to speech representation, a passage from one of Broca's later articles was mistranslated. This has implications for one part of the analysis, which this note explains. New details and comments are also added to the story.
Article
Left-handed (N = 109) and right-handed (N = 115) undergraduates (99 males, 125 females) received the SIBT (a "mental rotation" test), the 3DD (3-dimensional drawing test), and a family sinistrality (FS) questionnaire. Left-handers were further separated into consistent left-handed (CLH) and inconsistent left-handed (ILH) subgroups, based on consist...
Chapter
Not too long ago, it was commonly assumed that cerebral functional asymmetry was a uniquely human characteristic. Today, however, many researchers in the field are coming to believe that it may well be a fundamental feature of mammalian and perhaps of all vertebrate brains. This new view has been spurred by demonstrations of lateralization on perce...
Article
Levy, Heller, Banich, and Burton (1983) have shown that hemispheric activational, or arousal, style, as measured by direction and consistency of choice of the "happer face" on a free-viewing Chimeric Faces Test, is highly reliable and varies across individuals who otherwise presumably have similar cortical organization (e.g., right-handed college s...
Article
environmental influences / organic influences: growth gradient hypotheses / handedness and cortical organization for manual praxis / handedness and cortical organization for speech and language / handedness and cortical organization for spatial-perceptual functions / familial sinistrality and cortical organization / neuroanatomy / attention as inte...
Article
According to several recent historical accounts, Broca (1865a) stated that left-handers are the mirror-reverse of right-handers for cerebral control of speech, with the right hemisphere being dominant in left-handers, and the left hemisphere dominant in right-handers. The same accounts then note Broca's error in light of current evidence that the m...
Article
Hand preference for reaching for objects was assessed in 63 female infants (twenty‐two 9‐month‐olds, eighteen 13‐month‐olds, and twenty‐three 20‐month‐olds). Unimanual reaching was elicited for five different kinds of objects after demonstrations of their use: putting pegs in a pegboard, drawing with a crayon, building a tower of cubes, stirring a...
Chapter
For a long time, study of the human infant has been recognized as a window into human nature. The infant’s role in theories about vision and perception are perhaps the most familiar, but the infant has played a conspicuous role as well in theories about handedness and lateral specialization of the brain. To begin this section of the book on histori...
Chapter
After nearly a century of theory and research, a strong consensus has emerged that recognizes the fundamental biological character of lateralization of cortical function in humans. What is less certain is when and how this specialization is expressed in early development.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the cultural influences on handedness. Right-handers comprise the vast majority of the adult population. Judging from the depictions of hand use in the works of art and from the analysis of the design of weapons, tools, and other historical artifacts, they also would seem to have been the norm since prehistoric time. Handedne...
Chapter
The relationship between handedness and spatial ability is far more complex than it first appeared. The relationship is moderated by the type of spatial task involved, the subject's sex, and the intellectual level. This chapter focuses on manifest handedness. Most studies of the relationship between handedness and spatial ability have used handedne...
Article
An international survey was conducted of 55 epilepsy surgery programs (from 10 countries) that conduct the Intracarotid Sodium Amytal Procedure (IAP). Respondents reported large differences in the prevalence of mixed speech dominance (MSD) in their patient populations. These differences are shown to be due in part to disagreement about the criteria...
Article
Reviews the books, Clinical Neuropsychology and Brain Function: Research, Measurement, and Practice by Thomas Boll and Brenda K. Bryant (Eds.) (see record 1988-98115-000 ); and Contemporary Reviews in Neuropsychology by Harry A. Whitaker (Ed.) (see record 1988-98298-000 ); and Neuropsychological Studies of Nonfocal Brain Damage: Dementia and Trauma...
Article
Ardila, Correa, Zuluaga, and Uribe (1988) reported that left‐handed adults who have been forced to write with the right hand but are left‐handed for other “specialized motor activities” did significantly worse on a mental‐rotation spatial test than either control left‐handers (left‐handed for writing as well as for the other motor activities) or ri...
Article
In contemporary debates about laterality in animals, the parrot (Psittaciformes) is often cited as an exemplar--possibly unique--of laterality in limb function at the population level comparable in kind and strength to handedness in man. This conclusion rests on just two reports (Friedman & Davis, 1938; Rogers, 1980) that most species of parrots ar...
Article
Research has shown that when persons with normal hearing accompany their speech with gestures, right-handers use more right-hand gestures, and left-handers use more left-hand gestures, although to a lesser extent (D. Kimura, 1973a, 1973b, Neuropsychologia, 11, 45-50, 51-55.). Comparable differences have been found in deaf persons when signing, with...

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