Lauren Ethridge

Lauren Ethridge
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | ouhsc · Department of Pediatrics

Ph.D. Neuroscience

About

53
Publications
6,211
Reads
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1,515
Citations
Introduction
The primary focus of my research is in genetic influences on brain activity and the application of heritable brain responses as reliable endophenotypes for complex brain-based disorders, particularly ASD. I am currently working to conduct family genetic research using dense phenotyping strategies (including EEG) to resolve the etiological heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorders with a specific focus on sensory processing and sensory hypersensitivity.
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - present
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Position
  • PI: Brain and Biomarker Lab
January 2015 - present
University of Oklahoma
Position
  • Professor
July 2012 - July 2014
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
August 2006 - December 2011
University of Georgia
Field of study
  • Neuroscience

Publications

Publications (53)
Article
Being isolated from a group is associated with health risks, depressive symptomology, and increased risk-taking behaviors. A growing body of literature suggests that the way individual experiences isolation is a moderator of these negative health risks. How an individual perceives loneliness may be a product of one’s social environment: namely, an...
Preprint
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a trinucleotide repeat disorder and the most common hereditary form of intellectual disability. Patients with FXS are commonly impaired by sensory hypersensitivity. Compared to cognition, neural correlates of sensory responses can be studied more objectively and across species. Alterations in auditory processing in FXS m...
Article
Full-text available
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a monogenetic form of intellectual disability and autism in which well-established knockout (KO) animal models point to neuronal hyperexcitability and abnormal gamma-frequency physiology as a basis for key disorder features. Translating these findings into patients may identify tractable treatment targets. Using source m...
Article
Full-text available
Misophonia is a condition characterized by hypersensitivity and strong emotional reactivity to specific auditory stimuli. Misophonia clinical presentations are relatively complex and reflect individualized experiences across clinical populations. Like some overlapping neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, misophonia is potentially synd...
Preprint
The FMR1 gene is inactive in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), resulting in low levels of FMRP and consequent neurochemical, synaptic and local circuit neurophysiological alterations in the fmr1 KO mouse. In FXS patients, electrophysiological studies of have demonstrated a marked reduction in global alpha activity and regional increases in gamma oscillatio...
Article
Background The Harvard Automatic Processing Pipeline for Electroencephalography (HAPPE) is a computerized EEG data processing pipeline designed for multiple site analysis of populations with neurodevelopmental disorders. This pipeline has been validated in-house by the developers but external testing using real-world datasets remains to be done. N...
Article
Full-text available
Over 200 Cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) trinucleotide repeats in the 5′ untranslated region of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 ( FMR1 ) gene results in a “full mutation,” clinically Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), whereas 55 – 200 repeats result in a “premutation.” FMR1 premutation carriers (PMC) are at an increased risk for a range of psychiatric, ne...
Preprint
Background: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of neurodevelopmental disability. It is often characterized, especially in males, by intellectual disability, anxiety, repetitive behavior, social communication deficits, delayed language development and abnormal sensory processing. Recently, we identified electroencephalographi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a monogenetic form of intellectual disability and autism in which well-established knockout (KO) animal models point to neuronal hyperexcitability and abnormal gamma-frequency physiology as a basis for key illness features. Translating these findings into patients may identify tractable treatment targets. Using a minimum...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to determine whether a phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D) allosteric inhibitor (BPN14770) would improve cognitive function and behavioral outcomes in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). This phase 2 trial was a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study in 30 adult male patients (age 18–41 years) with F...
Article
Full-text available
Background Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) is a rare condition caused by deletion or mutation of the SHANK3 gene. Individuals with PMS frequently present with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and other neurodevelopmental challenges. Electroencephalography (EEG) can provide a window into network-level function in PMS. Methods Here,...
Article
