Laura A. Dabbish

Laura A. Dabbish
Carnegie Mellon University | CMU · H. John Heinz III College

About

73
Publications
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7,688
Citations

Publications

Publications (73)
Preprint
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Account sharing is a common, if officially unsanctioned, practice among workgroups, but so far understudied in higher education. We interview 23 workgroup members about their account sharing practices at a U.S. university. Our study is the first to explicitly compare IT and non-IT observations of account sharing as a "normal and easy" workgroup pra...
Article
Full-text available
Collective intelligence (CI) is the ability of a group to solve a wide range of problems. Synchrony in nonverbal cues is critically important to the development of CI; however, extant findings are mostly based on studies conducted face-to-face. Given how much collaboration takes place via the internet, does nonverbal synchrony still matter and can...
Conference Paper
Anonymity online is important to people at times in their lives. Anonymous communication applications such as Whisper and YikYak enable people to communicate with strangers anonymously through their smartphones. We report results from semi-structured interviews with 18 users of these apps. The goal of our study was to identify why and how people us...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software algorithms are changing how people work in an ever-growing number of fields, managing distributed human workers at a large scale. In these work settings, human jobs are assigned, optimized, and evaluated through algorithms and tracked data. We explored the impact of this algorithmic, data-driven management on human workers and work practic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gaze-based interaction has several benefits: naturalism, remote controllability, and easy accessibility. However, it has been mostly used for screen-based interaction with static information. In this paper, we propose a concept of gaze-based interaction that augments the physical world with social information. We demonstrate this interaction in a s...
Conference Paper
Websites can record individual users' activities and display them in a variety of ways. There is a tradeoff between detail and abstraction in visualization, especially when the amount of content increases and becomes more difficult to process. We conducted an experiment on Mechanical Turk varying the quality, detail, and visual presentation of info...
Conference Paper
In a variety of peer production settings, from Wikipedia to open source software development to crowdsourcing, individuals may encounter, edit, or review the work of unknown others. Typically this is done without much context to the person's past behavior or performance. To understand how exposure to an unknown individual's activity history influen...
Conference Paper
Telepresence means business people can make deals in other countries, doctors can give remote medical advice, and soldiers can rescue someone from thousands of miles away. When interaction is mediated, people are removed from and lack context about the person they are making decisions about. In this paper, we explore the impact of technological med...
Conference Paper
Increasingly, the advice people receive on the Internet is socially transparent in the sense that it displays contextual information about the advice-givers or their actions. We hypothesize that activity transparency -seeing an advice giver's process while creating his or her recommendations - will increase advice taking. We report three experiment...
Conference Paper
Social influence is key in technology adoption, but its role in security-feature adoption is unique and remains unclear. Here, we analyzed how three Facebook security features' Login Approvals, Login Notifications, and Trusted Contacts-diffused through the social networks of 1.5 million people. Our results suggest that social influence affects one'...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Telepresence means business people can make deals in other countries, doctors can give remote medical advice, and soldiers can rescue someone from thousands of miles away. When interaction is mediated, people are removed from and lack context about the person they are making decisions about. In this paper, we explore the impact of technological med...
Conference Paper
Open source software projects often rely on code contributions from a wide variety of developers to extend the capabilities of their software. Project members evaluate these contributions and often engage in extended discussions to decide whether to integrate changes. These discussions have important implications for project management regarding ne...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by limitations in today's host-centric IP network, recent studies have proposed clean-slate network architectures centered around alternate first-class principals, such as content, services, or users. However, muchlike the host-centric IP design, elevating one principal type above others hinders communication between other principals and...
Article
This paper examines coordination in transparent work environments - environments where the content of work artifacts, and the actions taken on these artifacts, are fully visible to organizational members. Our qualitative study of a community of open source software developers revealed a coordination system characterized by interest-based, asynchron...
Article
Full-text available
Various mechanisms exist to secure users' passwords, yet users continue to struggle with the complexity of multiple password management. We explore the effectiveness of a feedback loop to improve users' password management. We introduce YourPassword, a web-based application that uses feedback to inform users about the security of their password beh...
Conference Paper
Various mechanisms exist to secure users' passwords, yet users continue to struggle with the complexity of multiple password management. We explore the effectiveness of a feedback loop to improve users' password management. We introduce YourPassword, a web-based application that uses feedback to inform users about the security of their password beh...
