Laura J Frishman

Laura J Frishman
University of Houston | U of H, UH · College of Optometry

PhD

About

134
Publications
11,107
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,712
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1990 - present
University of Houston
Position
  • Professor
Education
September 1972 - February 1979
University of Pittsburgh
Field of study
  • Psychobiology/Neuroscience

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Full-text available
The full-field electroretinogram (ERG) is a mass electrophysiological response to diffuse flashes of light and is used widely to assess generalized retinal function. This document, from the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV), presents an updated and revised ISCEV Standard for clinical ERG testing. Minimum protoco...
Article
Purpose The macaque retina is often used as a model for the human retina. However, there are only a handful of direct in vivo comparisons of the retinal physiology in humans and macaques. In the current study, ERG responses to luminance, L-cone isolating and M-cone isolating stimuli with sinusoidal, sawtooth and square wave temporal profiles were m...
Article
Clinical relevance Guinea pig visual function is characterised based on behavioural and electrophysiological measures and retinal ganglion cell density is examined to further develop the guinea pig as a model of human ocular conditions. Background Guinea pigs are an important model of human ocular conditions. Here, guinea pig spatial frequency dis...
Article
Full-text available
Retinal detachment (RD) causes damage, including disjunction, of the rod photoreceptor-bipolar synapse, which disrupts vision and may contribute to the poor visual recovery observed after retinal reattachment surgery. We created a model of iatrogenic RD in adult female pigs to study damage to the rod-bipolar synapse after injury and the ability of...
Article
Guinea pigs are a common model of human ocular conditions; however, their visual function has not been fully characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of retinal ganglion cells to structural and functional measures in guinea pigs. Healthy adult guinea pigs (n = 12) underwent unilateral optic nerve crush. Retinal st...
Article
Full-text available
Significance: Causes of papilledema can be life-threatening; however, distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema is often challenging. The conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan for assessing the optic nerve often fails to detect mild papilledema. Our study suggests that parameters derived from volumetric OCT scans can provide...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) contain the photopigment melanopsin, and are primarily involved in non-image forming functions, such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian rhythm entrainment. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a targeted ipRGC immunotoxin to ultimately examine the role of i...
Article
Objective: To examine the relationship between optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and visual function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: Cirrus OCT, VERIS 60-sector multifocal visual evoked potential (...
Article
Full-text available
The International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) Standard for full-field electroretinography (ERG) describes a minimum procedure, but encourages more extensive testing. This ISCEV extended protocol describes an extension to the ERG Standard, namely the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the light-adapted flash ERG, as a...
Article
Full-text available
The article "ISCEV Standard for clinical electro-oculography (2017 update)", written by Paul A. Constable, Michael Bach, Laura J. Frishman, Brett G. Jeffrey, Anthony G. Robson and for the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, was originally published Online First without open access.
Article
Significance: Differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema reflecting tilted/crowded optic discs or disc drusen is critical but can be challenging. Our study suggests that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retrobulbar optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by A-scan...
Article
Full-text available
The clinical electro-oculogram (EOG) is an electrophysiological test of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in which changes in the electrical potential across the RPE are recorded during successive periods of dark and light adaptation. This document presents the 2017 EOG Standard from the International Society for Clinical Electr...
Article
Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve secondary to trauma. Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a key pathological process in TON, yet mechanisms responsible for RGC death remain unclear. In a mouse model of TON, real-time noninvasive imaging revealed a dramatic increase in leukocyte rolling and adhesion in vein...
Article
Full-text available
Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the...
Article
To evaluate longitudinal changes of visual function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP), contrast sensitivity (CS), and Humphrey visual fields (HVFs) were obtained at two visits (mean follow-up, 1.5 [±0.9] years) in both eyes of 57 RRMS patients (53 eyes with optic neuritis [ON]: 14 ON within...
Article
All three classes of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (GABAR) are expressed in the retina. This study investigated roles of GABAR, especially GABACR (GABA(A)-ρ), in retinal signaling in vivo by studying effects on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) of genetic deletion of GABACR versus pharmacological blockade using receptor antagon...