Auditory processing abnormalities in fragile X syndrome (FXS) may contribute to difficulties with language development, pattern identification, and contextual updating. Participants with FXS (N = 41) and controls (N = 27) underwent auditory event-related potentials during presentation of an oddball paradigm. Data was adequate for analysis for 33 pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) is a rare condition caused by deletion or mutation of the SHANK3 gene. Individuals with PMS frequently present with intellectual disability, symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other neurodevelopmental challenges. Electroencephalography (EEG) can provide a window into network-level function in P...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) is a rare condition caused by deletion or mutation of the SHANK3 gene. Individuals with PMS frequently present with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other neurodevelopmental challenges. Electroencephalography (EEG) can provide a window into network-level function in PMS. Methods...
Article
The translational neuroscience of moral cognitions draws together developments throughout the fields of neuroscience pertaining to moral cognitions in order to better the human condition. That condition, seen through this lens, is one in which much of the violence and suffering we endure and inflict upon one another is based on moral cognitions-att...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory hypersensitivities are common and distressing features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). While there are many drug interventions that reduce behavioral deficits in Fmr1 mice and efforts to translate these preclinical breakthroughs into clinical trials for FXS, evidence-based clinical interventions are almost non-existent potentially due to lack...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have found alterations in 40 Hz oscillatory activity in response to auditory stimuli in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study sought to examine the specificity and developmental trajectory of these findings by driving the cortex to oscillate at a range of frequencies in both children and adults with and with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gamma-band rhythmic abnormalities have been of significant interests in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most studies used magnetoencephalography (MEG) due to its advantage in measuring weak gamma signals as compared to electroencephalography (EEG). However, EEG is more accessible, portable, and importantly, more sensitive to cortical sources locat...
Article
(Reprinted with permission from American Journal of Psychiatry 2016; 173:373-384).
Article
Individuals with psychosis often show high levels of intrinsic, or nonspecific, neural activity, but attenuated stimulus-specific activity. Clementz et al. (2016) proposed that one subgroup of psychosis cases has accentuated intrinsic activity (Biotype-2's) and a different subgroup (Biotype-1's) has diminished intrinsic activity, with both groups e...
Article
Objective: Abnormal local and long-range brain connectivity have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet the nature of these abnormalities and their functional relevance at distinct cortical rhythms remains unknown. Investigations of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) and their coherence across whole brain networks hold pro...
Article
Full-text available
Background Studies in the fmr1 KO mouse demonstrate hyper-excitability and increased high-frequency neuronal activity in sensory cortex. These abnormalities may contribute to prominent and distressing sensory hypersensitivities in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The current study investigated functional properties of auditory cortex using a...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with psychosis have been reported to show either reduced or augmented brain responses under seemingly similar conditions. It is likely that inconsistent baseline-adjustment methods are partly responsible for this discrepancy. Using steady-state stimuli during a pro/antisaccade task, this study addressed the relationship between nonspeci...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cortical hyperexcitability due to abnormal fast-spiking inhibitory interneuron function has been documented in fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of the fragile X syndrome which is the most common single gene cause of autism and intellectual disability. Methods We collected resting state dense-array electroencephalography data from 21 fragile X...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Unlike diagnoses in other branches of medicine, current classification of psychiatric disorders relies on phenomenological observations, despite the increasing evidence pointing to superior characterization by physiological-based markers. Common risk genes, symptoms, and medications had been found between patients traditionally diagnose...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory hypersensitivities are common, clinically distressing features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). Preclinical evidence suggests this abnormality may result from synaptic hyper-excitability in sensory systems. This model predicts reduced sensory habituation to repeated stimulus presentation. Fourteen adolescents and adults with FXS and 15 age-matc...
Article
Objective: Clinical phenomenology remains the primary means for classifying psychoses despite considerable evidence that this method incompletely captures biologically meaningful differentiations. Rather than relying on clinical diagnoses as the gold standard, this project drew on neurobiological heterogeneity among psychosis cases to delineate su...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Biological risk factors underlying psychosis are poorly understood. Biological underpinnings of the dimension of psychosis can be derived using genetic associations with intermediate phenotypes such as subcomponents of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Various ERP subcomponent abnormalities in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar...
