Laura Kramer

Laura Kramer
New York State Department of Health

PhD

About

453
Publications
59,819
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
17,606
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
January 2007 - December 2012
University at Albany, The State University of New York
Position
  • School of Public Health at Albany, The State University of New York
January 2001 - December 2012
Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health

Publications

Publications (453)
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne illness in the continental United States. WNV occurrence has high spatiotemporal variation and current approaches for targeted control of the virus are limited, making forecasting a public health priority. However, little research has been done to compare strengths and weaknes...
Article
Full-text available
Background Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV; Peribunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne pathogen belonging to the California serogroup. The virus is endemic in North America and increasingly recognized as a public health concern. In this study, we determined the vector competence of Anopheles (An.) quadrimaculatus and Aedes (Ae.) albopictus...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV; Peribunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne pathogen belonging to the California serogroup. The virus is endemic in North America and increasingly recognized as a public health concern. In this study, we determined the vector competence of Anopheles (An.) quadrimaculatus and Aedes (Ae.) albopictus...
Article
Full-text available
Author summary: Previous assessment of WNV evolution in NYS revealed mutations in the WNV genome with evidence of positive selection that emerged coincident with increasing WNV activity, indicating potential for an adaptive advantage. To examine whether the increase in WNV activity in NYS could be driven by NY10 mutations, we assessed the ability...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting pathogen emergence and spillover risk requires understanding the determinants of a pathogens' host range and the traits involved in host competence. While host competence is often considered a fixed species-specific trait, it may be variable if pathogens diversify across hosts. Balancing selection can lead to maintenance of pathogen poly...
Article
Full-text available
We report surveillance results of Cache Valley virus (CVV; Peribunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) from 2017-2020 in New York State (NYS). Infection rates were calculated using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method by year, region, and mosquito species. The highest infection rates were identified among Anopheles spp. mosquitoes and we detected...
Article
Full-text available
Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquitoborne virus that infects livestock and humans. We report results of surveillance for CVV in New York, USA, during 2000-2016; full-genome analysis of selected CVV isolates from sheep, horse, humans, and mosquitoes from New York and Canada; and phenotypic characterization of selected strains. We calculated infect...
Poster
Full-text available
Cache Valley virus (CVV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) are mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus (Family Bunyaviridae) which are widely distributed across North America and infect a number of vertebrate hosts and mosquito species. Although the majority of exposures to these viruses result in asymptomatic or mild infecti...
Article
Full-text available
Powassan/deer tick virus (POWV/DTV), a tick-borne flavivirus, is emerging in the United States. However, little work has assessed spatial distribution and infection prevalence and density of infected vector ticks in Pennsylvania (PA). Therefore, we conducted active surveillance for Ixodes scapularis in every PA county and screened for pathogen pres...
Article
Full-text available
Background Vector-borne pathogens must survive and replicate in the hostile environment of an insect’s midgut before successful dissemination. Midgut microbiota interfere with pathogen infection by activating the basal immunity of the mosquito and by synthesizing pathogen-inhibitory metabolites. Methods The goal of this study was to assess the inf...
Article
Full-text available
During 2018, Heartland virus RNA was detected in an Amblyomma americanum tick removed from a resident of Suffolk County, New York, USA. The persons showed seroconversion. Tick surveillance and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serosurveys showed widespread distribution in Suffolk County, emphasizing a need for disease surveillance anywhere...
Article
Full-text available
West Nile virus (WNV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus introduced to North America in 1999. Since 1999, the Earth’s average temperature has increased by 0.6 °C. Mosquitoes are ectothermic organisms, reliant on environmental heat sources. Temperature impacts vector–virus interactions which directly influence arbovirus transmi...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogens possess the ability to adapt and survive in some host species but not in others-an ecological trait known as host tropism. Transmitted through ticks and carried mainly by mammals and birds, the Lyme disease (LD) bacterium is a well-suited model to study such tropism. Three main causative agents of LD, Borrelia burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and...
