Laure Paradis

Laure Paradis
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Institut écologie et environnement (INEE)

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36
Publications
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308
Citations

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Full-text available
The use and socio-environmental importance of fruits dramatically changed after the emergence of arboriculture and fruit domestication in the eastern Mediterranean, between the 5th and the 3rd millennia BCE. Domesticated fruits together with cultivation techniques apparently reached the western Mediterranean via colonial activities during the 1st m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Old-growth forests (OGFs) are extremely valuable relict ecosystems for studying natural disturbance dynamics. Small-scale disturbances caused by tree crown mortality of one or few individuals, i.e. gap dynamics, are the most frequent events occurring in OGFs. Understanding these processes requires information on the spatial arrangement of forest pa...
Article
Full-text available
The Dinaric Mountains are a region considered as a hotspot for late-successional montane mixed Abies alba-Fagus sylvatica-Picea abies old-growth forests. This is likely due to historical deforestation levels being presumably lower than in other European regions. This paper provides new insights into the long-term vegetation dynamics and possible le...
Article
Full-text available
The first exploited and domesticated olive forms are still unknown. The exceptionally wellpreserved stones from the submerged Hishuley Carmel site (Israel), dating from the middle of the 7th millennium BP, offer us the opportunity to study the oldest table olives discovered so far. We apply a geometrical morphometric analysis in reference to a coll...
Chapter
The development of agricultural societies is closely entangled with that of domestic animals and plants. Local and traditional domestic breeds and varieties are the result of millennia of selec- tion by farmers. DEMETER (2020-2025) is an international pro- ject which is aiming to characterize the changes in animal and plant agrobiodiversity (pigs,...
Article
Full-text available
In the current context of global change, the increasing frequency and the length of drought periods are testing the resistance capacities of plants of dry habitats. However, although the adaptation of plants to drought has been widely studied, the anatomical features of wood influencing the functional responses of plants to drought are still lackin...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of the Argan tree as an agricultural, pastoral, cultural, economic and ecological keystone species in Southern Morocco is considered to be linked to the settlement of agropastoral communities that favored its expansion. Nevertheless, the use and exploitation of Argan tree is documented by both few medieval written sources and archaeob...
Article
Full-text available
Crop diversity is shaped by biological and social processes interacting at different spatiotemporal scales. Here we combined population genetics and ethnobotany to investigate date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) diversity in Siwa Oasis, Egypt. Based on interviews with farmers and observation of practices in the field, we collected 149 date palms fro...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the skills of different palaeofire reconstruction techniques to reconstruct the fire history of a boreal landscape (Russian Karelia) affected by surface fires. The analysis of dated lacustrine sediments from two nearby lakes was compared with independent dendrochronological dating of fire scars, methods which have rarely been used in c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Now published: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339081466_On_the_necessity_of_combining_ethnobotany_and_genetics_to_assess_agrobiodiversity_and_its_evolution_in_crops_A_case_study_on_date_palms_Phoenix_dactylifera_L_in_Siwa_Oasis_Egypt Crop diversity is shaped by biological and social processes interacting at different spatiotemporal scale...
Presentation
Full-text available
Study related to our article: https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3136
Article
Mixed‐wood boreal forests are characterized by a heterogeneous landscape dominated by coniferous or deciduous species depending on stand moisture and fire activity. Our study highlights the long‐term drivers of these differences between landscapes across mixed‐wood boreal forests to improve simulated vegetation dynamics under predicted climate chan...
Article
Bernasso is an Early Pleistocene locality that has a well-dated floral fossil content including both pollen grains and megaremains. Pollen record shows vegetation changes corresponding to two glacial and one interglacial periods. The megafloral fossil assemblage was interpreted as an association of present-day Mediterranean and Caucasian taxa that...
Article
Full-text available
In many boreal regions of Russia the past natural variability of forest fire activity remains largely undocumented, preventing accurate assessment of the impact of current climate warming on forest ecosystem dynamics. This study aims to reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the northern Ural mountain foothills, in the Komi Republic, based on ana...
