Latham Thomas Winfree, Jr.

Latham Thomas Winfree, Jr.
New Mexico State University | NMSU · Department of Criminal Justice

Ph.D.

About

124
Publications
76,410
Reads
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3,693
Citations
Citations since 2017
10 Research Items
1157 Citations
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Introduction
Tom Winfree retired in 2014 after a career spanning five decades. In addition to his refereed journal articles, Tom has co-authored eight book-length manuscripts, including Contemporary Corrections (2021) with Rick Ruddell and G. Larry Mays; Mental Health and Criminal Justice (2019) with Anne F. Segal and Stan Friedman; Introduction to Criminal Justice (2022) with G. Larry Mays and Leanne F. Alarid; and Essentials of Criminological Theory (2017) with Howard Abadinsky.
Additional affiliations
August 2012 - May 2014
Arizona State University
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Taught undergraduate and graduate students, online and on-campus; served on awards committee; worked on various projects for director
August 1987 - June 2012
New Mexico State University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Taught undergraduate and graduate students online and on-campus; administered academic department (July 1990-June 1999); served on various departmental, college, and university committees; served on faculty senate; directed theses
August 1979 - July 1987
Louisiana State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Taught undergraduate and graduate students; served as director of graduate studies; served on faculty senate; served as chair or member of various departmental committees; directed theses
Education
September 1972 - December 1974
University of Montana
Field of study
  • Sociology
August 1970 - July 1972
Virginia Commonwealth University
Field of study
  • Sociology
September 1964 - June 1968
University of Richmond
Field of study
  • Sociology

Publications

Publications (124)
Article
Intra-national conflicts with racial or ethnic elements can complicate post-war reconciliation. From 1992 to 1995, much of the former Yugoslavia, a nation largely drawn from three distinct ethnic groups, was embroiled in such a conflict. After the signing of the Dayton Peace Accord, it was feared that schools would become a surrogate battlefield fo...
Article
This study seeks to understand the level of police officer competence for providing assistance during interactions with patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to reveal the roles their knowledge of AD, beliefs of AD, and previous exposure to patients with AD play in influencing these competence levels. Data were collected from police officers in...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we explore the conceptual linkages between Ronald L. Akers' learning theory and the process of becoming a terrorist. First, we lay out the definitions of terrorism and terrorists employed in this chapter. Next, we provide an overview of Akers' (1973, 1985, 1998) social learning theory (SLT), including his social structure social le...
Chapter
Social learning theory (Akers 1973, 1985; Burgess and Akers 1966a,b; see too Akers 1998) is one of criminology's leading theories. Recent advancements in statistical modeling of human relationships and sophisticated social network data have the potential to aid and expand our understanding of the role of human groups and social structure in the eti...
Chapter
Examines the past, present and future uses of social learning theory as it has been applied to delinquent behavior in the broadest context. This includes, but is not limited to general delinquency, drug use, victimization, and other forms of collective violence. Of particular interest is the application of SLT to cross-cultural, global, and compara...
Book
Full-text available
Student-centric and informative without being encyclopedic, the revised Third Edition of Introduction to Criminal Justice: The Essentials is a seamlessly original text that focuses on understanding how the nation's criminal justice system functions. Includes critical reading, thinking, and writing tools built into the text, plus a comparative crimi...
Article
Full-text available
This article appeared in Issue 92 (September 2021) of the Berlin U.S. Military Veterans Association journal Observer. I served in the US Army in Berlin from January 1969 to August 1970. This is a fun read. Explains a lot about me.
Book
Full-text available
This text offers an illuminating tour across the diverse features of contemporary corrections. The book's foundation rests on its conceptual and research rigor that provide essential details on correctional trends, populations, and system components. Most innovative, it is designed to engage students in the learning enterprise by offering real-worl...
Chapter
and Keywords The socio-demographic characteristics of gang-involved youth are a focal concern of contemporary gang researchers; policy analysts; politicians; and, in many cases, the general public. A broad overview of gang member characteristics is a critical and natural precursor for any policy response to gangs, a task that has historically inclu...
