Laure Zanna

Laure Zanna
New York University | NYU · Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

PhD

About

91
Publications
19,489
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,405
Citations
Citations since 2016
69 Research Items
2246 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
The role of mesoscale eddies is crucial for the ocean circulation and its energy budget. The sub-grid scale eddy variability needs to be parametrized in ocean models, even at so-called eddy permitting resolutions. Porta Mana and Zanna (2014) propose an eddy parametrization based on a non-Newtonian stress which depends on the partially resolved scal...
Article
Full-text available
The ocean plays an important role in the climate system on timescales of weeks to centuries. Despite improvements in ocean models, dynamical processes involving multi‐scale interactions remain poorly represented, leading to errors in forecasts. We present recent advances in understanding, quantifying and representing of physical and numerical sourc...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge for managing impacts and implementing effective mitigation measures and adaptation strategies for coastal zones affected by future sea level (SL) rise is our limited capacity to predict SL change at the coast on relevant spatial and temporal scales. Predicting coastal SL requires the ability to monitor and simulate a multitude of...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Since the 19th century, rising greenhouse gas concentrations have caused the ocean to absorb most of the Earth’s excess heat and warm up. Before the 1990s, most ocean temperature measurements were above 700 m and therefore, insufficient for an accurate global estimate of ocean warming. We present a method to reconstruct ocean temperatu...
Article
Full-text available
Oceanographic observations are limited by sampling rates, while ocean models are limited by finite resolution and high viscosity and diffusion coefficients. Therefore, both data from observations and ocean models lack information at small and fast scales. Methods are needed to either extract information, extrapolate, or upscale existing oceanograph...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies agree on a significant global mean sea level rise in the 20th century and its recent 21st century acceleration in the satellite record. At regional scale, the evolution of sea level probability distributions is often assumed to be dominated by changes in the mean. However, a quantification of changes in distributional shapes in a changing c...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding and representation of energetic transfers associated with ocean mesoscale eddies is fundamental to the development of parameterizations for climate models. We investigate the influence of eddies on flow vertical structure as a function of underlying dynamical regime and grid resolution. We employ the GFDL‐MOM6 in an idealized conf...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in ocean heat content (OHC) provide a measure of ocean warming, with impacts on the Earth system. This Review synthesizes estimates of past and future OHC changes using observations and models. The top 2,000 m of the global ocean has significantly warmed since the 1950s, gaining 351 ± 59.8 ZJ (1 ZJ = 1021 J) from 1958 to 2019. The rate of w...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an idealized primitive-equation model for studying mesoscale turbulence and leverage a hierarchy of grid resolutions to make eddy-resolving calculations on the finest grids more affordable. The model has intermediate complexity, incorporating basin-scale geometry with idealized Atlantic and Southern oceans and with non-uniform ocean dep...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of anthropogenic climate change in the ocean is challenging to project because atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) respond differently to forcing. This study focuses on changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), ocean heat content ( $$\Delta$$ Δ OHC), and the spatial pattern of ocean dynamic sea l...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe an idealized primitive equation model for studying mesoscale turbulence and leverage a hierarchy of grid resolutions to make eddy-resolving calculations on the finest grids more affordable. The model has intermediate complexity, incorporating basin-scale geometry with idealized Atlantic and Southern oceans, and with non-uniform ocean de...
Article
Ocean warming patterns are a primary control on regional sea level rise and transient climate sensitivity. However, controls on these patterns in both observations and models are not fully understood, complicated as they are by their dependence on the “addition” of heat to the ocean’s interior along background ventilation pathways and on the “redis...
Article
Climate models project an intensification of the wintertime North Atlantic Ocean storm track, over its downstream region, by the end of this century. Previous studies have suggested that ocean–atmosphere coupling plays a key role in this intensification, but the precise role of the different components of the coupling has not been explored and quan...
Preprint
Reliable probability estimation is of crucial importance in many real-world applications where there is inherent uncertainty, such as weather forecasting, medical prognosis, or collision avoidance in autonomous vehicles. Probability-estimation models are trained on observed outcomes (e.g. whether it has rained or not, or whether a patient has died...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Understanding the sea‐level budget, which has not previously been closed at local scales from a global network of tide gauges, is important because the densely populated coastal community is vulnerable to coastal sea‐level changes. The main contributions to global sea‐level change are thermal expansion, ocean mass increase fr...
Article
Full-text available
Coupled climate simulations that span several hundred years cannot be run at a high‐enough spatial resolution to resolve mesoscale ocean dynamics. Recently, several studies have considered Deep Learning to parameterize subgrid forcing within macroscale ocean equations using data from ocean‐only simulations with idealized geometry. We present a stoc...
