# Laszlo Bela KishTexas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Laszlo Bela Kish

PhD, DSc, DHC

## About

445

Publications

50,013

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8,286

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Introduction

Laszlo Bela Kish currently works at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University. His main research areas include various aspects of physical informatics; related problems in physics, biology and technology; and unsolved problems.

Additional affiliations

September 2001 - present

April 1997 - July 2001

September 1994 - December 1994

## Publications

Publications (445)

This article addresses the fundamental question of minimum mass related to a bit of information from the angles of quantum physics and special relativity. The results indicate that there are different answers depending on the physical situation, and sometimes the mass can even be negative. It tends to be skeptical about the earlier mass estimations...

A simple and general proof is given for the information theoretic
(unconditional) security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange
system under practical conditions. The unconditional security for ideal
circumstances, which is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, is found to
prevail even under slightly non-ideal conditions. Thi...

We classify and analyze bit errors in the current measurement mode of the
Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key distribution. The error probability
decays exponentially with increasing bit exchange period and fixed bandwidth,
which is similar to the error probability decay in the voltage measurement
mode. We also analyze the combination of voltage...

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued
that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN)
classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the
security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing
a dissipation-free deterministic key e...

Weak physical uncloneable function (WPUF) encryption key means that the manufacturer of the hardware can clone the key but anybody else is unable to so that. Strong physical uncloneable function (SPUF) encryption key means that even the manufacturer of the hardware is unable to clone the key. In this paper, first we introduce a "ultra"-strong PUF w...

The security vulnerability of the Vadai, Mingesz, and Gingl (VMG) Kirchhoff–Law–Johnson–Noise (KLJN) key exchanger, as presented in the publication “Nature, Science Report 5 (2015) 13653”, has been exposed to transient attacks. Recently an effective defense protocol was introduced (Appl. Phys. Lett. 122 (2023) 143503) to counteract mean-square volt...

The security vulnerability of the Vadai, Mingesz, and Gingl (VMG) Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key exchanger, as presented in the publication "Nature, Science Report 5 (2015) 13653," has been exposed to transient attacks. Recently an effective defense protocol was introduced (Appl. Phys. Lett. 122 (2023) 143503) to counteract mean-square volt...

Stochastic Resonance (SR) describes a phenomenon where an additive noise (stochastic carrier-wave) enhances the signal transmission in a nonlinear system. In the nervous system, nonlinear properties are present from the level of single ion channels all the way to perception and appear to support the emergence of SR. For example, SR has been repeate...

In this paper, we propose a new method of applying the XOR and XNOR gates on exponentially large superpositions in Instantaneous Noise-Based Logic. These new gates are repeatable, and they can achieve an exponential speedup in computation with polynomial hardware complexity.

One of the possible representations of three-valued instantaneous noise-based logic is proposed. The third value is an uncertain bit value, which can be useful in artificial intelligence applications. There is a forth value, too, that can represent a non-existing bit (vacuum-state) that is the same (1 numeric value) for all bits, however that is a...

We demonstrate the security vulnerability of an ideal Kirchhoff–Law–Johnson–Noise key exchanger against transient attacks. Transients start when Alice and Bob connect a wire to their chosen resistor at the beginning of each clock cycle. A transient attack takes place during a short duration of time, before the transients reflected from the end of A...

The original Deutsch–Jozsa (oDJ) problem is for an oracle (realized here as a database) of size N, where, according to their claim, the deterministic solution of the problem on a classical Turing computer requires O(N) computational complexity. They produced the famous Deutsch–Jozsa quantum algorithm that offered an exponential speed-up over the cl...

We demonstrate the security vulnerability of the ideal Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key exchanger against transient attacks. Transients start when Alice and Bob connect the wire to their chosen resistor at the beginning of each clock cycle. A transient attack takes place during a short duration of time, before the transients reflected from th...

In this paper, we propose a new method of applying the XOR and XNOR gates on exponentially large superpositions in Instantaneous Noise-Based Logic. These new gates are repeatable, and they can achieve an exponential speed up in computation with a polynomial requirement in hardware complexity.

In this paper, the vulnerability of the Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl (VMG)- Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Key Exchanger (Nature, Science Report 5 (2015) 13653) against two active attacks is demonstrated. The security vulnerability arises from the fact that the effective driving impedances are different between the HL and LH cases for the VMG-KLJN...