Cover Page
Full-text available
COMING SOON! A new book, one that takes a proven text to the next level. For more information go to: https://www.routledge.com/Contemporary-Corrections-A-Critical-Thinking-Approach/Ruddell-Mays-Jr/p/book/9780367028671 We are excited about seeing this book in print. Rick, Larry and Tom
Book
Full-text available
Student-centric and informative without being encyclopedic, the revised Second Edition of Introduction to Criminal Justice: The Essentials, focuses seamlessly on key topics without digression. Drawing from deep wells of teaching experience, this author team, has created the text that they've always wanted for their own classes. Student will be able...
Book
Full-text available
This is a unique and very readable book that examines a topic, the interface of mental health and criminal justice, whose implications must be considered by all students of criminal justice, social work, corrections, law enforcement, and allied health fields. We can see the direct and indirect costs of the nexus of mentally illness and criminal jus...
Chapter
Social learning theory, which has garnered much recent empirical traction in the gang literature, maintains that intergenerational membership in gangs does indeed have something to do with location or social structure, but it also owes much to differential social organization and the learning of crime, elements that are indistinguishable from those...
Article
Full-text available
The war on women was a term coined during the 2012 election cycle that referred to attempts to pass legislation that would limit women's rights, from control of women's bodies (with a particular focus on birth control, abortion, and the aftereffects of rape) to equal pay for women and their rights in the workforce (M. E. Gilman, 201439. Gilman, M....
Book
Neither condensed nor abridged, Introduction to Criminal Justice: The Essentials is a seamlessly original text that focuses on key topics without digression. Drawing from deep wells of teaching experience, this author team has created the text that they've always wanted for their own classes. Students are able to understand the material intuitively...
Book
Revised and updated with fresh material that includes international comparative data and analysis of convergent global trends in corrections, and presented in full color, the fifth edition of Essentials of Corrections is the most up-to-date text available for corrections courses. With it valuable historical context, clearly presented theory, and as...
Chapter
Reflecting on 100 years of gang research, this work answers the following questions: What are the reasons that youth provide for joining gangs? Do these motivations differ by location (i.e., city)? Does age matter; that is, do reasons for gang joining changes as youth age? Are there differences by sex or race? Also, are reasons for joining fairly g...
Article
Full-text available
Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Stu...
Article
Full-text available
In the first decade of the 21st century, the Eurogang Program of Research (hereafter referred to as the Eurogang Network), a group of U.S. and European criminologists, began a systematic effort to examine the European gang phenomenon. However, the notion that American-style street gangs represent a real threat to European nations has not been unive...
Article
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This article explores the reasons for joining and staying in youth-oriented groups offered by 13 to 16 year-old adolescents residing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and Germany, all surveyed as part of two separate school-based youth and violence studies that used the same questionnaire and data collection protocol. The 1,785 youths included in the...
Book
Presenting the U.S. juvenile justice system in a logical, chronological format, Juvenile Justice, Third Edition, provides the most recent and detailed information about a broad range of topics. Through graceful writing, an interdisciplinary selection of sources, and thoughtful themes, authors G. Larry Mays and L. Thomas Winfree illuminate the roles...
Book
The readings selected for this volume reveal the historical development of social learning theory, from its origins in differential association theory , through the role played by psychological behaviorism, to contemporary learning theory and its further incorporation of social structure as the content within which criminal behavior is learned. The...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical and conceptual literature in the United States and Western Europe provides robust evidence of victimization as a risk factor for juvenile offending and parental monitoring as a protective factor. The current study examines relationships among victimization, monitoring, and offending using a sample of youth from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH...
Article
Full-text available
Social learning theory has remained one of the core criminological paradigms over the last four decades. Although a large body of scholarship has emerged testing various propositions specified by the theory, the empirical status of the theory in its entirety is still unknown. Accordingly, in the present study, we subject this body of empirical lite...
Article
Full-text available
Since the late-nineteenth century, scholars have investigated how structural elements within a community—what is now called social support—relate to suicide. However, social support has rarely been used to study adolescent suicide, particularly within a nationally representative sample. The current study, using the National Longitudinal Survey of A...
Chapter
This chapter explores an idea that, after emerging in Australia and New Zealand, is growing in popularity within Western Europe and North American law enforcement communities: restorative policing. Restorative policing may be new to the countries that have adopted it since the late 1980s, but clearly its philosophical and practical origins are much...
