Laura Smalarz

Laura Smalarz
Arizona State University | ASU · School of Social and Behavioral Sciences

Ph.D.

About

40
Publications
18,566
Reads
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665
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - July 2020
Arizona State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2015 - June 2019
Williams College
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We assessed recent policy recommendations to collect eyewitnesses' confidence statements in witnesses' own words as opposed to numerically. We conducted an experiment to test whether eyewitnesses' free-report verbal confidence statements are as diagnostic of eyewitness accuracy as their numeric confidence statements and whether the dia...
Article
Full-text available
We tested whether multiple doses of feedback have cumulative effects on eyewitness-identification confidence. In Experiment 1, participants made mistaken identifications and received or did not receive three forms of confirming feedback: (1) co-witness feedback; (2) vague feedback from the experimenter (“You’ve been a good witness”); and (3) infere...
Article
Full-text available
Over the course of a criminal investigation, eyewitnesses are sometimes shown multiple lineups in an attempt to identify the culprit, yet little research has examined eyewitness identification performance from multiple lineups. In two experiments, we examined eyewitness identification accuracy among witnesses who made an inaccurate identification f...
Article
Full-text available
Two provocative claims about eyewitness confidence have recently been advanced in the eyewitnessidentification literature: (a) suspect identifications made with high confidence are highly accurate and (b) high-confidence suspect-identification accuracy is unaffected by variations in memory strength. Several recent publications have reiterated these...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Two provocative claims about eyewitness confidence have recently been advanced in the eyewitness-identification literature: (1) suspect identifications made with high confidence are highly accurate and (2) high-confidence suspect-identification accuracy is unaffected by variations in memory strength. We argue that several recent publicat...
Article
This research tested whether the perception of threat during a police interrogation mobilizes suspects to cope with interrogation demands and bolsters their resistance to self-incrimination pressures. Experimental procedures led university undergraduates (N = 296) to engage in misconduct or not, thereby making them guilty or innocent. An experiment...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents an expected cost model for evaluating and comparing the performance of eyewitness identification procedures. The model estimates the expected cost of an identification procedure in order to quantify how well the procedure helps the police achieve the investigation goal of identifying and incriminating the culprit. We first app...
Chapter
Full-text available
Eyewitness memory can be distorted by simple comments received after an identification decision is made. When these comments suggest that the identification decision was correct, they inflate witnesses’ recollections of how confident they were, how good their view was, and other testimony-relevant judgments. This post-identification feedback effect...
Article
Full-text available
When one lineup identification procedure leads to both fewer innocent–suspect identifications and fewer culprit identifications than does some other lineup procedure, it is difficult to determine whether the procedures differ in diagnostic accuracy. In an influential article, Wixted and Mickes (2012) argued that measures of probative value do not i...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined whether criminal stereotypes—i.e., beliefs about the typical characteristics of crime perpetrators—influence mock jurors’ judgments of guilt in cases involving confession evidence. Mock jurors ( N = 450) read a trial transcript that manipulated whether a defendant’s ethnicity was stereotypic or counterstereotypic of a crime,...
Article
Full-text available
Nothing is more fundamental to Signal Detection Theory (SDT) than the notion that memory performance decreases as lures become increasingly similar to target items. Yet, Colloff, Wade, and Strange (2016) claimed that the use of high-similarity fillers (lineup lures) increased memory performance relative to low-similarity fillers. We use their data...
Article
Full-text available
In 1966, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down a controversial ruling in Miranda v. Arizona, which required police to inform suspects, prior to custodial interrogation, of their constitutional rights to silence and to counsel. In commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Miranda, we present a psychological analysis of the Court’s ruling. We show how th...
Article
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We conducted two experiments to test whether police interrogation elicits a biphasic process of resistance from suspects. According to this process, the initial threat of police interrogation mobilizes suspects to resist interrogative influence in a manner akin to a fight or flight response, but suspects’ protracted self-regulation of their behavio...