Article
The Garâa Sejenane is an ancient lake in northern Tunisia that currently houses a mosaic of temporary wetlands. Comparison of modern pollen data and field vegetation surveys shows both a weak regional pollen signal and the homogenization of pollen assemblages at the scale of the garâa. Despite a hiatus between 19,000 and 2230 cal. BP, fossil pollen...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire containment is often very challenging for firefighters, especially for large and rapidly spreading fires where the risk of firefighter entrapment is high. However, the conditions leading to these 'dangerous' fires are poorly understood in Mediterranean Europe. Here, we analyse reports and interviews of firefighters over the last 40 years i...
Chapter
Les graines et les fruits conservés en contexte archéologique constituent un moyen direct de percevoir les ressources végétales des sociétés passées, les pratiques que celles-ci mettaient en oeuvre pour les exploiter, et donc plus particulièrement l’économie agricole. Aborder ces questions sur de grandes échelles d’espace ou de temps demande de com...
Article
Full-text available
Characeae are macroscopic green algae present in the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia) that are known since the 19th century works of Desfontaines (1800) and Braun (1868). Feldmann (1946) published the first regional synthesis, and this study provides a new Maghreb-wide synthesis of all collections made since 1784 (570 observations distributed ov...
Article
Full text (pdf) here: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01608053 — For many crops, wild relatives constitute an extraordinary resource for cultivar improvement [ 1, 2 ] and also help to better understand the history of their domestication [ 3 ]. However, the wild ancestor species of several perennial crops have not yet been identified. Perennial...
Article
Full-text available
In boreal ecosystems, wildfire severity (i.e., the extent of fire-related tree mortality) is affected by environmental conditions and fire intensity. A burned area usually includes tree patches that partially or entirely escaped fire. There are two types of post-fire residual patches: (1) patches that only escaped the last fire; and (2) patches wit...
Article
Surface soil samples were collected in three mountainous massifs in north-eastern Brazil to characterize the different vegetation types according to their respective pollen assemblages. Complementary approach between pollen and vegetation data shows that the pollen rain accurately reflects the following three main forest types: i) a dense ombrophil...
Article
African herbaceous biomes will likely face drastic changes in the near future, due to climate change and pressures from increasing human activities. However, these biomes have been simulated only by dynamic global vegetation models and failing to include the diversity of C4 grasses has limited the accuracy of these models. Characterizing the floris...
Article
Full-text available
This study addresses the conservation issues of the hydrophytic vegetation of Garâa Sejenane, the largest natural freshwater wetland in Tunisia. Fifty-five phytosociological relevés reveal the exceptional floristic wealth, including 74 hydrophytes of which 26 are patrimonial species. Multivariate analyses (CA, AHC) differentiate three types of habi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Résumé : Le Centre-Ouest et le Bas-Limousin font l’objet depuis plusieurs années de recherches anthracologiques portant principalement sur les modalités d’approvisionnement en combustible des sites de l’Holocène récent. L’essor de l’archéologie préventive permet de multiplier les observations dans différentes zones afin de comparer l’adaptation des...
Chapter
Full-text available
Les données anthracologiques : L’étude des territoires d’approvisionnement en combustible pour les usages domestiques permet d’analyser la nature et l’évolution des formations boisées. Sous certaines conditions de validité, de représentativité paléoécologique, un ensemble de données anthracologiques (charbons de bois récoltés sur des sites archéolo...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: The intensity of cyclic larch budmoth ( Zeiraphera diniana GuenÈe; LBM) outbreaks across the European Alps has been reported to have weakened since the early 1980s. In addition to a warmer climate, changes in land-use cover over modern and historical times may have affected the LBM system. Here, we present tree-ring-based reconstructions...