Article
Full-text available
Criminologists have traditionally applied social learning theory (SLT) to issues of general delinquency and limited adult misconduct in Western cultures. Nearly a decade ago, Akers extended SLT by adding a social structural component, renaming it Social Structure/Social Learning theory (SSSL). It is hypothesized that SSSL can also provide valuable...
Article
Full-text available
Drunk driving assumed near pandemic proportions in the 1980s, and state legislatures rushed to control it throughout the 1990s—largely with increased surveillance, apprehension, and punishment, key elements in a deterrence model. Early in the twenty-first century, researchers and policy makers suggested that deterrence models poorly served us in th...
Article
Full-text available
Expunging a criminal conviction in the United States is a rare event and often limited to persons who committed offenses as juveniles or adult misde- meanants. Criminal convictions in Canada, however, are routinely set aside through pardons after offenders have demonstrated a period of crime-free behavior. Sealing an offender's criminal record, the...
Article
Gottfredson and Hirschi claimed, as part of their general theory of crime, that a child’s criminal propensity, what they called level of self-control, is fairly fixed by age 10. Low self-control children, they further claimed, exhibit greater proclivities for delinquency and analogous behaviors than children with high levels of self-control. They s...
Article
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Although living in prison is difficult for all inmates, anecdotal evidence and a small number of qualitative studies on women's prisons suggest that females have greater social support needs while incarcerated. This claim is important for a more complete understanding of adjustment to prisons. In particular, extra and intrainstitutional social supp...
Article
Full-text available
Gottfredson and Hirschi claimed, as part of their general theory of crime, that a child’s criminal propensity, what they called level of self-control, is fairly fixed by age 10. Low self-control children, they further claimed, exhibit greater proclivities for delinquency and analogous behaviors than children with high levels of self-control. They s...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Aims to responds to Goddard and Jaeger (Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management (PIJPSM), Vol. 28 No. 4) who offered a thorough critique of an article previously published in PIJPSM. Design/methodology/approach – Welcoming the insights Goddard and Jaeger provide, attempts to address their expressed concerns a...
Article
Full-text available
Explorations of the police work world in the USA typically involve non-random, unrepresentative samples of widely dispersed law enforcement agencies. Questions about officer selection, training and performance standards make comparisons of agency-based studies – especially among large city, small town, and rural law enforcers – difficult. In the pr...
Article
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In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police, includ...
Article
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This study examines possible gender differences among personnel of the New Zealand Police (NZP). Prior research suggests that male and female officers may have similar workplace perceptions. Therefore, two questions guide this study: (a) In terms of perceptions of the workplace, including job satisfaction, level of perceived support, and fairness o...
Article
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Medium security prisoners in two nations provided personal insights into the inmate social systems found in their facilities: Southern New Mexico Correctional Facility is located near New Mexico's border with Mexico; Christchurch Prison is in New Zealand's South Island. Besides personal biographical and sociolegal questions, the inmates in both fac...
Article
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Using data collected from 5,477 eighth grade students in eleven U.S. cities, this article explores the attitudes of juveniles toward police through five specific questions: (1) Do juveniles hold positive attitudes toward police, similar to those reported for adults?; (2) Are there differences in attitudes toward police across different racial and e...
Article
Delinquent gangs have attracted the attention of social scientists for most of the twentieth century. The current study presents a systematic comparison of the gang-related attitudes and behavior of youths living in cities of dramatically differing size but subjected to similar cultural forces. Specifically, we explored the attitudes and orientatio...
Article
Using data collected from 5,477 eighth grade students in eleven U.S. cities, this article explores the attitudes of juveniles toward police through five specific questions: (1) Do juveniles hold positive attitudes toward police, similar to those reported for adults?; (2) Are there differences in attitudes toward police across different racial and e...
Article
Full-text available
The recent explosion in gang research has highlighted the importance of consistent definitions for gang affiliation and gang-related crime. Definitional questions have assumed greater significance in the wake of broad-ranging prevention and intervention strategies. In this article, the authors utilize a sample of approximately 6,000 middle-school s...
Article
The variable roles of family, gender, and race are underdeveloped in Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime, also called self control and propensity-event theory. Using cross-sectional data generated as part of the National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training program, we assessed the links between the self-reported g...
Article
We conducted an evaluation of an experimental Driving-While-Intoxicated (DWI) Drug Court treatment program operated by a single municipal court. Specially trained court personnel assessed first-time (and, as we found out, some second-time) DWI offenders for symptoms of alcoholism. Once court personnel reached a clinical determination that an indivi...