Stochastic Resonance (SR) describes a phenomenon where an additive noise (stochastic carrier-wave) enhances the signal transmission in a nonlinear system. In the nervous system, nonlinear properties are present from the level of single ion channels all the way to perception and appear to support the emergence of SR. For example, SR has been repeate...

p> The Deutsch-Jozsa problem is for a database of size N , where, according to their claim, the deterministic solution of the problem on a classical Turing computer requires O( N ) computational complexity. They produced the famous Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm that offered an exponential speedup over the envisioned classical computer, namely O[l...

p> The Deutsch-Jozsa problem is for a database of size N , where, according to their claim, the deterministic solution of the problem on a classical Turing computer requires O( N ) computational complexity. They produced the famous Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm that offered an exponential speedup over the envisioned classical computer, namely O[l...

In this paper, the vulnerability of the Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl (VMG)- Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) Key Exchanger (Nature, Science Report 5 (2015) 13653) against two active attacks is demonstrated. The security vulnerability arises from the fact that the effective driving impedances are different between the HL and LH cases for the VMG-KLJN...

The information theoretically secure Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange scheme, similarly to quantum key distribution (QKD), is also potentially vulnerable against clock attacks, where Eve takes over the control of clock synchronization in the channel. This short note aims to introduce a time synchronization protocol scheme for Alice a...

The information theoretically secure Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange scheme, similarly to quantum key distribution (QKD), is also potentially vulnerable against clock attacks, where Eve takes over the control of clock synchronization in the channel. This short note aims to introduce a time synchronization protocol scheme for Alice a...

This paper introduces and demonstrates four new statistical attacks against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme. The attacks utilize compromised random number generators (RNGs) at Alice’s/Bob’s site(s). The case of partial correlations between Alice’s/Bob’s and Eve’s probing noises is explored, that is, Eve’s knowledge...

We point out that the exponentially fast, grounding-based search scheme in noise-based logic works mostly on core superpositions. When the superposition contains elements that are outputs of logic gate operations, the search result can be erroneous, because grounding of a reference bit can change a logic function too. Adding superpositions with a s...

Utilizing a formerly published cold resistor circuitry, a secure key exchange system is conceived and explored. A circuit realization of the system is constructed and simulated. Similar to the Pao-Lo key exchanger, this system is secure in the steady-state limit but crackable in the transient situations.

This paper introduces a new attack against the Kirchhoff–Law–Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme. The attack is based on the nonlinearity of the noise generators. We explore the effect of total distortion ([Formula: see text]) at the second order ([Formula: see text]), third order ([Formula: see text]) and a combination of the second an...

This paper introduces and demonstrates four new statistical attacks against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme. The attacks utilize compromised random number generators at Alice's/Bob's site(s). The case of partial correlations between Alice's/Bob's and Eve's probing noises is explored, that is, Eve's knowledge of Ali...

Utilizing a formerly published cold resistor circuitry, a secure key exchange system is conceived and explored. A circuit realization of the system is constructed and simulated. Similarly to the Pao-Lo key exchanger, this system is secure in the steady-state limit but crackable in the transient situations.

This paper introduces a new attack against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme. The attack is based on the nonlinearity of the noise generators. We explore the effect of total distortion (TD) at the second order (D2), third order (D3), and a combination of the second and third orders (D2,3) on the security of the KLJN...

A secure key distribution (exchange) scheme is unconditionally secure if it is unbreakable against arbitrary technological improvements of computing power and/or any development of new algorithms. There are only two families of experimentally realized and tested unconditionally secure key distribution technologies: quantum key distribution (QKD), t...

A secure key distribution (exchange) scheme is unconditionally secure if it is unbreakable against arbitrary technological improvements of computing power and/or any development of new algorithms. There are only two families of experimentally realized and tested unconditionally secure key distribution technologies: Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), t...

This paper demonstrates the vulnerability of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchanger to compromised random number generator(s) even if these random numbers are used solely to generate the noises emulating the Johnson noise of Alice’s and Bob’s resistors. The attacks shown are deterministic in the sense that Eve’s knowledge of Al...

Recently, several passive and active attack methods have been proposed against the Kirchhoff–Law–Johnson–Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme by utilizing direct (DC) loop currents. The DC current attacks are relatively easy, but their practical importance is low. On the other hand, parasitic alternating (AC) currents are virtually omnipresent i...