Chapter
Climate models are an approximate representation of the laws of physics describing the evolution of the ocean and atmosphere dynamics. Due to limited computational resources, many ocean processes, which are crucial for the transport of heat and carbon, occur at scales smaller than the grid resolution of climate models. Therefore, we rely on approxi...
Article
Contributions are invited to a new journal special collection on the use of new machine learning methodologies and applications of machine learning to Earth system modeling.
Article
Full-text available
Sea levels of different atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) respond to climate change forcing in different ways, representing a crucial uncertainty in climate change research. We isolate the role of the ocean dynamics in setting the spatial pattern of dynamic sea level (ζ) change by forcing several AOGCMs with prescribed identical...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review. Assessment of the impact of ocean resolution in Earth System models on the mean state, variability, and future projections and discussion of prospects for improved parameterisations to represent the ocean mesoscale. Recent Findings. The majority of centres participating in CMIP6 employ ocean components with resolutions of about...
Article
Full-text available
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the Acknowledgements section.
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
The climate's response to forcing depends on how efficiently heat is absorbed by the ocean. Much, if not most, of this ocean heat uptake results from the passive transport of warm surface waters into the ocean's interior. Here we examine how geographic patterns of surface warming influence the efficiency of this passive heat uptake process. We show...
Article
Full-text available
The resolution of climate models is limited by computational cost. Therefore, we must rely on parameterizations to represent processes occurring below the scale resolved by the models. Here, we focus on parameterizations of ocean mesoscale eddies and employ machine learning (ML), namely, relevance vector machines (RVMs) and convolutional neural net...
Article
Full-text available
The rate of global-mean sea-level rise since 1900 has varied over time, but the contributing factors are still poorly understood¹. Previous assessments found that the summed contributions of ice-mass loss, terrestrial water storage and thermal expansion of the ocean could not be reconciled with observed changes in global-mean sea level, implying th...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic global surface warming is proportional to cumulative carbon emissions1,2,3; this relationship is partly determined by the uptake and storage of heat and carbon by the ocean⁴. The rates and patterns of ocean heat and carbon storage are influenced by ocean transport, such as mixing and large-scale circulation5,6,7,8,9,10. However, exist...
Article
Monsoons are summertime circulations shaping climates and societies across the tropics and subtropics. Here the radiative effects controlling an axisymmetric monsoon and its response to climate change are investigated using aquaplanet simulations. The influences of clouds, water vapor and CO2 on the axisymmetric monsoon are decomposed using the rad...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract There is large uncertainty in the future regional sea level change under anthropogenic climate change. Our study presents and uses a novel design of ocean general circulation model (OGCM) experiments to investigate the ocean's response to surface buoyancy and momentum flux perturbations without atmosphere‐ocean feedbacks (e.g., without sur...
Article
Full-text available
North Atlantic sea surface temperatures have large climate impacts affecting the weather of the Northern Hemisphere. In addition to a substantial warming over much of the North Atlantic, caused by increasing greenhouse gases over the 21st century, climate projections show a surprising region of considerable future cooling at midlatitudes, referred...
Article
Storm surge and coastal flooding caused by tropical cyclones (hurricanes) and extratropical cyclones (nor'easters) pose a threat to communities along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Climate change and sea level rise are altering the statistics of these extreme events in a rather complex fashion. Here we use a fully-coupled global weather/c...
Article
Full-text available
Paleoclimate proxy evidence suggests that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) was about 1,000 m shallower at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) compared to the present. Yet it remains unresolved what caused this glacial shoaling of the AMOC, and many climate models instead simulate a deeper AMOC under LGM forcing. While some studies...
Article
Full-text available
The extratropical teleconnection from the tropical Pacific in boreal summer exhibits a significant shift over the past 70 years. Cyclonic circulation anomalies over the North Atlantic and Eurasia associated with El Niño in the later period (1978–2014) are absent in the earlier period (1948–1977). An initialized atmospheric model ensemble, performed...
Article
Full-text available
Projections of future sterodynamic sea level change from global climate models are associated with different sources of uncertainty. From a scientific, societal and policy-making perspective, it is relevant to both understand and reduce uncertainty in projections of climate change. Here, we review recent findings which describe, and shed light on,...
Poster
Full-text available
Monitoring and Predicting Regional to Coastal Sea Level: Towards Comprehensive Observing and Modeling Systems
Article
Full-text available
Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) of sea surface temperature exhibits an important influence on the climate of surrounding continents. It remains unclear, however, the extent to which AMV is due to internal climate variability (e.g., ocean circulation variability) or changes in external forcing (e.g., volcanic/anthropogenic aerosols or greenh...
Article
Full-text available
Interannual sea surface height (SSH) forecasts are subject to several sources of uncertainty. Methods relying on statistical forecasts have proven useful in assessing predictability and associated uncertainty due to both initial conditions and boundary conditions. In this study, the interannual predictability of SSH dynamics in the North Atlantic i...