Article
In 1995, Municipal Court Judge Stephen Ryan initiated one of the nation's first drug courts specifically designed for alcoholic driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Beginning in January 1997, Judge Ryan allowed researchers unrestricted access to defendants in this court. The researchers collected survey data from thr...
Article
In 1995, Municipal Court Judge Stephen Ryan initiated one of the nation's first drug courts specifically designed for alcoholic driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Beginning in January 1997, Judge Ryan allowed researchers unrestricted access to defendants in this court. The researchers collected survey data from thr...
Article
Full-text available
Police in New Zealand have a well established community-policing tradition. The current research is based on a survey of 440 officers, or roughly 6 per cent of the New Zealand Police’s sworn personnel. We focused on the personal values, interpersonal relationships, and work situations of the officers as a way of understanding their respective level...
Article
Full-text available
During the past decade, a growing body of literature examining gang girls and the involvement of girls in violence has appeared. In this article, we contribute to this developing literature by using data from a multisite evaluation to explore the extent to which gang girls are similar to or different from gang boys in terms of their attitudes, perc...
Article
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This article deals with the evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training program (G.R.E.A.T.), from conceptual idea to policy implementation. In late May 1991, U.S. Senator Dennis DeConcini attended a "town hall meeting" of Phoenix-area police agencies. At that meeting, informal discussions about a law enforcement-based anti-gang program...
Article
Full-text available
Most examinations of youth gangs have been limited to a single city or a single state. In this article we examine gang affiliation in a multisite survey of 5,935 eighth grade students in 42 schools located in 11 cities across the United States. We use this diverse sample to examine two related issues: the demographic composition of gangs and the le...
Article
Full-text available
Social learning theory has been used to explain substance abuse among adolescents literally from its inception in the 1960s. This theory suggests that basically good children learn to become substance abusers due to such social forces as internalized definitions supportive of delinquent behavior, the influence of delinquent peers, the presence of p...
Article
A communication may take one of two forms. The first relates to correspondence from a reader about an article that has appeared in the Review. In this instance the editor will determine whether the initial correspondence is worthy of publication. In the event that it is, the author of the article in question will have an opportunity to respond to t...
Article
A communication may take one of two forms. The first relates to correspondence from a reader about an article that has appeared in the Review. In this instance the editor will determine whether the initial correspondence is worthy of publication. In the event that it is, the author of the article in question will have an opportunity to respond to t...
Article
Full-text available
Since the creation of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration in 1968 there has been a tremendous amount of research on policing, police officers and police departments in the USA. Most of the studies have focussed on the large municipal police agencies that have large numbers of officers and, presumably, face the greatest problems. This mean...
Chapter
Using samples of school children (n = 560) and institutionalized youth (n = 98), including boys and girls, this study examines family and peer influences on self-reported delinquency. The samples were truncated into four groups (i.e., free-world gang, free-world nongang, institutionalized gang and institutionalized nongang) of youth. In terms of fi...
Article
In New Mexico, all male juveniles sentenced to serve time in a state facility eventually go to the New Mexico Boys' School (NMBS), including males who are candidates for a reintegration center. The current study compares a random sample (n = 98) of youths released from the NMBS with a group (n = 92) who completed a reintegration program. Two key qu...
Book
Why do people commit crimes? This thought-provoking text takes a close look at this vexing problem. Looking in depth at a variety of theories and also considering the policy implications of these theories, the authors grapple with such issues as the biology of crime, the psychology of crime, and the future of crime theory.
Article
Full-text available
Looks at policing in small to medium departments in nonmetropolitan areas. Describes the level and sources of support for traditional and community policing activities. Finds that highly educated and long-serving officers had lower levels of police solidarity (social cohesiveness); conversely the higher the police solidarity, the lower the level of...
Article
Theory-based evaluations of gang intervention and prevention programs are rare. In this article we argue that the Gang Resistance Education and Training program, as developed by the Phoenix, Arizona, Police Department and the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, consists of pedagogical elements with strong conceptual and operational ties t...
Article
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The study links the prior drug-use history with adjustment to prison life for a group of 72 medium-security inmates in a Southwestern prison. An overarching concept in our analysis is prisonization, especially as adoption of the inmate code affects staff rejection. Inmates with histories of drug use, particularly major illicit drug groups such as c...
