Laura Sokka

Laura Sokka
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland | vtt · Energy Systems

Ph.D. (Environmental Science and Policy)

About

33
Publications
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Publications

Publications (33)
Technical Report
Full-text available
In order to establish a sustainable circular economy, it is crucial to consider all domains of sustainability and to apply approaches and assessment methods that allow for the identification of trade-offs and imbalances between different sustainability targets. The goal of the ORIENTING project is to develop a robust and operational methodology for...
Chapter
Circular Bioeconomy – the symbiosis of bio- and circular economies is widely accepted as a solution for ensuring wise and frugal use of bioresources, and provide means to mitigate climate change. In this chapter, we apply circularity concept to scrutinize the use of bioresources and discuss their upcycling circularity potential during and at the en...
Article
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The funding note is missing in the paper. The funding note to add is the following: Open access funding provided by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT).
Article
Full-text available
Printed and hybrid integrated electronics produced from recycled and renewable materials can reduce the depletion of limited material resources while obtaining energy savings in small electronic applications and their energy storage. In this work, bio-based poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were fabricated in fi...
Article
Circular economy plays a central role in cities on a strategical level. However, concrete circularity plans and actions remain rare. This paper examines how a city district could target circularity with transportation, energy and food solutions. The analysis is performed for an existing case district in a planning phase. The aim is to provide real...
Article
The global temperature has increased over 1 degree since the pre-industrial period. Within the Barents Region, the increase has been ca. 2 degrees, and warming is expected to continue over the next century. Based on energy system analysis with the TIMES-VTT model on the one hand, and a literature review on the other, this study identifies how diffe...
Article
The EU is aiming to increase the utilisation of renewable energy to 20% of the total energy consumption by 2020. For Finland, the target is 38%. Renewable energy sources are assumed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when compared to fossil fuels. Yet not all environmental impacts of renewable energy use are thoroughly assessed, and there are no co...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to discuss the sustainability of CCS technologies from a cross-disciplinary point of view. Due to the complex nature of the current sustainability challenges, such as climate change, which is the key driver for the development of CCS, trans-disciplinary research approaches are required to ensure that all relevant knowledge f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Northern countries are committing themselves to large cuts in the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the next decades. For example, the EU has agreed to cut down its GHG emissions by 40% by 2030. In a similar manner, Norway has announced commitments to reduce its GHG emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 1990. Achievement of these emission reduct...
Article
Distributed energy systems (DESY) are used in many households as an alternative to conventional centralized energy production. While centralized energy production does offer certain advantages, there is growing interest in smaller distributed renewable energy production options. This study uses combines two different methodologies, namely life cycl...
Article
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation of climate change are the main aims of the global climate policy. Increased use of renewable energy is a central measure in achieving these goals. However, mitigation of climate change through increased use of renewable energy also has negative environmental impacts. Focusing merely on greenhouse...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
VTT has studied cascading use and energy use of used wood. The direct use of wood for energy is relatively much lower, and the use of wood for pulp industry much higher in Finland than in the EU. As Finland exports a significant part of its wood biomass (as pulp, paper and board, timber and plywood), the cascading cycles of wood products take place...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Combining together different technologies can form a strong hybrid solution adapted to local needs. Local energy production also increases local business and energy production from local waste reduces waste management costs, thus enabling other local business and employment. Local energy production also increases energy, electricity and fuel securi...
Article
This paper considers the climate, health and acidification impacts associated with household-level heating technologies; the policy-based incentives that current emission limits might create for switching between these technologies; and the societal costs that would arise from the externalities associated with the emissions. The data and selection...
Article
Agricultural products and raw materials for food industries are increasingly being traded across national borders. Import and export statistics of Finland, related to food and its raw materials, were collected and analysed for the period 1961 to 2007. Export transfers from Finland contained mainly grains, while sugar, coffee and fruits, but also gr...