Presentation
West Nile virus (WNV) has never been reported from Lebanon. Yet, this country is located on the flyway of migratory birds in the Middle East region. Serological screening was conducted to assess the potential circulation of this virus. Human, horse, and chicken sera were collected from the Bekaa and North districts. Specific IgG and IgY were first...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogens are transmitted from one host to another either by vertical transmission (VT) or horizontal transmission (HT). Mosquito-borne arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses), including several clinically important viruses such as dengue, Zika, West Nile and chikungunya viruses persist in nature by both VT and HT. VT may also serve as an essential l...
Article
Full-text available
Background Transmission of pathogens by vector mosquitoes is intrinsically linked with mosquito’s reproductive strategy because anautogenous mosquitoes require vertebrate blood to develop a batch of eggs. Each cycle of egg maturation is tightly linked with the intake of a fresh blood meal for most species. Mosquitoes that acquire pathogens during t...
Article
Full-text available
West Nile virus (WNV) has never been reported from Lebanon. Yet, this country is located on the flyway of migratory birds in the Middle East region. Serological screening was conducted to assess the potential circulation of this virus. Human, horse, and chicken sera were collected from the Bekaa and North districts. Specific IgG and IgY were first...
Preprint
Full-text available
Microparasites selectively adapt in some hosts, known as host tropism. Transmitted through ticks and carried mainly by mammals and birds, the Lyme disease (LD) bacterium is a well-suited model to study such tropism. LD bacteria species vary in host ranges through mechanisms eluding characterization. By feeding ticks infected with different LD bacte...
Article
Full-text available
Sera from white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) hunter-harvested throughout New York State (NYS), 2007-2015, were tested by plaque reduction neutralization for antibodies against nine mosquito-borne viruses from the families Peribunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Overall, 76.1% (373/490) of sampled WTD were seropositive against...
Article
The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector of a number of arboviruses, including Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, and has recently expanded its range in the eastern United States to southern New England and New York. Given the recent establishment and proliferation of Ae. albopictus in this region...
Article
Full-text available
All 4 dengue viruses (DENV) cause sporadic outbreaks of human disease in the Rio Grande Valley along the US-Mexico border. In addition, West Nile virus (WNV) is enzootic in most border communities, and is the only arbovirus known to cause human disease in the El Paso, Texas community. In an effort to determine if DENV were also endemic in the El Pa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mayaro virus (MAYV; Alphavirus, Togaviridae) is an emerging pathogen endemic in South American countries. The increase in intercontinental travel and tourism-based forest excursions has resulted in an increase in MAYV spread, with imported cases observed in Europe and North America. Intriguingly, no local transmission of MAYV has been re...
Article
Full-text available
Surveillance for the emerging infectious disease Eastern equine encephalitis, and its causative virus in mosquitoes, continued within New York State from 2013 to 2019. There were increases in geographic area and number of consecutive years, with cases in four mammalian species, and virus in 11 mosquito species. The first cases in a goat and in an e...
Article
Full-text available
Many flaviviruses including the Dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus, Yellow Fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus are significant human pathogens, unfortunately without any specific therapy. Here, we demonstrate that methylene blue, an FDA-approved drug, is a broad-spectrum and potent antiviral against Zika virus and Deng...
Preprint
Full-text available
Host specialization is an ecological and evolutionary process by which a pathogen becomes differentially adapted to a subset of hosts, restricting its host range. For parasites transmitted by generalist vectors, host specialization is not expected to evolve because of the decreased survival of those parasites in inadequate hosts. Thus, parasites ma...
Article
Full-text available
Our current understanding of the natural evolution of RNA viruses comes largely from consensus level genetic analyses which ignore the diverse mutant swarms that comprise within-host viral populations. The breadth and composition of viral mutant swarms impact viral fitness and adaptation, and the capacity for swarm plasticity is likely to be partic...
Article
Full-text available
Both mosquito species-specific differences and virus strain -specific differences impact vector competence. Previous results in our laboratory with individual populations of N. American mosquitoes support studies suggesting Aedes aegypti are more competent than Ae. albopictus for American Zika virus (ZIKV) strains and demonstrate that U.S. Ae. albo...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid and significant range expansion of both the Zika virus (ZIKV) and its Aedes vector species has resulted in the declaration of ZIKV as a global health threat. Successful transmission of ZIKV by its vector requires a complex series of interactions between these entities including the establishment, replication and dissemination of the virus wit...