Conference Paper
Open source software is commonly portrayed as a meritocracy, where decisions are based solely on their technical merit. However, literature on open source suggests a complex social structure underlying the meritocracy. Social work environments such as GitHub make the relationships between users and between users and work artifacts transparent. This...
Article
Workers on crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk often receive little to no information about who is requesting the task they are asked to perform. This can lead to psychological distance and reduced work quality as a result. In this study we varied the amount and type of information provided about the requester of a task on Mech...
Conference Paper
Researchers and theorists have proposed that feelings of attachment to subgroups within a larger online community or site can increase users' loyalty to the site. They have identified two types of attachment, with distinct causes and consequences. With bond-based attachment, people feel connections to other group members, while with identity-based...
Conference Paper
Communities of practice have traditionally supported learning and knowledge exchange within a professional field. However, little work to date has examined how individuals use social network functionality for professional development in these types of communities. We present a qualitative investigation into how the social transparency provided by S...
Article
The Internet has radically decreased the influence of physical distance by allowing people to share images and information about distant places at the click of a button. But we still do not understand how exposure to this information influences our mental conception of places that are far away, and how these effects may change our attitudes towards...
Conference Paper
Social media is being integrated into work environments making them more transparent. When the work environment is transparent, it has the potential to allow projects to transmit information about work artifacts and events quickly through a large network. Using signaling theory, we propose a theory that users interpret this information and then mak...
Article
In online peer production, users assess potential collaborators' expertise and warmth to inform interactions. However, people often make inaccurate first impressions. These false impressions hurt collaboration and lead to conflict based on incorrect behavioral attributions. Online peer production interface design can reduce or enhance impression ac...
Conference Paper
In this paper we describe a qualitative investigation of impression formation in an online distributed software development community with social media functionality. We find that users in this setting seek out additional information about each other to explore the project space, inform future interactions, and understand the potential future value...
Conference Paper
Social networking tools now allow professionals to post and share their work in online spaces. These professionals build reputation within a community of practice, often with the goal of finding a job. But how are the visible traces of their actions and interactions in online workspaces used in the hiring process? We conducted interviews with membe...
Conference Paper
Workers in microtask work environments such as Mechanical Turk typically do not know if or how they fit into a workflow. The research question we posed here was whether displaying information about the number of other workers doing the same task would motivate better or poorer work quality. In experiment 1, we varied the information about co-worker...
Article
Full-text available
A new generation of development environments takes a radical approach to communication and coordination by fusing social networking functionality with flexible, distributed version control. Through these transparent work environments, people, repositories, development activities, and their histories are immediately and easily visible to all users....
Conference Paper
Interdependent tasks in Mechanical Turk (MTurk) can be managed efficiently with a workflow, a sequence of tasks through which work passes to its completion. We ask if workers should be informed about the workflow, which we call workflow transparency. Transparency could motivate workers or induce social loafing. We describe three experiments to dete...
Article
Full-text available
Theories about commitment in online settings and empirical evidence from offline environments suggest that greater communication in online groups should lead members to become more committed and participate longer. However, experimental evidence is sparse, in part because of difficulties inducing communication online. Moreover, previous work has no...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An emerging Internet trend is greater social transparency, such as the use of real names in social networking sites, feeds of friends' activities, traces of others' re-use of content, and visualizations of team interactions. Researchers lack a systematic way to conceptualize and evaluate social transparency. The purpose of this paper is to develop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Turnover is commonplace in many online groups because of low barriers of entry and exit. In offline settings, turnover can have a negative impact because of reduced attachment to the group as an entity. However, in an online setting, turnover in terms of changes in the visible membership of a group may have a very different impact. Online only a li...
Conference Paper
Social media are being integrated into work environments. They have the potential to provide essential context and awareness, and increase work performance as a result. However, the specific effects of social media that impact productivity are not well understood. We perform a quantitative analysis of project success of over 5,000 open source softw...
Conference Paper
In this paper we consider how the concept of psychological distance can inform interventions that promote positive outcomes in globally distributed teams. We focus on two primary characteristics of such teams: physical distance between members, and social distance in the form of heterogeneity among members. We present a theoretical model describing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Social applications on the web let users track and follow the activities of a large number of others regardless of location or affiliation. There is a potential for this transparency to radically improve collaboration and learning in complex knowledge-based activities. Based on a series of in-depth interviews with central and peripheral GitHub user...