Article
Forests are a significant pool of terrestrial carbon. A key feature related to forest biomass harvesting and use is the typical time difference between carbon release into and sequestration from the atmosphere. Traditionally, the use of sustainably grown biomass has been considered as carbon neutral in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. However,...
Article
In view of recent studies of the historical development and current status of industrial symbiosis (IS), life cycle assessment (LCA) is proposed as a general framework for quantifying the environmental performance of by‐product exchange. Recent guidelines for LCA (International Reference Life Cycle Data System [ILCD] guidelines) are applied to answ...
Article
Journal of Cleaner Production Vol.19 Nr.4, 285-293 Industrial symbiosis (IS) studies the physical flows of materials and energy in local industrial systems using a systems approach. In this study the total fuel and energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions are calculated for an 'industrial park' operating in the same manner as an IS. Moreover the re...
Article
Summary Studies of industrial symbiosis (IS) focus on the physical flows of materials and energy in local industrial systems. In an ideal IS, waste material and energy are shared or exchanged among the actors of the system, thereby reducing the consumption of virgin material and energy inputs, and likewise the generation of waste and emissions. In...
Article
An industrial symbiosis (IS) is a group of industrial plants and other actors which exchange energy, water, by-products and waste. This article studies the evolution of an IS centred around a Finnish pulp and paper mill and analyses how the operations of the case system developed in a more sustainable direction during the years 1890–2005. We build...
Article
Industrial symbiosis, representing resource sharing and byproduct use among colocated firms, is a key concept of industrial ecology. Local co-operation in industrial symbioses can reduce raw material use and waste disposal, but material and energy flows extending outside symbiosis boundaries can cause considerable environmental impacts. These exter...
Article
In the scientific literature, there are (so far) few studies quantifying the environmental benefits or sustainability of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) networks although, at the same time, the potential tools for these kinds of assessments have been developed rapidly both in number and capacity. In this article, we first review the existing studies on t...
Article
Waste reduction was recognised as the main goal of waste management policy in the EU in the 1990s. Although knowledge of past waste generation is essential for effective waste reduction policy there are no comprehensive statistics on the past development of municipal solid waste (MSW) production. MSW management is currently under turmoil in many EU...
Article
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two elements contributing to many environmental problems, such as eutrophication, global change (N) and acidification (N). Mitigation of the negative environmental impacts caused by these nutrients requires understanding of their amounts and linkages through inputs and outputs of the different parts of the ecolog...
Article
Full-text available
https://www.inderscience.com/browse/index.php?journalID=55 Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two nutrients contributing to several environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of surface waters. Leakages of these nutrients occur through human activity. In this study, the flows of N and P in the Finnish municipal waste system in 1952–1999 w...
Article
For the comparison, two cases of oil shale electricity production systems were studied. The first system consists of two Estonian power plants (Eesti and Balti) of oil shale electricity representing an "average" power plant with the technology of year 2002, and all the main processes related to mining and the power plant. This production system is...
Article
VTT Working Papers 150 Euroopan unionin direktiivi uusiutuvan energian käytön edistämisestä (2009/28/EY), ns. RES-direktiivi, tulee implementoida kansalliseen lainsäädäntöön 5.12.2010 mennessä. RES-direktiivissä on asetettu kestävyyteen liittyviä vaatimuksia liikenteen biopolttoaineille ja muille bionesteille. Raaka-aineiden alkuperää koskevat vaat...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Bottom-up initiatives by individuals and communities are essential to increase acceptance of, and engagement in climate related actions. Yet, conventional strategies addressing these groups often fail to provoke a change in perspectives and actions. CLEANcultures investigates how broadening the perspective at a systemic micro-level triggers action, and how this kind of transformative learning encourages political bottom-up driven decisions. Furthermore, this learning process at micro level allows a better understanding of small-scale societal systems dynamics, in terms of climate change awareness, empowerment and decision making in transforming processes. CLEANcultures project is funded in JPI Climate joint transnational call SOLSTICE (Enabling Societal Transformation in the Face of Climate Change).
Project
EU project Spine will create an open source toolbox for modelling integrated energy systems. The Toolbox will be modular and adaptable, making the toolbox suitable for both detailed modelling of complex features in energy systems as well as for large-scale problems. This project receives funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement Nr. 774629.