Lauren B Alloy

Lauren B Alloy
Temple University | TU · Department of Psychology

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394
Publications
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Publications

Publications (394)
Article
Full-text available
Background Atypical inflammatory biology is gaining evidence as a risk factor for mood psychopathology; however, little work has attempted to integrate inflammation into extant psychosocial frameworks of risk. Recent work using secondary data analysis has investigated the possibility of an immunocognitive model of mood disorders, in which cognitive...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although characterizing associations between inflammation and depression may prove critical for informing theory, research, and treatment decisions, extant research has been limited by ignoring the possibility that inflammation may be simultaneously associated with depression broadly and with a subset of symptoms. This lack of direct com...
Article
Study Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between sleep regularity and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), including lifetime NSSI history and daily NSSI urges. Methods Undergraduate students (N=119; 18-26 years), approximately half of whom endorsed a lifetime history of repetitive NSSI, completed a 10-day actigra...
Article
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Abstract Objective Elevated sensitivity to rewards prospectively predicts Bipolar Spectrum Disorder (BSD) onset; however, it is unclear whether volumetric abnormalities also reflect BSD risk. BSDs emerge when critical neurodevelopment in frontal and striatal regions occurs in sex‐specific ways. The current paper examined the volume of frontal and s...
Article
Prenatal infection, particularly at mid-gestation, has been associated with various psychopathological outcomes in offspring; however, findings linking prenatal infection to offspring depression outcomes have been mixed. Previous research indicates that it may be the co-occurrence of prenatal adversities (e.g., infection and stress) that are associ...
Article
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The relationship between rumination and internalizing psychopathology across the lifespan is robustly documented, yet the development of rumination is not well understood. In a prospective study of adolescents (N = 629, M age = 13.05 years, 51.5% female, 48.3% African American/Black) and their primary female caregivers (90.6% biological mothers), s...
Article
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There is increasing appreciation that certain biological processes may not be equally related to all psychiatric symptoms in a given diagnostic category. Research on the biological phenotyping of psychopathology has begun examining the etiological and treatment implications of identified biotypes; however, little attention has been paid to a critic...
Article
The reward-hypersensitivity model posits that trait reward hypersensitivity should elicit hyper/hypo-approach motivation following exposure to recent life events that activate (goal striving and goal attainment) or deactivate (goal failure) the reward system, respectively. To test these hypotheses, we had 87 young adults with high trait reward (HRe...
Article
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Findings have been mixed regarding the relationship between comorbid depression and anxiety and treatment outcomes for anxious youth. The current study compared a sample of anxious youth with a comorbid depressive disorder (n = 20) and those without comorbid depression (n = 137). All participants received 16 weekly sessions of Coping Cat and comple...
Article
While research identifies a growing list of risk factors for anxiety and depression, it is equally important to identify potential protective factors that may prevent or reduce vulnerability to developing internalizing psychopathology. We hypothesized that forms of perseverative thinking, such as rumination and worry, act as mechanisms linking nega...
Article
Substance use and addiction are prominent global health concerns and are associated with abnormalities in reward sensitivity. Reward sensitivity and approach motivation are supported by a fronto-striatal neural circuit including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventral striatum (VS), and dorsal striatum (DS). Although research highlights abnormaliti...
Article
Background: Impulsivity and sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance are core features of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) that are antecedents to onset and persist even between mood episodes; their pervasive presence in BSD suggests that they may be particularly relevant to understanding BSD onset and course. Considerable research demonstrates bidi...
Article
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The current article systematically reviews the literature and provides results from 36 studies testing the relation between pubertal stage and depression, as well as moderators and mediators of this relation. Results indicate that there is a significant relation between advancing pubertal stage and depression among girls, and this effect is stronge...
Article
Background The current study aimed to examine the concurrent and prospective relationships between the three hypothesized components of behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity: drive, reflecting the motivation to pursue one's desired goals; reward responsiveness, reflecting sensitivity to reward or reinforcement; and fun-seeking, reflecting th...