Article
Purpose: To establish reproducibility of multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) and traditional pattern-reversal VEP (tVEP) in normals and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: mfVEP (60-sector dartboard) was recorded twice within a month in 40 normals and 40 RRMS patients [25 eyes with last optic neuritis (ON) ≥6 months, 3...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: We investigated relations between macular retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (RGC+IPL) thickness and macular retinal function revealed by multifocal electroretinonography (mfERG) in a nonhuman primate model of experimental glaucoma. Methods: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) structure and function were followed with spectral-dom...
Article
Neurodegeneration plays an important role in permanent disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this paper is to determine whether progressive neurodegeneration occurs in MS eyes without clinically evident inflammation. Retinal nerve fiver layer thickness (RNFLT) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPT) were measured...
Article
The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) is a useful tool for objectively assessing localized functional changes at early stages of glaucoma, and as the disease progresses. The photopic negative response (PhNR) of the light-adapted full field ERG has been found to be reduced in glaucoma. We assessed the local loss of inner retinal function as refle...
Article
Full-text available
The specification of the seven retinal cell types from a common pool of retina progenitor cells (RPCs) involves complex interactions between the intrinsic program and the environment. The proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulators are key components for the intrinsic programming of RPCs and are essential for the formation of...
Article
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, characterized by demyelination, axonal dysfunction, and neuronal degeneration. The anterior visual pathway is often affected. 30% to 70% of patients diagnosed with MS will have optic neuritis (ON) during the course of the disease (1); visual problems...
Article
Multifocal ERGs (MERGs) of 5 adult monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with inner retinal defects caused by laser-induced glaucoma were compared to MERGs from 3 monkeys with inner retinal activity suppressed pharmacologically. MERGs were recorded with DTL fiber electrodes from anesthetized monkeys. Stimuli consisted of 103 equal size hexagons within 17° of th...
Article
Full-text available
To use the photopic electroretinogram (ERG) to evaluate retinal function in eyes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without a history of optic neuritis (ON) and to compare the functional and structural status of the inner retina. Full-field ERG responses to brief red flashes (0.04-2.8 cd · s/m²) on a rod-saturating blue background were re...
Article
Full-text available
Dark and light adaptation of retinal neurons allow our vision to operate over an enormous light intensity range. Here we report a mechanism that controls the light sensitivity and operational range of rod-driven bipolar cells that mediate dim-light vision. Our data indicate that the light responses of these cells are enhanced by sustained chloride...
Article
Full-text available
To determine retinal pathway origins of pattern electroretinogram (PERG) in macaque monkeys using pharmacologic dissections, uniform-field flashes, and PERG simulations. Transient (2 Hz, 4 reversals/s) and steady state (8.3 Hz, 16.6 reversals/s) PERGs and uniform-field ERGs were recorded before and after intravitreal injections of L-AP4 (not APB) (...
Article
Full-text available
To study relationships between glaucoma-sensitive components identified with frequency-domain analysis of global-flash multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), regional retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), and local visual field sensitivity (VS). Eleven macaque monkeys, including four controls and seven with unilateral laser-induced trabecular...
Article
Full-text available
The rate of synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and bipolar cells has been long known to depend on conditions of ambient illumination. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate and regulate transmission at this ribbon synapse are poorly understood. We conducted electroretinographic recordings from dark- and light-adapted mice lacking...
Article
Full-text available
Multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) measure local response amplitude and latency in the field of vision. To compare the sensitivity of mfVEP, Humphrey visual field (HVF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting visual abnormality in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. mfVEP, HVF, and OCT (retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL]) were perf...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE. In Old World primates, the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus. They are a subset of the neurons that project throughout the central nervous system and fire maximally during the day. The contribution of these neurons to vision, was examined by applying histamine to a dark-adapted, superfused baboo...
Article
The electroretinogram (ERG) is an electrical potential generated by the retina in response to light. It can be recorded noninvasively from the cornea. It reflects the summed response of all retina cells. With appropriately applied stimuli and analyses, the ERG can provide objective information about the functional integrity of the cells and circuit...