Article
Full-text available
Social learning theory has been applied to a wide variety of criminal, delinquent, and deviant behavior. The current study examines the utility of applying selected elements of the theory to the examination of youth gangs. The subjects consist of a stratified random sample of male and female 9th-grade public school students living in a southwestern...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the conceptual and empirical ties between membership in youth gangs, youthful misconduct, and Akers's social learning theory. The adolescent population studied, however, is unique: it consists of adjudicated and incarcerated delinquents. The data for the study were obtained by conducting a census of all youths in the custody of...
Article
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Those persons confined in any correctional facility are bound by codified rules of behavior and are subject to some form of loss of privileges or liberty if found guilty of violating these rules. The present research focuses on the extent to which legal variables (i.e., information related to the specific rule violation charged, previous criminal a...
Article
In the United States, the use of genetic or DNA “fingerprint” evidence in felony criminal trials, consisting of presenting the trier-of-fact with irrefutable evidence of an accused person's guilt or innocence, occurred approximately 200 times between 1987 and the end of 1990. This article presents an analysis of 55 cases in 13 states in which the p...
Article
Since the mid-1980s, youth gangs have attracted much public attention. Because of concern by public policy makers, school officials and law enforcement agencies, a school- based survey was undertaken during the spring of 1991 to assess the gang situation in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. This project involved a random sample survey of 9th and 11th gr...
Article
This article addresses three topics, all of which have implications for the development of strategies for professional excellence in correctional education . First, there is a discussion of jail and prison populations, past, present and future. The second topic ties two correctional programs to educational philosophy and practice. The third topic a...
Article
Youthful drug use violates both formal law and informal norms for conventional behavior. Analyses of influences on permissive drug attitudes and behaviors among adolescents should, therefore, focus on both attitudes toward the law and the informal normative climate of those youths. Legal attitude and norm qualities, however, can vary depending on t...
Article
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The 1980's experienced a resurgence of gang activity and gang research in the United States. Some of this gang activity was drug related (especially the sale of drugs as an organized criminal enterprise). Much of the recent law enforcement attention and research has focused on Southern California. However, the whole U.S.-Mexico border has been a fe...
Article
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Tests of theories that attempt to explain why individuals currently use drugs are widespread; however, the theoretical examinations of abstention from drugs and the cessation of their use are rare. For its part, social learning theory has been supported consistently in its delineation of the process by which substance use is learned. We propose tha...
Article
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This research note presents findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of possible influences on the numbers of inmate suicides and natural deaths in 204 U.S. jails. Results revealed that both inmate suicides and natural deaths became less prevalent over time in larger facilities and in jails where medical tests of inmates on intake we...
Article
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The links among family ties, parental discipline, as measured by the use of physical punishment, and self‐reported acts of misbehavior have intrigued sociologists for almost 75 years. However, the available literature regarding the incidence of youthful misbehavior provides few insights into these putative links for families where the parents make...
Article
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“Prisonization,” or prison socialization, has long been recognized as a process with goals that are antithetical to the reintegration of ex-offenders. That is, it deemphasizes and even denigrates legitimate authority and middle-class values. Prison-based therapeutic communities, on the other hand, are intended to improve the attitudes and orientati...
Article
In this article, we examine gang membership and gang activity in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. We collected the data through a self-administered questionnaire completed by 373 randomly selected 9th and 11th grade students attending two high schools and two junior high schools. By the self-report method, 56 indicated they were currently active in a g...
Article
Full-text available
For several hundred years, students of crime and justice have sought definitive methods of identifying criminals. Facial recognition techniques, such as physiognomy, gave way to cranial measurements or phrenology; 100 years ago Bertillon measurements emerged, crested, and around the turn of the century, gave way to fingerprints, or dactyloscopy. In...
Chapter
The study excluded jails with a rated capacity of more than 500; this excluded jails in the most urbanized areas of the Nation. Only 1 percent of all U.S. jails have rated capacities above 500; yet they house more than 25 percent of the Nation's jail population. As a consequence, the study sample consisted of 180 jails that would be classified by m...
Article
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This article reports on a test of selected elements of social learning theory, using a panel of public school students residing in a small southwestern city. Specifically, the drinking habits of 373 middle school and 282 high school students were examined at Time 1 and Time 2, as were changes in their attitudes, orientations, and patterns of drinki...