Article
To evaluate the influence of long-distance transport of charcoal particles on the detection of local wildfires from lake sediment sequences, we tracked 3 consecutive years of charcoal deposition into traps set within 7 boreal lakes in northeastern Canada. Peaks in macroscopic charcoal accumulation (>150 µm) were linked to both local (inside the wat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Séminaire archéologique de l’Ouest : L’Homme, ses ressources et son environnement, dans l’Ouest de la France à l’âge du Fer : Les secteurs du Centre-Ouest et du-Bas-Limousin font l’objet depuis plusieurs années de recherches archéo-anthracologiques portant principalement sur les modalités d’approvisionnement en combustible des sites de l’Holocène r...
Article
Full-text available
Large wildfires keep on developing in the French Mediterranean region, regularly threatening responders. We tested if these large fires could be classified into types, and if these types were representative of different environmental drivers. To proceed, we established a database comprising 153 of the largest fires from the last 25 years. For each...
Article
Full-text available
Phoenix sylvestris has often been regarded as the wild progenitor of the cultivated date palm Phoenix dactylifera. A genetic study recently discarded this hypothesis, suggesting however a possible occurrence of hybridization events during the expansion of date palm cultivation. A sampling campaign was carried out in Northwestern India as a first st...
Chapter
Full-text available
Rien de mieux que des cartes pour figurer la diffusion spatiale d'un phénomène. Celles que nous présentons ici ont été élaborées par l'Équipe MIT dans le cadre des recherches pour Tourismes 3, ouvrage à paraître en 2011 chez Belin [2]. C'est la première fois, à notre connaissance, qu'une telle entreprise est menée à l'échelle mondiale et depuis les...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
(List of collaborators to be completed) The DEMETER project (2020-2025, Funded by the European Research Council, ERC-StG 852573, dir. A. Evin) is an international project which aims at characterizing the changes in animal and plant agrobiodiversity (pig, sheep, goat, barley) influenced by environmental and socio-economic factors in the Northwestern Mediterranean basin, since the beginnings of agriculture that occurred 8 millennia ago in the region. Objectif The domestication of plants and animals marks a major transition in human history and is a key element in the development of modern societies. Local and traditional domestic breeds and varieties are the result of millennia of selection of landraces by farmers. However, we are now experiencing a major crisis with a drastic loss in the diversity of food production systems and the progressive disappearance of traditional practices. The local knowledge and culture of farmers are under threat, as well as the diversity of harvested species, varieties and breeds. In this context, DEMETER’s objective is to trace how societies influenced crop and breed evolution under different farming and environmental regimes, and socio-economic contexts since the onset of agriculture. More specifically, DEMETER aims at identifying: 1) how and why the diversity of domestic forms evolved and led to the large number of breeds and varieties that exist today, and 2) how this diversity allowed societies to adapt to the environmental and socio-economic changes that occurred repeatedly since the onset of agriculture. DEMETER aims at studying the evolution, from the Neolithic until the present of a selection animal and plant models: pigs, sheep, goats and barley, in a given region, the Northwestern Occidental Mediterranean basin, i.e. outside their primary ‘domestication centre’. DEMETER will be based on an unprecedented and unconventional combination of approaches, including phenomics (through geometric morphometrics), databasing, zooarchaeology, archaeobotany, climate modelling, palaeoproteins (ZooMs) and statistical analyses, implemented to analyse 10,000 domestic specimens (i.e. mammal teeth and barley grains). DEMETER will produce an unprecedented regional synthesis of the relationships between humans and domesticates over the last 8 millennia in a new way and at a fine-scale resolution never envisioned before. https://demeter-erc.cnrs.fr/
Archived project
This is my PhD project (2009-2012). The objectives of this work were to understand the evolutionary history and biogeography of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), a species of importance to human populations in hot arid regions of North Africa and the Middle East, using genetic and morphometric analyses.
Project
EVOLEA develops interdisciplinary researches (ecology, ethnoecology, palaeoecology, archaeobotany, genetics, agrobiodiversity, socio-economy...) on diversity, vulnerability and dynamics of the olive tree in heterogeneous and changing environments.