Article
Full-text available
Multifocal visual evoked potentials provide a topographic measure of visual response amplitude and latency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the multifocal visual evoked potential technique in detecting visual abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis. Multifocal visual evoked potentials were re...
Article
Full-text available
A monumental task of the mammalian retina is to encode an enormous range (>10(9)-fold) of light intensities experienced by the animal in natural environments. Retinal neurons carry out this task by dividing labor into many parallel rod and cone synaptic pathways. Here we study the operational plan of various rod- and cone-mediated pathways by analy...
Article
This study investigated contributions from the retinal On and Off pathways, and the spiking and nonspiking activity of neurons in those pathways to the pattern ERG of the mouse. Light-adapted pattern and ganzfeld ERGs were recorded from anesthetized C57BL/6 mice 3–4 months of age. Recordings were made before and after intravitreal injections of PDA...
Article
mfVEPs were recorded with a 22 degrees radius, 60 sector pattern reversal dartboard stimulus (VERIS) at six contrast levels (10%, 25%, 35%, 50%, 75%, 95%). Contrast response functions (CRFs) based on response amplitudes were adequately described by a simple hyperbolic function. The effect of reducing contrast on the amplitude was most apparent in t...
Article
Direct protein transfection is a potentially valuable tool for studying protein function in basic and clinical research. A major challenge is to enable a sufficiently large amount of protein to penetrate the plasma membrane of the transfected cells. Pep-1, a protein transfection reagent, was evaluated for its ability and efficiency in delivering pr...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of postreceptoral neurons to the light-adapted ERG of the Nob mouse, a model for complete-type congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) that lacks a b-wave from depolarizing bipolar cells. Ganzfeld ERGs were recorded from anesthetized adult control mice, control mice injected intravi...
Article
Full-text available
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v) channels) in retinal neurons are known to contribute to the mammalian flash electroretinogram (ERG) via activity of third-order retinal neurons, i.e. amacrine and ganglion cells. This study investigated the effects of tetrodotoxin (TTX) blockade of Na(v) channels on the b-wave, an ERG wave that originates mainly...
Article
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the first cell type to differentiate during retinal histogenesis. It has been postulated that specified RGCs subsequently influence the number and fate of the remaining progenitors to produce the rest of the retinal cell types. However, several genetic knockout models have argued against this developmental role for...
Chapter
Overview of the Visual Pathways Optics of the Eye and Image Formation Basic Retinal Circuitry PhotoreceptorsSpatial ResolutionAdaptation Processing StreamsContrast Sensitivity Primary Visual Cortical Cells: An Overview of Processing in V1 80 Single Neurons, Parallel Streams and the Binding Problem
Article
Full-text available
Intracellular free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are an important element in retinal ganglion cell response. Two major EF-hand (E-helix-loop-F-helix-hand) calcium binding proteins in the retina, calretinin and calbindin-28 kDa, are important buffers of intracellular free Ca(2+) in neurons, and may also serve as Ca(2+)-dependent regulators of enzymes and io...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the relationship between visual function, measured by standard automated perimetry (SAP), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). SAP and RNFL thickness were measured in patients with MS in 28 eyes with the last optic neuritis (ON) >or=6...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Recent studies indicate the presence of functional voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)channels) in the distal retina in several species. This study examined the distribution of Na-v channels in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of rat, mouse, and rabbit retinas. Methods: Immunohistochemical and electroretinographic approaches were used. Res...
Article
Full-text available
To determine flash and background colors that best isolate the photopic negative response (PhNR) and maximize its amplitude in the primate ERG. Photopic full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized macaque monkeys before and after pharmacologic blockade of Na(+)-dependent spiking activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 to 2 muM, n = 3), blockad...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we provide gain-of-function, loss-of function, and molecular evidence supporting genetic interactions between metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1) and Six3 and between Six3 and rhodopsin. We discovered that MTA1 physically interacts with the Six3 chromatin in a histone deacetylase-dependent manner, leading to transcriptional suppression of...