Article
Full-text available
An unprecedented spread of mosquito-borne viruses and increasing populations of mosquito vectors has led to an increase in the frequency of mosquito-borne virus disease outbreaks. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), among others have led to a concerted effort to understand the biology of mosquito-borne viruses and th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Mayaro virus (MAYV; Alphavirus, Togaviridae) is an emerging pathogen endemic in South American countries. The increase in intercontinental travel and tourism-based forest excursions has resulted in an increase in MAYV spread, with imported cases observed in Europe and North America. Intriguingly, no local transmission of MAYV has been re...
Article
Full-text available
Flaviviruses causes significant human disease. Recent outbreaks of the Zika virus highlight the need to develop effective therapies for this class of viruses. Previously we identified niclosamide as a broad-spectrum inhibitor for flaviviruses by targeting the interface between viral protease NS3 and its cofactor NS2B. Here, we screened a small libr...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is among the deadliest infectious diseases to have emerged in recent history. As with all past pandemics, the specific mechanism of its emergence in humans remains unknown. Nevertheless, a large body of virologic, epidemiologic, veterinary, and ecologic data establishes that the new virus, SARS-CoV-2, evolved directly or indir...
Article
Full-text available
We tested 700 serum samples collected throughout Panama from 2015 to 2016 for detecting antibodies and RNA of arboviruses. In convalescent specimens, microsphere immunoassay detected an antibody prevalence of 59.3% for dengue virus (DENV) and 30.3% for Zika, which included samples that were collected before the Panamanian surveillance system report...
Article
The fidelity of flaviviruses is thought to be tightly regulated for optimal fitness within and between hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) high-fidelity (HiFi) mutations V793I and G806R within the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and low-fidelity (LoFi) mutation T248I within the methyltransferase, were previously shown to attenuate infectivity and replicativ...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid and significant range expansion of both Zika virus (ZIKV) and its Aedes vector species has resulted in ZIKV being declared a global health threat. Mean temperatures are projected to increase globally, likely resulting in alterations of the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens. To understand the effect of diurnal temperature rang...
Article
Increases in tick-borne disease prevalence and transmission are important public health issues. Efforts to control these emerging diseases are frustrated by the struggle to control tick populations and to detect and treat infections caused by the pathogens that they transmit. This review covers tick-borne infectious diseases of nonrickettsial bacte...
Article
The introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) to North America in 1999 and its subsequent rapid spread across the Americas demonstrated the potential impact of arboviral introductions to new regions, and this was reinforced by the subsequent introductions of chikungunya and Zika viruses. Extensive studies of host–pathogen–vector–environment interaction...
Article
Full-text available
Following its introduction into New York State (NYS) in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) underwent a rapid expansion throughout the USA and into Canada and Latin America. WNV has been characterized as being evolutionarily stable, with weak geographic structure, a dominance of purifying selection and limited adaptive change. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
Elizabethkingia anophelis has been the cause of four outbreaks with significant morbidity and mortality. Its transmission routes remain unknown and no point source of infection has been identified. Here we show that E. anophelis can be found in the saliva of Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting the novel possibility of vector-borne transmission of this bac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rapid and significant range expansion of both ZIKV and its Aedes host species has resulted in ZIKV being declared a global health threat. Mean temperatures are projected to increase globally, likely resulting in alterations of the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens. The relationship between temperature and ZIKV transmission has not...
Article
Full-text available
West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is a widely distributed arthropod-borne virus that has negatively affected human health and animal populations. WNV infection rates of mosquitoes and human cases have been shown to be correlated with climate. However, previous studies have been conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, an...
Article
Background. Zika (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infections elicit a robust but cross-reactive antibody response against the viral envelope protein, while antibody responses against non-structural proteins (NS) are more virus-specific. Building on this premise we have previously developed a flavivirus multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MIA) for the...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the vector competence of Aedes caspius and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Spain for the transmission of Zika virus. Whereas Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were a competent vector, Ae. caspius mosquitoes were unable to transmit Zika virus. We also identified high levels of vertical transmission of Zika virus in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes.