Article
This paper introduces a semi-automated method for extracting the associations among components of a complex engineering project by mining transcripts of design discussions about the engineered artifact. We contribute a novel method for deriving network data from communication data. This method uses relational text analysis to construct networks rep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As ubiquitous computing becomes increasingly mobile and social, personal information sharing will likely increase in frequency, the variety of friends to share with, and range of information that can be shared. Past work has identified that whom you share with is important for choosing whether or not to share, but little work has explored which fea...
Article
This article examines current empirical approaches to group learning. It focuses on two central questions: Are these approaches really measuring group learning, and what critical issues should be resolved in future group-learning research? The rationale for this examination is threefold. First, the last 10 years have seen a substantial increase in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Self-interruptions account for a significant portion of task switching in information-centric work contexts. However, most of the research to date has focused on understanding, analyzing and designing for external interruptions. The causes of self-interruptions are not well understood. In this paper we present an analysis of 889 hours of observed t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The quantity of email people receive each day can be overwhelming. Previous research suggests that when handling email, individuals prioritize certain messages for attention over others. Since people generally make this decision about which message to read before opening the email, the question largely unanswered in the email literature is: what su...
Conference Paper
In this research we examined the impact of photo sharing on attitudes and behaviors towards local versus distant team members. In an online experiment, we varied content and presentation of photos shared by a hypothetical team spanning two locations. We found similarity in shared photo content promoted pro-social behaviors towards team members rega...
Conference Paper
The existence and survival of online communities depends upon the commitment and retention of their members. This paper compares alternative ways of designing online sites to increase member commitment. We report the results of two experiments conducted within a Facebook game application. The results show that designs can increase commitment and re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Coordinating activities across groups in systems engineering or product development projects is critical to project success, but substantially more difficult when the work is innovative and dynamic. It is not clear how technology should best support cross-group collaboration on these types of projects. Recent work on coordination in dynamic setting...
Conference Paper
Email is the most widely used form of computer-mediated communication. And replying to messages is one of the main activities email interfaces need to support. In this paper we address the problems users face when managing emails that need a reply. Previous work has found that users have difficulty remembering to reply to messages when they postpon...
Conference Paper
The typical information worker is interrupted every 12 minutes, and half of the time they are interrupting themselves. However, most of the research on interruption in the area of human-computer interaction has focused on understanding and managing interruptions from external sources. Internal interruptions -- user-initiated switches away from a ta...
Article
Games with a purpose (GWAP) focus on improving artificial-intelligence algorithms. The ESP Game is a GWAP in which people provide meaningful, accurate labels for images on the Web as a side effect of playing the game. Other GWAPs include Peekaboom, which locates objects within images, Phetch, which annotates images with descriptive paragraphs. The...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers and designers have been building awareness displays to improve the coordination of communication between distributed co-workers since the early 1990s. Awareness displays are technology designed to provide contextual information about the activities of group members. Most researchers have assumed that these displays improve the coordinat...
Conference Paper
The popularity of online games, particularly casual games, has increased tremendously in recent years. Often these game experiences involve partner-based or multi-player interactions. Previous work has shown that computer-mediated interactions and online activities with a stranger have the potential to impact attitudes and liking for that person. C...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Almost every office worker can relate to feelings of email overload and stress, but in reality the concept of email strain is not well understood. In this paper, we describe a large-scale nationwide organizational survey examining the relationship between email use and feelings of email overload and task coordination. We found that higher email vol...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Email consumes significant time and attention in the workplace. We conducted an organizational survey to understand how and why people attend to incoming email messages. We examined people's ratings of message importance and the actions they took on specific email messages, based on message characteristics and characteristics of receivers and sende...
Conference Paper
The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) propose a model of communication initiation and response, and (2) evaluate the utility of a set of technology interventions based on that model for coordinating communication. The contribution to the field of HCI will be useful recommendations for the design of electronic communication systems.
Conference Paper
We present a new interactive system: a game that is fun and can be used to create valuable output. When people play the game they help determine the contents of images by providing meaningful labels for them. If the game is played as much as popular online games, we estimate that most images on the Web can be labeled in a few months. Having proper...
Article
Work life is filled with interruptions, most of which benefit the interrupter more than the one being interrupted. This problem is greatest with remote collaboration, because team members interrupt blindly, without contextual cues about partners' availability. Awareness displays are designed to provide distributed workers with up-to-date status inf...
Article
We introduce a new interactive system: a game that is fun and can be used to create valuable output. When people play the game they help determine the contents of images by providing meaningful labels for them. If the game is played as much as popular online games, we estimate that most images on the Web can be labeled in a few months. Having prope...