Article
This study used the Matching Pursuit (MP) method, a time-frequency analysis, to identify and characterize oscillatory potentials (OPs) in the primate electroretinogram (ERG). When the slow-sequence mfERG from the macular region of the retina was matched with Gabor functions, OPs were identified in two distinct bands: a high-frequency band peaking a...
Article
Full-text available
Many retinal ganglion cells are coupled via gap junctions with neighboring amacrine cells and ganglion cells. We investigated the extent and dynamics of coupling in one such network, the OFF alpha ganglion cell of rabbit retina and its associated amacrine cells. We also observed the relative spread of Neurobiotin injected into a ganglion cell in th...
Article
Full-text available
The lamina cribrosa has been postulated from in vitro studies as an early site of damage in glaucoma. Prior in vivo measures of laminar morphology have been confounded by ocular aberrations. In this study the lamina cribrosa was imaged after correcting for ocular aberrations using the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) in normal...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies of rod photoreceptors in vivo have employed a paired-flash electroretinographic (ERG) technique to determine rod response properties. To test whether absence versus presence of the ERG b-wave affects the photoreceptor response derived by the paired-flash method, we examined paired-flash-derived responses obtained from nob mice, a m...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies indicate the presence of functional voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v) channels) in the distal retina in several species. This study examined the distribution of Na(v) channels in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of rat, mouse, and rabbit retinas. Immunohistochemical and electroretinographic approaches were used. Antibodies specific...
Article
To determine the effect of experimental glaucoma in macaque monkeys on oscillatory potentials (OPs) in the slow-sequence multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Photopic slow-sequence mfERGs were recorded from anesthetized adult macaque monkeys and normal human subjects. The stimulus consisted of 103 equal-sized hexagons within 17 degrees of the fove...
Article
In mammals, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate non-image-forming visual functions such as pupillary light reflex (PLR) and circadian photoentrainment. This photosensitivity requires melanopsin, an invertebrate opsin-like protein expressed by the ipRGCs. The precise role of melanopsin remains uncertain. One suggesti...
Article
The vertebrate retina develops from an amorphous sheet of dividing retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) through a sequential process that culminates in an exquisitely patterned neural tissue. A current model for retinal development posits that sequential cell-type differentiation is the result of changes in the intrinsic competence state of multipotent...
Article
(a) To examine the possibility that there is a threshold in the synaptic mechanism linking rods to rod bipolar cells that can reduce the transmission of continuous noise from the rods without blocking the transmission of any significant proportion of single-photon responses. (b) To estimate the level of this threshold and the amplitude of the conti...
Article
Pirenzepine is suggested to be a relatively selective muscarinic (M(1)) antagonist and is currently under investigation for the treatment of myopia. Atropine, a nonselective M-type antagonist, is used in the treatment of myopia, but has undesired ocular and systemic side effects. An M(1)-specific antagonist may decrease side effects and remain effe...
Article
To determine whether anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and compressive optic neuropathy in humans alter the photopic flash ERG and to investigate the cellular origins of the waves that are affected by pharmacologic agents in primates. Photopic flash ERGs were recorded differentially, with DTL electrodes, between the two eyes of 22 patients with di...
Article
Full-text available
This study was undertaken (a) to determine the minimum sampling frequency required to record a-waves evoked by flashes of very high energy without significant distortion and (b) to demonstrate that data sampled at a minimally adequate frequency can be interpolated to reconstruct the original waveform. Dark-adapted ERGs from two anaesthetized macaqu...
Article
To present a previously unreported African American family with 1 variation and 1 mutation of the homeobox transcription factor gene, VSX1 (RINX), and to describe the clinical features of family members. Family genotype and clinical studies. A 3-generation family with 7 available family members. Blood was drawn from all available family members, an...
Article
Cone bipolar cells of the vertebrate retina connect photoreceptors with ganglion cells to mediate photopic vision. Despite this important role, the mechanisms that regulate cone bipolar cell differentiation are poorly understood. VSX1 is a CVC domain homeoprotein specifically expressed in cone bipolar cells. To determine the function of VSX1, we ge...