Laura Hull

Laura Hull
University of Bristol | UB · Centre for Academic Mental Health

PhD, University College London

About

39
Publications
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Introduction
Laura Hull is the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute Early Career Fellow at the University of Bristol. Her current research explores predictors of mental health problems in autistic children and young people, and how to measure masking in autistic children.

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
Full-text available
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, w...
Article
Full-text available
There currently exist no self-report measures of social camouflaging behaviours (strategies used to compensate for or mask autistic characteristics during social interactions). The Camouflaging Autistic Traits Questionnaire (CAT-Q) was developed from autistic adults’ experiences of camouflaging, and was administered online to 354 autistic and 478 n...
Article
Objective: To derive the first systematically calculated estimate of the relative proportion of boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a meta-analysis of prevalence studies conducted since the introduction of the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Method: Preferred Reporting Items for Sys...
Article
Lay abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic meant that a lot of healthcare services had to move online, such as to video-calls, or to telephone. However, not many studies have looked at how autistic adults feel about this kind of service delivery. It is important to know this, as autistic people may have poorer health than non-autistic people, and they ma...
Article
Full-text available
Camouflaging refers to strategies used by autistic people to mask or hide social difficulties. The current study draws on Social Identity Theory to examine the relationship between camouflaging and autism-related stigma, testing the hypothesis that camouflaging represents an individualistic strategy in response to stigma. Two hundred and twenty-thr...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, high levels of depression, anxiety and stress have been reported in the general population. However, much less has been reported about the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of autistic people. What we did: In the present study, we investigated how the mental health of autistic adults in the United...
Preprint
Many autistic people develop camouflaging strategies to mask or compensate for their underlying autism-related differences in order to get by in predominantly non-autistic societies. Autistic adults have described camouflaging as a “lifetime of conditioning to act normal”, suggesting that camouflaging develops over the autistic person’s lifespan. Y...
Article
Introduction Gendered differences in autism spectrum disorder (hereafter, ‘autism’) symptomatology, may contribute to delayed diagnoses for autistic females. The aim of this study was to develop a coding system, the Gendered Autism Behavioral Scale (GABS), to identify and measure hypothesized components of non-traditional autism phenotypes. Method...
Article
Some autistic people employ strategies and behaviours to cope with the everyday social world, thereby ‘camouflaging’ their autistic differences and difficulties. This review aimed to systematically appraise and synthesise the current evidence base pertaining to autistic camouflaging. Following a systematic search of eight databases, 29 studies quan...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study aimed to explore the experiences of parents caring for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) during the UK national lockdown in spring 2020, resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Design Participants were identified using opportunity sampling from the IMAGINE-ID national (UK) cohort and completed an o...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: Alcohol use and misuse are associated with a variety of negative physical, psychological and social consequences. The limited existing research on substance use including alcohol use in autistic adults has yielded mixed findings, with some studies concluding that autism reduces the likelihood of substance use and others suggesting th...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: Camouflaging can be thought of as the process through which autistic people modify their natural social behaviours to adapt to, cope within or influence the largely neurotypical (non-autistic) social world. Many autistic people experience negative reactions to their natural or intuitive social behaviours when interacting with non-aut...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated sex/gender differences in camouflaging with children and adolescents (N = 84) with and without an autism diagnosis/increased levels of autistic traits using two conceptualisations/operationalisations of camouflaging. A significant group-by-gender interaction using ANCOVA, with the covariate of verbal IQ, reflected similar le...
Preprint
In certain social contexts some autistic people appear behaviourally non-autistic. In recent years, this phenomenon, termed ‘camouflaging’ has driven a burgeoning body of research. The current review aimed to systematically appraise and synthesise the current evidence base pertaining to autistic camouflaging. After a systematic search of eight data...
Preprint
Objectives: This study aimed to explore the experiences of parents caring for children with intellectual and developmental disability during the UK national lockdown in spring 2020, resulting from the Covid-19 pandemic. Design: Participants were identified using opportunity sampling from the IMAGINE-ID national (UK) cohort, and completed an online...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: Many autistic people report that, despite personal costs, they use strategies to hide their autistic characteristics or appear non-autistic at work, school or university, when speaking with health professionals, or while socialising with certain friends and family members. These strategies are often referred to as camouflaging. This...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is inconsistent evidence for a clear pattern of association between ‘camouflaging’ (strategies used to mask and/or compensate for autism characteristics during social interactions) and mental health. Methods This study explored the relationship between self-reported camouflaging and generalised anxiety, depression, and social anxi...
Preprint