This paper demonstrates the vulnerability of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchanger to compromised random number generator(s) even if these random numbers are used solely to generate the noises emulating the Johnson noise of Alice's and Bob's resistors. The attacks shown are deterministic in the sense that Eve's knowledge of Al...

In (Nature) Science Report 5 (2015) 13653, Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl (VMG) introduce a new Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchanger that operates with 4 arbitrary resistors (instead of 2 arbitrary resistance values forming 2 identical resistor pairs in the original system). They state that in this new, VMG-KLJN, non-equilibrium system...

In (Nature) Science Report 5 (2015) 13653, Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl (VMG) introduce a new Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchanger that operates with 4 arbitrary resistors (instead of 2 arbitrary resistance values forming 2 identical resistor pairs in the original system). They state that in this new, VMG-KLJN, non-equilibrium system...

This study addresses a new question regarding the security of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) scheme compromised by DC sources at Alice and Bob: What is the impact of these parasitic sources on active attacks, such as the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, or the current injection attack if Alice and Bod did not eliminate these sources? The su...

The concept of using special electrical circuit design to realize “cold resistors”, i.e., an active resistor circuitry with lower effective noise temperature, was first introduced about 80 years ago. Later on, various kinds of artificial resistors were applied in different research areas, such as gravitational wave detection, photo-amplifiers and q...

Fluctuation-enhanced sensing (FES) is a very powerful odor and gas sensing technique and as such it can play a fundamental role in the control of environments and, therefore, in the protection of health. For this reason, we conduct a comprehensive survey on the state-of-the-art of the FES technique, highlighting potentials and limits. Particular at...

An improved method for fluctuation-enhanced sensing (FES) is introduced. We enhanced the old binary fingerprinting method, where the fingerprint bit values were ±1, by introducing ternary fingerprint bits utilizing a reference odor. In the ternary method, the fingerprint bit values are −1, 0, and +1, where the 0 value stands for the situation where...

A new attack against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise(KLJN) secure key exchange scheme is introduced. The attack exploits a parasitic (periodic) AC voltage-source at either Alice or Bob ends. Such situations exist due to AC ground loops and electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the low-frequency case, the procedure is the generalized form of the fo...

This paper introduces and demonstrates two new attacks against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme. The attacks are based on random number generators with compromised security. First we explore the situation in which Eve knows the seed of both Alice's and Bob's random number generators. We show that in this situation E...

This study addresses a new question regarding the security of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) scheme compromised by DC sources at Alice and Bob: What is the impact of these parasitic sources on active attacks, such as the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, or the current injection attack? The surprising answer is that the parasitic DC sources...

We introduce an information theoretic framework for a quantitative measure of originality to model the impact of various classes of biases, errors and error corrections on scientific research. Some of the open problems are also outlined.

WO 3 nanowires (WO 3 -NWs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in resistive gas sensor devices to detect ethanol by use of fluctuation enhanced sensing (FES). The experimental system records both DC resistance and fluctuations of the sensing film. Our data verify that the sensitivity and selectivity of the gas sensor are improve...

Resistive gas sensors are very popular and reliable but suffer from low selectivity and sensitivity. Various methods have been suggested to improve both features without increasing the number of sensors in gas detection systems. Fluctuation enhanced gas sensing was proposed to improve gas detection efficiency by analyzing low-frequency resistance f...

We discuss some of the fundamental practical limitations of the Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing of odors and gases. We address resolution, measurement speed, reproducibility, memory and other problems such as humidity. Various techniques and ideas are presented to overcome these problems. Circuit solutions are also discussed.

We introduce an information theoretic framework for a quantitative measure of originality to model the impact of various classes of biases, errors and error corrections on scientific research. Some of the open problems are also outlined.

An improved method for Fluctuation Enhanced Sensing (FES) is introduced. We enhanced the old binary fingerprinting method, where the fingerprint bit values were +/- 1, by introducing ternary fingerprints utilizing a reference odor. In the ternary method, the fingerprint bit values are -1, 0, and +1 where the 0 value stands for the situation where t...

A new attack against the Kirchhoff Law Johnson Noise (KLJN) secure key distribution system is studied with unknown parasitic DC voltage sources at both Alices and Bobs ends. This paper is the generalization of our earlier investigation with a single end parasitic source. Under the assumption that Eve does not know the values of the parasitic source...