Article
Full-text available
Negative inferential style is a cognitive vulnerability for depression. Yet, few studies have explored how this risk factor intersects with culturally-specific protective factors, such as racial identity, in a unified cognitive risk-cultural asset model in youth of color. The current study addressed this gap by exploring the interplay between negat...
Article
Background Negative inferential style, rumination and attention are cognitive vulnerabilities implicated in depression that first emerge in childhood and adolescence. Methods The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine whether rumination mediates the relationship between attention (selective attention, sustained attention,...
Article
Full-text available
The innate immune system is dysregulated in depression; however, less is known about the longitudinal associations of depression and inflammatory biomarkers. We investigated the prospective associations of depression and inflammatory biomarkers [interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor–Alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)] in community sa...
Preprint
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Most research testing the association between inflammation and health outcomes (e.g., heart disease, diabetes, depression) has focused on individual proteins; however, some studies have used summed composites of inflammatory markers without first investigating dimensionality. Using two different samples (MIDUS-2: N = 1,255 adults, MIDUS-R: N = 863...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is increasing appreciation that certain biological mechanisms may not be equally related to all psychiatric symptoms in a given diagnostic category. Research on the biological phenotyping of psychopathology has begun examining the etiological and treatment implications of identified biotypes; however, little attention has been paid to a criti...
Article
Full-text available
Background A family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) increases the likelihood of a future depressive episode, which itself poses a significant risk for disruptions in reward processing and social cognition. However, it is unclear whether a family history of MDD is associated with alterations in the neural circuitry underlying reward proce...
Article
Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with neural reward dysfunction. However, it is unclear what pattern of neural reward function underlies pre-existing vulnerability to BSDs and SUDs, or whether neural reward function explains their high co-occurrence. The current paper provides an overview of the se...
Article
Many depressed individuals experience difficulties in executive functioning that contribute substantially to functional impairment. It is unknown whether a subtype of depression characterized by chronic inflammation is differentially associated with worse executive functioning. This study examined whether the combination of depression and higher C...
Article
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Chronic, systemic inflammation is implicated in physical and mental health; little is known about whether sex and racial differences detected in adulthood are observed during adolescence or about normative changes occurring during adolescence. This longitudinal, United States-based study examined four biomarkers of systemic inflammation [C-reactive...
Article
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The current study investigated whether impaired emotional response inhibition to self-harm stimuli is a risk factor for real-time nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) urges. Participants were 60 university students with a history of repetitive NSSI. At baseline, participants completed an emotional stop-signal task assessing response inhibition to self-ha...
Article
Inflammation is associated with both lower and higher activity in brain regions that process rewarding stimuli. How can both low and high sensitivity to rewards be associated with higher inflammation? We propose that one potential mechanism underlying these apparently conflicting findings pertains to how people pursue goals in their environment. Th...
Article
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The mechanisms of the well-documented relationship between maternal depression and offspring psychopathology are not yet fully understood. Building upon cognitive theories of depression and the modeling hypothesis, path analyses tested whether maternal depression history predicted adolescent internalizing symptoms via the transmission of cognitive...
Chapter
Affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and bipolar spectrum disorders, are common, recurrent, and debilitating disorders. In this review, we present updated research on these mood disorders, including their phenomenology, epidemiology, risk factors, and theory and evidence for the role of behaviora...
Article
Objective Findings from prior research on reward sensitivity in nonsuicidal self‐injury (NSSI) have been mixed. Childhood maltreatment is an independent risk factor for NSSI and for hyposensitivity to rewards. This study aimed to disentangle the role of reward sensitivity as a predictor of NSSI for those with an elevated severity of childhood maltr...
Article
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Individual differences in the timing and tempo of pubertal development have been shown to be related to depressive symptoms during adolescence, particularly among girls. Another measure of variability in pubertal development is pubertal synchrony, the degree to which the development of pubertal indicators (e.g., breast growth and ancillary hair gro...
Article
The Defective Self Model of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) proposes that some people engage in NSSI to punish themselves and/or to respond to self-critical cognitions. Although there is a growing body of research to support this theory, there has been a lack of ecologically valid approaches employed to critically examine its tenets. The current stu...