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the vector competence of Aedes caspius and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Spain for the transmission of Zika virus. Whereas Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were a competent vector, Ae. caspius mosquitoes were unable to transmit Zika virus. We also identified high levels of vertical transmission of Zika virus in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes.
Article
Full-text available
Rabensburg virus (RBGV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) has been classified as both a novel flavivirus and a unique lineage of West Nile virus (WNV). RBGV and WNV share approximately 76% sequence homology, yet RBGV does not replicate to high viral titers within vertebrate cell lines at physiological temperatures and has not been naturally isolated from a...
Article
Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector‐borne disease in the US and Europe. The spirochetes are transmitted from mammalian and avian reservoir hosts to humans via ticks. Following tick bites, spirochetes colonize the host skin and then disseminate hematogenously to various organs, a process that requir...
Article
Full-text available
Dengue virus (DENV), an arthropod-borne (“arbovirus”) virus, causes a range of human maladies ranging from self-limiting dengue fever to the life-threatening dengue shock syndrome and proliferates well in two different taxa of the Animal Kingdom, mosquitoes and primates. Mosquitoes and primates show taxonomic group-specific intolerance to certain c...
Data
Deconvolution microscopy of THP-1 cells infected with DENV2syn, Ehmin, NS3hmin at an MOI of 5.0 or mock-infected. At 2 days post infection, infected cells were fixed and stained using 4G2 anti-E or anti-NS3 primary antibodies as well as Alexa 488 (E) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (NS3) conjugated secondary antibodies. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been detected sporadically since the 1950s and includes three distinct co-circulating genotypes. In late 2013, the Asian genotype of CHIKV was responsible for the Caribbean outbreak (CO) that rapidly became an epidemic throughout the Americas. There is a limited understanding of the molecular evolution of CHIKV in the...
Data
Overlap with previous deep-sequencing results [36]. (DOCX)
Data
Phylodynamics of CHIKV ECSA genotype epidemics. Time-scaled maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree of CHIKV ECSA genotype was inferred by Bayesian analysis. Sequences from different regions are colored as described in the key. Indian Ocean clade (IO) and subclades (IO1, IO2, IO3, and IO4) are marked. Five new sequences with travel history to Africa a...
Data
Summary of codons in the nonstructural polyprotein that contain significant minor variants. (DOCX)
Data
Summary of codons in the structural polyprotein that contain significant minor variants. (DOCX)
Preprint
Full-text available
Dengue virus (DENV), an arthropod-borne ("arbovirus") virus causing a range of human maladies ranging from self-limiting dengue fever to the life-threatening dengue shock syndrome, proliferates well in two different taxa of the Animal Kingdom, mosquitoes and primates. Unexpectedly, mosquitoes and primates have distinct preferences when expressing t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The year 1971 was the first time in New York State (NYS) that Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) was identified in mosquitoes, in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans. At that time, state and county health departments began surveillance for EEEV in mosquitoes. Methods: From 1993 to 2012, county health departments continued...
Article
Full-text available
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) have a global distribution and are the primary vector of a number of mosquito-borne viruses responsible for epidemics throughout the Americas. As in much of South America, the threat from pathogens including dengue virus (DENV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) h...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) began in May 2015 in Brazil and rapidly spread throughout the Americas; New York City (NYC) has a diverse population with ∼1.8 million residents who were born in ZIKV-affected areas. Before July 24, 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ZIKV testing recommendations included nucleic...
Article
Full-text available
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has implemented numerous changes to the taxonomic classification of bunyaviruses over the years. Whereas most changes have been justified and necessary because of the need to accommodate newly discovered and unclassified viruses, other changes are a cause of concern, especially the decision...
Article
Full-text available
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many medically significant viruses in the Americas, including dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and Zika virus. Traits such as longevity, fecundity, and feeding behavior contribute to the ability of Ae. aegypti to serve as a vector of these pathogens. Both local environmental factors and populat...
Article
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has a high case-fatality rate in horses and humans, and Florida has been hypothesized to be the source of EEEV epidemics for the northeastern U.S. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced complete genomes of 433 EEEV strains collected within the U.S. from 1934 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis suggested EEEV evolv...