Article
Full-text available
Geostrophic eddies contribute to the mixing of heat, carbon, and other climatically important tracers. A passive tracer driven by satellite-derived surface velocity fields is used to study the regional and temporal variability of lateral eddy mixing in the North Atlantic. Using a quasi-Lagrangian diffusivity diagnostic, we show that the upstream re...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary El Niño and La Niña in the Tropical Pacific Ocean affect weather, water resources, and fragile ecosystems around the globe. These phenomena have been extensively studied, yet we know relatively little on how and why El Niño and La Niña have changed over the past several decades. We use observational data sets of the ocean tem...
Article
Full-text available
A suite of statistical linear inverse models (LIMs) are used to understand the remote and local SST variability that influences SST predictions over the North Pacific region. Observed monthly SST anomalies in the Pacific are used to construct different regional LIMs for seasonal to decadal predictions. The seasonal forecast skills of the LIMs are c...
Preprint
Oceanographic observations are limited by sampling rates, while ocean models are limited by finite resolution and high viscosity and diffusion coefficients. Therefore both data from observations and ocean models lack information at small-scales. Methods are needed to either extract information, extrapolate, or up-scale existing oceanographic datase...
Article
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean is the largest sink of anthropogenic carbon in the present-day climate. Here, Southern Ocean \(p\hbox {CO}_{2}\) and its dependence on wind forcing are investigated using an equilibrium mixed layer carbon budget. This budget is used to derive an expression for Southern Ocean \(p\hbox {CO}_{2}\) sensitivity to wind stress. Souther...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate forecasts of the ocean state and the estimation of forecast uncertainties are crucial when it comes to providing skilful seasonal predictions. In this study we analyse the predictive skill and reliability of the ocean component in a seasonal forecasting system. Furthermore, we assess the effects of accounting for model and observational un...
Article
Full-text available
An equilibrium, or maximum entropy, statistical mechanics theory can be derived for ideal, unforced and inviscid, geophysical flows. However, for all geophysical flows which occur in nature, forcing and dissipation play a major role. Here, a study of eddy-mixing entropy in a forced-dissipative barotropic ocean model is presented. We heuristically i...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between decadal sea surface temperature (SST) and turbulent heat fluxes is assessed and used to identify where oceanic processes play an important role in extratropical decadal SST variability. In observational data sets and coupled climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archive, positive c...
Data
Figure S1. Root mean square error of sea surface temperature (K) between the ORAS4 1° reanalysis and its climatological forecast (i.e. mean squared ORAS4 anomalies) for years 1981‐2010 and months a) May, b) June, c) July, d) September, e) December and f) February. Figure S2. Root mean square error of sea surface temperature (K) between the ORAS4 1...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of tropical precipitation variability on summertime seasonal circulation anomalies in the Euro-Atlantic sector is investigated. The dominant mode of the maximum covariance analysis (MCA) between the Euro-Atlantic circulation and tropical precipitation reveals a cyclonic anomaly over the extratropical North Atlantic, contributing to an...
Article
Full-text available
Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades, a variety of tools and methods for this purpose ha...
Article
Full-text available
Predictability of Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SST) on seasonal and decadal timescales is investigated using a suite of statistical linear inverse models (LIM). Observed monthly SST anomalies in the Atlantic sector (between 22(Formula presented.)S and 66(Formula presented.)N) are used to construct the LIMs for seasonal and decadal predi...
Article
Full-text available
The ocean is a turbulent fluid with processes acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The estimates of energy fluxes between length scales allows us to understand how the mean flow is maintained as well as how mesoscale eddies are formed and dissipated. Here, we quantify the kinetic energy budget in a suite of realistic global ocean models,...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperature (SST) has been shown to influence the climate of the surrounding continents. However, it is unclear to what extent the observed impact of the AMO is related to the thermodynamical influence of the SST variability or the changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation. Here, an an...
Article
Full-text available
In global ocean models, the representation of small-scale, high-frequency processes considerably influences the large-scale oceanic circulation and its low-frequency variability. This study investigates the impact of stochastic perturbation schemes based on three different subgrid-scale parameterizations in multidecadal ocean-only simulations with...
Article
Full-text available
Porta Mana & Zanna (2014) recently proposed a subgrid-scale parameterization for eddy-permitting quasigeostrophic models. In this model the large-scale fluid is represented as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic medium, with a subgrid-stress closure that involves the Lagrangian derivative of large-scale quantities. This note derives this parameterization,...
Article
Full-text available
Jets are an important element of the global ocean circulation. Since these jets are turbulent, it is important that they are characterized using a statistical framework. A high resolution barotropic channel ocean model is used to study jet statistics over a wide range of forcing and dissipation parameters. The first four moments of the potential vo...