Article
Cognitive functioning is disrupted during a depressive episode and cognitive dysfunction persists when depression is in remission. A subtype of depressed individuals who exhibit elevated inflammatory biomarkers may be at particular risk for cognitive dysfunction. We examined whether an elevated inflammatory biomarker (C-reactive protein: CRP) in ac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Response styles theory is a well-supported etiological theory of internalizing psychopathology. However, evidence indicates that the three response styles (rumination, problem-solving, and distraction) are not orthogonal, highlighting the importance of multivariate tests of this theory. Further, different types of symptoms within a diso...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine trait, state, and temporal instability measures of self-critical and self-punishment cognitions to evaluate their respective roles in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants were university students with a history of NSSI (n = 64) and those with no history of NSSI (n = 59). At baseline, participants complet...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need to better understand key factors that impact sleep and circadian function for young adults of differing races and sexes. Sex and race are common factors contributing to disparities in health outcomes; however, the influence of these variables on sleep and circadian patterns for young adults are not well known. Multiple objective and...
Preprint
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Biological psychiatry is a major funding priority for organizations that fund mental health research (e.g., National Institutes of Health). Despite this, some have argued that the field has fallen short of its considerable promise to meaningfully impact the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of psychopathology. This may be attributable in par...
Preprint
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Increasingly, it has been recognized that analysis at the symptom, rather than diagnostic, level will drive progress in the field of immunopsychiatry. Network analysis offers a useful tool in this pursuit with the ability to identify associations between immune markers and individual symptoms, independent of all other variables modeled. However, th...
Preprint
This report describes an ongoing R03 grant that explores the links between trait reward sensitivity, substance use, and neural responses to social and nonsocial reward. Although previous research has shown that trait reward sensitivity and neural responses to reward are linked to substance use, whether this relationship is impacted by how people pr...
Article
Full-text available
A short viewpoint article on the benefits of diversifying the level of analysis of psychopathology in psychoneuroimmunology research.
Preprint
A short commentary accepted for publication in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity on the benefits of diversifying the level of psychopathology analyzed in psychoneuroimmunology research.
Presentation
Full-text available
In "The Neuroimmunology of Depression: Beyond Diagnoses" chaired by myself and Carmine Pariante. Recording: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xHSIJUW8E98&list=PL9oMEuQcUyCzoe2p5pyQqBed2SrnyYCe6&index=6&t=0s
Article
Full-text available
A better understanding of the maturational correlates of inflammatory activity during adolescence is needed to more appropriately study both normal and abnormal development. Inflammation is the immune system’s first response to infection, injury, or psychological stress, and it has been shown to be elevated in individuals with both physical and psy...
Article
Full-text available
Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with earlier pubertal timing and impaired attention and executive function (EF) in youth; however, whether pubertal timing mediates the relation between SES and attention or executive functioning remains unclear. Structural equation models tested concurrent and prospective relations between SES, pube...
Article
Previous research has found associations between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) structure and symptoms of major depression, though specific aspects of this complex relationship remain unclear. The current study examined sex differences in the influence of individual trajectories of depressive symptoms on cortical thickness (CT) in the OFC during late a...
Article
Full-text available
Amygdala abnormalities are widely documented in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD). Amygdala volume typically is measured after BSD onset; thus, it is not known whether amygdala abnormalities predict BSD risk or relate to the disorder. Additionally, past literature often treated the amygdala as a homogeneous structure, and did not consider its distin...
Poster
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This project is published at the Journal of Youth and Adolescence (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10964-020-01216-y). A postprint is also available on Researchgate. Both reward sensitivity and cognitive response styles are associated with heightened inflammatory physiology. Consistent with the immunocognitive model of mood disorders,...
Article
Inflexibility of the autonomic nervous system is relevant to depression vulnerability, but the downstream behavioral consequences of autonomic inflexibility are not well understood. Rumination, a perseverative thinking style that characterizes depression, is one candidate phenotype relevant to autonomic inflexibility. Undergraduates (N = 134) compl...