Article
Full-text available
This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the m...
Chapter
Full-text available
The U.S. Supreme Court has not reexamined the test for admission of eyewitness identifications that are the product of suggestive procedures in over 35 years (Manson v. Brathwaite, 432 U.S. 98, 1977). Since then, there have been over 218 DNA-based exonerations of individuals who were mistakenly identified, and an extensive and rich scientific liter...
Chapter
The police lineup is a common tool for eyewitness identifications of suspects in criminal cases. Forensic DNA testing of people convicted by eyewitness identification evidence and field studies of police lineups, however, have revealed that mistaken identification from lineups is not uncommon. Controlled laboratory experiments have isolated numerou...
Article
Full-text available
Some researchers have been arguing that eyewitness identification data from lineups should be analyzed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis because it purportedly measures underlying discriminability. But ROC analysis, which was designed for 2. ×. 2 tasks, does not fit the 3. ×. 2 structure of lineups. Accordingly, ROC proponents...
Article
Full-text available
Our previous article (Wells et al., 2015a. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, in press, this issue) showed how ROC analysis of lineups does not measure underlying discriminability or control for response bias. Wixted and Mickes (2015. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, in press, this issue) concede these points....
Article
Full-text available
Mistaken identification testimony by highly confident eyewitnesses has been involved in approximately 72% of the cases in which innocent people have been convicted and later exonerated by DNA testing. Lab studies of eyewitness identification, however, show that mistaken eyewitnesses are usually not highly confident and that there is a useful confid...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a novel Bayesian treatment of the eyewitness identification problem as it relates to various system variables, such as instruction effects, lineup presentation format, lineup-filler similarity, lineup administrator influence, and show-ups versus lineups. We describe why eyewitness identification is a natural Bayesian problem and how nume...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined whether confirming postidentification feedback following a mistaken identification impairs eyewitness memory for the original culprit. We also examined whether the degree of similarity between a mistakenly identified individual and the actual culprit plays a role in memory impairment. Participant-witnesses (N = 145) made mist...
Article
Full-text available
Giving confirming feedback to mistaken eyewitnesses has robust distorting effects on their retrospective judgments (e.g., how certain they were, their view, etc.). Does feedback harm evaluators' abilities to discriminate between accurate and mistaken identification testimony? Participant-witnesses to a simulated crime made accurate or mistaken iden...
Article
Full-text available
Suspects have a preexisting vulnerability to make short-sighted confession decisions, giving disproportionate weight to proximal, rather than distal, consequences. The findings of the current research provided evidence that this preexisting vulnerability is exacerbated by factors that are associated with the immediate interrogation situation. In Ex...
Article
Full-text available
An increasingly strong case can be made for the argument that mistaken-eyewitness identification is the primary cause of the conviction of the innocent in the United States. The strongest single body of evidence in support of this proposition is the collection of cases in which forensic DNA testing was used to exonerate people who had been convicte...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the American legal system, one of the safeguards against wrongful convictions on the basis of mistaken eyewitness identification is the right of the defense to file motions to suppress suggestive eyewitness identifications. These pretrial motions to suppress eyewitness identification evidence are filed routinely, and yet they almost never succee...
Article
Full-text available
The perpetual foreigner stereotype posits that members of ethnic minorities will always be seen as the "other" in the White Anglo-Saxon dominant society of the United States (Devos & Banaji, 2005), which may have negative implications for them. The goal of the present research was to determine whether awareness of this perpetual foreigner stereotyp...

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Projects (2)
Project
Published papers explaining why, when compared to lineups with low-similarity fillers, high-similarity fillers decrease innocent-suspect identifications to a greater extent than culprit identifications. Essentially, high-similarity lineups result in a redistribution of false alarms away from the innocent suspect and on to known innocent fillers. But, high-similarity fillers draw fewer choices away from the culprit because the culprit tends to provide a stronger match-to-memory than do the low-similarity fillers.