The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with mental health declines in the general population. Those with pre-existing vulnerabilities are known to be at particular risk. This may include autistic people, who have high levels of mental and physical health problems. Yet little is currently known about the impact of the pandemic on autistic people....
Article
Full-text available
It is now accepted that sub-clinical autistic traits are continuously distributed in the general population. It appears that there has been no prior research on the relationship between autistic traits and mental well-being. We explored the nature of such a relationship using multiple regression models. 227 non-clinical adults aged 18–50 years comp...
Article
Fombonne’s (2020) editorial is a thought-provoking appraisal of the literature on ‘camouflaging’, whereby some autistic people mask or compensate for their autistic characteristics as an attempt to fit in and to cope with disabilities under neurotypical social norms. Fombonne (2020) highlights three issues of contention: (a) construct validity and...
Article
Full-text available
Autism is more commonly diagnosed in males than females. One explanation is the ‘female protective effect’: there is something inherent in being female which reduces the likelihood of developing autism. However, evidence suggests that the condition is underdiagnosed in females, perhaps because females express their autism in ways which do not meet...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Autistic people may modify their innate autistic social behaviours in order to adapt to, cope within, and/or influence the predominately neurotypical social landscape. We term such modified or changed behaviour “camouflaging behaviour.” Conceptualisations and definitions of camouflaging behaviours are in their infancy. Existing qualitati...
Article
Full-text available
Camouflaging involves masking and/or compensating for autistic characteristics and has been identified in autistic individuals through a variety of different methods. Individual variation in the extent, processes and outcomes of camouflaging has been reported in autistic adults, and there has been some investigation of camouflaging by autistic adol...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: Empathy is an important feature to feel for another person, evoking social support for the person in distress, and thus strengthening social cohesion. The question is to what extent empathic reactions can also be observed in autistic adolescents and autistic girls in particular, since their often mentioned good social skills might pr...
Preprint
Camouflaging refers to strategies used by autistic people to mask or hide characteristics of autism. The current study draws on Social Identity Theory to examine the relationship between camouflaging and autism-related stigma, testing the hypothesis that camouflaging represents an individualistic strategy in response to stigma. 223 autistic adults...
Article
Background: Mental health literacy (MHL) is linked to help-seeking behaviours. Although lay people are not always well aware of mental health conditions, few international campaigns and interventions have been developed to raise awareness across cultures. Aims: To investigate MHL cross-culturally and to identify factors that are associated with MHL...
Article
This study investigated the association of the five-factor model and trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) with camouflaging behaviours (masking and compensating for autistic characteristics) in a large sample of 278 autistic and 230 typically developing (TD) participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing autistic traits, big five...
Article
Full-text available
Some people with autism try to hide aspects of their autism or develop ways to cope with it. This is known as camouflaging. Camouflaging involves finding ways around things that an autistic person finds difficult, hiding aspects of their autism, and trying to fit in with others. Overall, camouflaging might help some people to make friends, but it c...
Thesis
Camouflaging has been proposed as a behaviour used by autistic individuals, particularly females, to minimise the appearance of autistic characteristics during social interactions. However, little is known about how autistic individuals camouflage and there are few validated measures of camouflaging. There is inconsistent evidence as to whether fem...
Article
Background: Co-occurring mental health or psychiatric conditions are common in autism, impairing quality of life. Reported prevalences of co-occurring mental health or psychiatric conditions in people with autism range widely. Improved prevalence estimates and identification of moderators are needed to enhance recognition and care, and to guide fu...
Article
Social camouflaging describes the use of strategies to compensate for and mask autistic characteristics during social interactions. A newly developed self-reported measure of camouflaging (Camouflaging Autistic Traits Questionnaire) was used in an online survey to measure gender differences in autistic ( n = 306) and non-autistic adults ( n = 472)...
Article
Full-text available
Nous posons l’hypothèse que le camouflage des caractéristiques autistiques en situation sociale est une stratégie habituelle de recherche de maîtrise des adultes avec une condition du spectre autistique (ASC). Le camouflage peut impacter le diagnostic, la qualité de la vie, et les pronostics à long terme, mais on en sait peu à son sujet. Cette étud...
Article
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with an autism spectrum condition (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC,...
Article
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with an autism spectrum condition (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC,...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has historically been diagnosed more frequently in males than females. One explanation for this is the 'female protective effect': That there is something inherent in being female that makes girls and women less susceptible to ASD. Another possibility is that ASD is under-diagnosed in girls and women, due to the exist...
Article
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behaviour...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated trait EI in childhood in a Serbian population by validating a Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Child Form (TEIQue-CF). All 606 participants (Mage = 10.33, SD = 1.55) completed the TEIQue-CF, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (revised version), and the Guess Who peer assessment. Data...

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