Article
Objective Evidence suggests that individuals without a history of nonsuicidal self‐injury (NSSI) are likely to view NSSI as a stigmatized behavior. However, there is limited evidence evaluating the presence of self‐stigma among individuals who have engaged in NSSI. Methods We recruited a university sample (n = 351) and employed implicit and explic...
Preprint
Objective: Evidence suggests that individuals without a history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) are likely to view NSSI as a stigmatized behavior. However, there is limited evidence evaluating the presence of self-stigma among individuals who have engaged in NSSI. Methods: We recruited a university sample (n = 351) and employed implicit and expli...
Article
Background : The current study aimed to classify recent and lifetime suicide attempt history among youth presenting to medical settings using machine learning (ML) as applied to a behavioral health screen self-report survey. Methods : In the current study, 13,325 (mean age = 17.06, SD = 2.61) pediatric primary care patients from rural, semi-urban,...
Article
This research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grants MH079369 and MH101168 awarded to Lauren Alloy, National Institute of Mental Health Grant MH096478 awarded to Lauren Ellman and National Research Service Awards F31MH118808 to Naoise Mac Giollabhui.
Article
Full-text available
This report describes an ongoing R03 grant that explores the links between trait reward sensitivity, substance use, and neural responses to social and nonsocial reward. Although previous research has shown that trait reward sensitivity and neural responses to reward are linked to substance use, whether this relationship is impacted by how people pr...
Article
Full-text available
Depression increases dramatically during adolescence. This finding has been demonstrated using multiple measures, including the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). The CDI is one of the most commonly used measures to assess depression in youth. However, there is little agreement on its factor structure, and it is possible that its factor structu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background A family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) increases the likelihood of a future depressive episode, which itself poses a significant risk for disruptions in reward processing and social cognition. However, it is unclear whether a family history of MDD is associated with alterations in the neural circuitry underlying reward proce...
Article
Full-text available
Many neuroimaging studies have investigated reward processing dysfunction in major depressive disorder. These studies have led to the common idea that major depressive disorder is associated with blunted responses within the reward circuit, particularly in the ventral striatum. Yet, the link between major depressive disorder and reward-related resp...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stress is consistently implicated in depression. Using a vulnerability-stress framework, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be one factor affecting the stress-depression association. However, the interactive influence of recent life stress and HPA axis functioning on depressive symptoms remains unclear. It is particularl...
Article
Full-text available
Living in high crime areas and rumination each have been identified as risk factors for depression among youth, yet it is unclear how crime and rumination may synergistically increase the risk of adolescent depression. Adolescents (N = 309; 51% female, Mage= 12.9, SD = 0.61) completed self-report measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, and pro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cognitive vulnerability theories of depression outline multiple, distinct inferential biases constitutive of cognitive vulnerability to depression. These include attributing negative events to internal, stable, and global factors, assuming that negative events will lead to further negative consequences, and inferring that negative even...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hopelessness is a painful state that is related to depression and suicide. In spite of its importance, only unsystematic efforts have been made to specifically target hopelessness in interventions, and no comprehensive review is currently available to guide future clinical studies. Hence, we first analyze the phenomenon of hopelessness, by highligh...
Article
Despite considerable phenomentological differences between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), research increasingly provides evidence that some BPD symptoms overlap with SPD symptoms (e.g., disturbed cognitions). We examined the cingulate, a brain region implicated in the pathophysiology of both disord...
Article
Sleep disturbance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) are well-known to be independently associated with depression. Yet, it remains unclear how sleep disturbance and impaired physiological regulation (indexed by RSA) may synergistically contribute to depression risk. The current study examined the relationship between sleep disturbance (duratio...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have investigated nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a predictor of outcomes other than suicidal self-injury, severely limiting our understanding of this behavior’s full range of consequences. Three independent studies were used to examine the prospective association between NSSI and two outcomes: depressive symptoms and self-criticism....
Article
Objective: Maternal infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of offspring psychopathology, including depression. As most infections do not cross the placenta, maternal immune responses to infection have been considered as potentially contributing to this relationship. This study examined whether gestational timing of mate...