Article
Spontaneous communication is common in the workplace but can be disruptive. Such communication usually benefits the initiator more than the target of the interruption. Previous research has indicated that awareness displays showing the workload of the target can reduce the harm interruptions inflict, but can increase the cognitive load on interrupt...
Article
In this paper, we describe a laboratory experiment to determine whether peripheral awareness information about a remote collaborator's workload aids in timing interruptive communication. Our results indicate that a display with an abstract representation of a collaborator's workload is best in that it leads to better timing of interruptions without...
Article
When designing automated systems that make decisions about when to allow or deny interruptions, the methods of professional interruption mediators are an important source of information. Administrative assistants are, by the nature of their jobs, expert interruption mediators. They make decisions every day about whether to allow interruptions to th...
Article
Work life is filled with interruptions, most of which benefit the interrupter at the expense of the one being interrupted. We conducted an experiment to determine whether peripheral awareness information about a remote collaborator's workload aids in timing interruptive communication. Results indicate motivation to use the display exists, irrespect...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spontaneous communication is common in the workplace but can be disruptive. Such communication usually benefits the initiator more than the target of the disruption. Previous research has indicated that awareness displays showing the workload of a target can reduce the harm interruptions inflict, but can increase the cognitive load on interrupters....
Article
Full-text available
What characteristics of an email message predict a users action on that message? Participants in a survey of university faculty, staff, and students provided data on the characteristics of new email messages and their actions based on the messages. Statistical analyses of responses revealed several factors that were important in predicting the fate...
Article
Full-text available
Digital video is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. However, editing video remains difficult for several reasons: it is a time-based medium, it has dual tracks of audio and video, and current tools force users to work at the smallest level of detail. Based on interviews with professional video editors, we developed a video editor, called Silver, tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a laboratory experiment to determine whether peripheral awareness information about a remote collaborator's workload aids in timing interruptive communication. Our results indicate that a display with an abstract representation of a collaborator's workload is best in that it leads to better timing of interruptions without...
Conference Paper
What characteristics of an email message make it more likely to be discarded? Statistical analyses of a set of deleted and non-deleted messages revealed several factors that were important in predicting the fate of a message. After controlling for the owner of the particular message, four factors turned out to be most important: history of communic...
Conference Paper
What characteristics of an email message make it more likely to be discarded? Statistical analyses of a set of deleted and non-deleted messages revealed several factors that were important in predicting the fate of a message. After controlling for the owner of the particular message, four factors turned out to be most important: history of communic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital video is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. However, editing video remains difficult for several reasons: it is a time-based medium, it has dual tracks of audio and video, and current tools force users to work at the smallest level of detail. Based on interviews with professional video editors, we developed a video editor, called Silver, tha...
Article
Full-text available
Digital video is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. However, editing video remains difficult for several reasons. It is a time-based medium, it has dual tracks of audio and video, and current tools force users to work at the smallest level of detail. In this paper, we describe several visualization and interaction techniques that use video metadata,...
Article
Full-text available
Silver is an authoring tool that aims to allow novice users to edit digital video. The goal is to make editing of digital video as easy as text editing. Silver provides multiple coordinated views, including project, outline, subject, storyboard, textual transcript and timeline views. Selections and edits in any view are synchronized with all other...
Article
Using a machine learning approach to mine a database of over 70,000 oral reading mistakes transcribed by University of Colorado researchers, we generated 225 context-sensitive rules to predict the frequency of the 71 most common decoding errors in mapping graphemes to phonemes. To evaluate their generality, we tested how well they predicted the fre...
Book
As more people use e-mail at home or on the job, more people have come to experience the pain of e-mail that Denning first wrote about 20 years ago [3]. In this paper, we present data from a field study in our own company to add to the existing body of research about how people use e-mail. We then use these data and prior literature to outline a fr...
Article
Full-text available
An emerging Internet trend is greater social transparency, such as the use of real names in social networking sites, feeds of friends' activities, traces of others' re-use of content, and visualizations of team interactions. Researchers lack a systematic way to conceptualize and evaluate social transparency. The purpose of this paper is to develop...
Article
Full-text available
This workshop builds on and extends an effort begun in 2005 that led to the 2008 Summer Research Institute of the Consortium for the Science of Socio-Technical Systems (CSST). This Research Institute, supported by the National Science Foundation and held at the University of Michigan, brought together a diverse set of researchers, including the fie...