Article
This project was designed to explore the population of a unique juvenile training school in New Mexico. The development of juvenile training schools and the problems which arose from their development are presented. Emphasis is placed on the importance and difficulties of evaluation research in juvenile corrections. Finally, recommendations and sug...
Article
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A 1985 change in the Texas “good time” law provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of legislated change on a correctional process. For nearly five years the Texas Department of Corrections (TDC) had been laboring under both a court order that restricted the maximum capacity of its prison system and a growing felony offender population. A...
Article
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This study, using content analysis to study 24 dailies in 22 Louisiana cities, finds that crime news increased in 1985 over 1980. But the study did not find a clear relationship between actual crime and crime coverage, as other studies have not. In 1985, crime tended more often to be on the front pages, and there were many more stories about arrest...
Article
One response of the Texas legislature to that state's prison-crowding problem, Senate Bill (SB) 1167, became law in 1985. Under provisions of SB 1167, the director of the Texas Department of Corrections was authorized to restore “good time” to parole violators in situations in which revocations did not involve new convictions, which resulted in the...
Article
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Contemporary delinquency theories have been challenged as being biased by inherent cultural myopia, even though there have been few tests of these theories involving samples that share all theoretically important characteristics except cultural heritage. In particular, recent studies of delinquency among American Indians suggest that the central co...
Article
This article examines a program designed to provide a family court with a means of lessening the probability that youths on probation for shoplifting will return to criminal behavior.A single staff member within the family court screened possible participants, all of whom were defined as first-time shoplifting offenders and had been assigned to for...
Article
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The current study examines the self-reported victimizations of 90 public school teachers, over one-third of whom reported school-based theft of personal property or threats of violence. The study addressed two basic questions. First, what was the relationship between these school-based victimization experiences and the level of fear expressed by te...
Article
Gender-schema and prisonization in the form of institutional career phases were explored in the present study. Prior research indicated that many factors vary with an inmate's career phase. Earlier research had not considered gender-schemata. Given anticipatory socialization, it was expected that during the earliesr and latest career phase resident...
Article
This article provides insights in to the problem of jail deaths in America by drawing upon relevant data from the 1978 and 1983 National Jail Censuses and other official sources. The goal o f the research is to compare national death trends with jail death trends in order to determine (1) if the problem is as grave as the available literature sugge...
Chapter
Examines the experiences of 140 criminological that had given expert testimony in civil and criminal trials. The focus of the chapter was any negative consequence of such activities, which, it turns out, were numerous. Loci of problems included both the local community and the work environment; measures taken to protect the witness included not inc...
Book
For the first time a book documents the judicial system's new dependence on social science testimony, especially that rendered by sociologists and criminologists. In -Expert Witnesses- contributors show that unlike traditional forensic testimony, the intrusion of social science data into judicial decision-making has relatively recent origins. It de...
Article
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Censuses of America's local jails were conducted in 1978 and again in 1983. This paper examines the correlates of the state-level deaths by suicide and by natural causes reported in both censuses by more than 3,300 jails in 45 states. A critical feature of this period is the increased activity of the federal judiciary in the day-to-day affairs of l...
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The present study compares the ability of selected psychological and sociological factors to predict the level of punitive criminal sanction supported by a community's residents. Personality characteristics, particularly those developed in the pioneering work of Adorno on authoritarianism, represented psychological influences; sociological views on...
Article
Examined selected general service and law enforcement contacts between a public hospital's security force and its primary public. Data from 313 questionnaires completed by hospital employees (median age 31 yrs) indicate that consumers of security services are likely to (1) fear certain places and criminal events; (2) serve in specific institutional...
Article
This paper examines trends in rural American rates of marijuana use and drug-related orientations over an 8-year period. The younger rural youths (13-year-olds) in our three surveys (1975, 1979, and 1982) reported significant declines in rates of use and expressed a general trend toward conservatism. The attitudes and orientations of older youths (...
Article
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This paper explores the ways in which criminal justice expert witnesses conduct the pragmatic functions of pretrial preparation and respond to the advocacy demands of courtroom testimony. A snowball sampling technique has been used to identify and survey criminal justice expert witnesses. A random sample of the membership of the Academy of Criminal...