Article
Background The investigators compared event related potential (ERP) amplitude measurements and event-related oscillations across a broad frequency range during an auditory oddball task using a comprehensive analysis approach to describe shared and unique neural auditory processing characteristics among healthy subjects (HP), schizophrenia probands...
Article
Disrupted sensory processing is a core feature of psychotic disorders. Auditory paired stimuli (PS) evoke a complex neural response, but it is uncertain which aspects reflect shared and/or distinct liability for the most common severe psychoses, schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP). Evoked time-voltage/time-frequency domain respo...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex and heterogeneous developmental disorders involving multiple neural system dysfunctions. In an effort to understand neurophysiological substrates, identify etiopathophysiologically distinct subgroups of patients, and track outcomes of novel treatments with translational biomarkers, EEG (electro...
Article
Bipolar I disorder is a disabling illness affecting 1% of people worldwide. Family and twin studies suggest that psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) represents a homogeneous subgroup with an etiology distinct from non-psychotic bipolar disorder (BDNP) and partially shared with schizophrenia. Studies of auditory electrophysiology [e.g., paired-stimulus...
Article
Full-text available
Behavior genetic studies of brain activity associated with complex cognitive operations may further elucidate the genetic and physiological underpinnings of basic and complex neural processing. In the present project, monozygotic (N=51 pairs) and dizygotic (N=48 pairs) twins performed a visual oddball task with dense-array EEG. Using spatial PCA, t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: Reduced amplitude of the P300 event-related potential in auditory oddball tasks may characterize schizophrenia (SZ), but is also reported in bipolar disorder 1-3. Similarity of auditory processing abnormalities among these diagnoses is uncertain given the frequent (and sometimes unclear) combination of both psychotic and non...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: Significant heterogeneity and overlap have made the search for useful biomarkers for psychiatric disorders difficult. This investigation sought to identify patterns of auditory evoked brain oscillation abnormalities unique to and differentiating the psychotic and affective domains of psychopathology. Bipolar patients without...
Article
Reduced amplitude of the P300 event-related potential in auditory oddball tasks may characterize schizophrenia (SZ) but is also reported in bipolar disorder. Similarity of auditory processing abnormalities between these diagnoses is uncertain, given the frequent combination of both psychotic and nonpsychotic patients in bipolar samples; abnormaliti...
Article
Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar disorder with psychosis (BPP) may share neurophysiological abnormalities as measured in auditory paired-stimuli paradigms with electroencephalography (EEG). Such investigations have been limited, however, by quantifying only event-related potential peaks and/or broad frequency bands at limited scalp lo...
Article
Schizophrenia patients (SZ) show early visual processing deficits in many, but not all, tasks. These deficits may be associated with dysregulation of intrinsic oscillatory activity that compromises signal-to-noise in the SZ brain. This question was studied using visual steady-state stimulation and post-steady-state presentation of transient visual...
Article
Full-text available
Reaction time variability across trials to identical stimuli may arise from both ongoing and transient neural processes occurring before trial onset. These processes were examined with dense-array EEG as humans completed saccades in a "gap" paradigm known to elicit bimodal variability in response times, including separate populations of "express" a...
Article
Full-text available
Prospective memory (PM), or memory for realizing delayed intentions, was examined with an event-based paradigm while simultaneously measuring neural activity with high-density EEG recordings. Specifically, the neural substrates of monitoring for an event-based cue were examined, as well as those perhaps associated with the cognitive processes suppo...
Article
Conclusions about the cognitive and neural requirements of saccade control may differ as a result of stimulus presentation method. This issue was examined in the current study by evaluating behavioral differences in pro- and antisaccade responses among 12 healthy young adults as a function of task presentation method, length of cue-to-target interv...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Exploratory effort to confirm the instance rate of misophonia in a nonclinical sample. Results will address a wide range of potential symptoms of misophonia and inform future efforts to use EEG to address neural mechanisms.
Project
The aim of this work is through collaborations of animal-model and clinical researchers to develop biomarkers and mechanistic understanding of disease to foster drug development
Project
To understand systems level pathophysiology of autism and fragile X syndrome using neurophysiological and brain imaging research linked to parallel preclinical programs, and to develop translational biomarkers to speed drug discovery