We explore the collapse of “wavefunction” and the measurement of entanglement in the superpositions of hyperspace vectors in classical physical instantaneous-noise-based logic (INBL). We find both similarities with and major differences from the related properties of quantum systems. Two search algorithms utilizing the observed features are introdu...

THIS IS THE FIRST VERSION. ITS REVISED VERSION (JULY, 2019) PUBLISHED: Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3029; doi:10.3390/app9153029
Old Abstract: We explore the collapse of "wavefunction" and the measurement of entanglement in the superpositions of hyperspace vectors in classical physical instantaneous-noise-based logic (INBL). We find both similarities with a...

In this study, a new attack against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution system is explored. The attack is based on utilizing a parasitic voltage-source in the loop. Relevant situations often exist in the low-frequency limit in practical systems, especially when the communication is over a distance, or between different units wit...

This paper presents an information-theoretically (unconditionally) secure approach to enhancing security of control and diagnostic applications. Unconditional (information-theoretic) security means that an attacker, even with infinite computational power, still cannot decrypt the data. Currently, only quantum key distribution (QKD) and the Kirchhof...

We propose to adapt an earlier unconditionally secure communication system for ground vehicular network to Unmanned Air Systems (UASs). First, one recommended change is to adopt IEEE 802.16d for long range wireless communications (up to 75 km) for drone to drone communications. Second, we propose to strengthen the security of UAS communications by...

Classical ways of cooling require some of these elements: phase transition, compressor, nonlinearity, valve and/or switch. A recent example is the 2018 patent of Linear Technology Corporation; they utilize the shot noise of a diode to produce a standalone nonlinear resistor that has T/2 noise temperature (about 150K). While such "resistor" can cool...

A new attack against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution system is introduced. The attack is based on 1) Utilizing the dc-voltage-source.

A new attack against the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) key distribution system is introduced. The attack is based on 1) Utilizing the dc-voltage-source - which we put at Alice’s end in our mathematical modeling of the attack-that could exist due to errors, imbalances, Electromagnetic interference and etc.2) On studying the number of samples pe...

Classical ways of cooling require some of these elements: phase transition, compressor, non-linearity, valve, and/or switch. A recent example is the 2018 patent of Linear Technology Corporation; they utilize the shot noise of a diode to produce a standalone nonlinear resistor that has T/2 noise temperature (about 150 Kelvin). While such "resistor"...

We propose a new, low-complexity solution to realize multi-input-bit gates acting on exponentially large superpositions in noise-based logic processors. Two examples are shown, the NOT gate and the CNOT gate. The operations can be executed and repeated with polynomial time and hardware complexity. The lack of solution of this problem had been one o...

The frequent misunderstanding of information entropy is pointed out. It is shown that, contrary to fortuitous situations and common beliefs, there is no general interrelation between the information entropy and the thermodynamical entropy. We point out that the change of information entropy during measurement is determined by the resolution of the...

In his seminal paper, Chua presented a fundamental physical claim by introducing the memristor, “The missing circuit element”. The memristor equations were originally supposed to represent a passive circuit element because, with active circuitry, arbitrary elements can be realized without limitations. Therefore, if the memristor equations do not gu...

This chapter addresses various subjects, including some open questions related to energy dissipation, information, and noise, that are relevant for nano- and molecular electronics. The object is to give a brief and coherent presentation of the results of a number of recent studies of ours.

We offer efficient and practical solutions of Yao’s millionaires’ problem without using any one-way functions. Some of the solutions involve physical principles, while others are purely mathematical. One of our solutions (based on physical principles) yields a public-key encryption protocol secure against (passive) computationally unbounded adversa...

Recently, our efforts to clarify the old question, if a memristor is a passive or active device [1], triggered debates between engineers, who have had advanced definitions of passivity/activity of devices, and physicists with significantly different views about this seemingly simple question. This debate triggered our efforts to test the well-known...

In his seminal paper, Chua presented a fundamental physical claim by introducing the memristor, "The missing circuit element". The memristor equations originally supposed to represent a passive circuit element because, with active circuitry, arbitrary elements can be realized without limitations. Therefore, if the memristor equations do not guarant...

This book clarifies the misinformation behind heated debates on the "Kish Cypher" (the popular but incorrect name for the Kirchhoff–Law–Johnson–Noise, KLJN, scheme), and debunks common misconceptions by using simple and clear-cut treatments to explain the protocol's working principle — an understanding that has eluded (even) several experts of comp...