Laszlo Csato

Laszlo Csato
Corvinus University of Budapest · Department of Operations Research and Actuarial Sciences

About

102
Publications
14,421
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
724
Citations

Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Full-text available
The paper discusses the strategy-proofness of sports tournaments with multiple group stages, where the results of matches already played in the previous round against teams in the same group are carried over. These tournaments, widely used in handball and other sports, are shown to be incentive incompatible in the sense that a team can be strictly...
Article
Full-text available
Minden sportbajnoksággal szemben alapvető elvárás a versenyzők megfelelő ösztönzése. A csalásbiztosságot az irodalom jellemzően bináris fogalomként kezeli, amely akadályozza az ösztönzéskompatibilitás és más kedvező tulajdonságok közötti átváltás feltárását. A cikk a csalás elleni védelem sérülésének számszerűsítésére tesz kísérletet a 2022-es labd...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) distributes commercial revenue from its club competitions according to a complex mechanism. Coefficient-based amounts are paid such that the participating teams are ranked on the basis of performances over the last ten years. Due to the non-anonymity of this allocation rule, all clubs are intereste...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is an attractive approach to complete a partially filled pairwise comparison matrix such that an inconsistency index of the corresponding complete matrix is optimised as a function of the missing entries. Inspired by the popular Koczkodaj inconsistency index and a solution concept of cooperative game theory called the nucleolus, this paper propo...
Article
Full-text available
The draw for the 2022 FIFA World Cup has been organised before the identity of three winners of the play-offs is revealed. Seeding has been based on the FIFA World Ranking released on 31 March 2022 but these three teams have been drawn from the weakest Pot 4. We show that the official seeding policy does not balance the difficulty levels of the gro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Games played in the last round of a round-robin tournament inspire match-fixing or tacit collusion if the two opposing teams can benefit from a particular result at the expense of other teams. In the case of four teams, the current study identifies all these situations caused by using head-to-head records as the primary tie-breaking principle. Simu...
Article
The sequence of moves in a dynamic team tournament may distort the ex-ante winning probabilities and harm efficiency. This paper compares seven soccer penalty shootout rules that determine the kicking order, from a theoretical perspective. Their fairness is evaluated in a reasonable model of First Mover Advantage. We also discuss the probability of...
Article
This paper investigates the fairness of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying competition via Monte Carlo simulations. The qualifying probabilities are calculated for 102 nations, all teams except for African and European countries. A method is proposed to quantify the degree of unfairness. Although the qualifications within four FIFA confederations a...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a sports competition, a team might lose a powerful incentive to exert full effort if its final rank does not depend on the outcome of the matches still to be played. Therefore, the organiser should reduce the probability of such a situation to the extent possible. Our paper provides a classification scheme to identify these weakly (where one tea...
Article
Full-text available
Tournaments are a widely used mechanism to rank alternatives in a noisy environment. This paper investigates a fundamental issue of economics in tournament design: what is the best usage of limited resources, that is, how should the alternatives be compared pairwise to best approximate their true but latent ranking. We consider various formats incl...
Preprint
Full-text available
The draw for the 2022 FIFA World Cup takes place in April 2022 when three winners of the play-offs remain unknown. Seeding is based on the FIFA World Ranking released and these three teams are drawn from the weakest Pot 4. This paper shows that the official seeding policy does not balance the difficulty levels of the groups to the extent possible:...
Article
Full-text available
The paper evaluates the impact of the only reform in the Champions Path of UEFA Champions League qualifying system, effective from the 2018/19 season. In contrast to previous studies, our methodology considers five seasons instead of only one to filter out any possible season-specific attributes. The chances of some national champions decrease much...
Article
Full-text available
For every sports tournament, it is an important requirement to provide contestants with the appropriate incentives to perform. However, incentive compatibility is usually considered an all or nothing (binary) concept in the academic literature, that is, the rules are proved to be either strategy-proof or vulnerable to manipulation. Our paper aims t...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a round-robin tournament, if the final position of a team is already secured independently of the outcomes of the remaining games, it might play with little enthusiasm. This is detrimental to attendance and can inspire collusion and match-fixing. We demonstrate that tie-breaking rules might affect the occurrence of such a situation. Its probabil...
Article
Full-text available
‘‘Mathematics is the part of physics where experiments are cheap.”¹ (Vladimir Igorevich Arnold: On teaching mathematics) Pairwise comparison matrices are increasingly used in settings where some pairs are missing. However, there exist few inconsistency indices for similar incomplete data sets and no reasonable measure has an associated threshold. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
The paper analyses how draw constraints influence the outcome of a knockout tournament. The research question is inspired by the rules of European club football competitions: in order to maintain their international character, the organiser usually imposes an association constraint both in the group stage and the first round of the subsequent knock...
Preprint
Full-text available
Playing in the FIFA World Cup finals is an ambition shared by several nations. Since, besides luck and skill, the probability of qualification depends on the design of the qualifiers, the study of these competitions forms an integral part of sports analytics. The Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF)...
Preprint
Some recent qualifying tournaments, organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), establish restrictions in the draw of the group stage. In this case, the official mechanism used to assign the teams into groups is unevenly distributed, meaning that not all valid allocations are equally likely. Motivated by a simple illustrative e...
Article
Egyéni preferencialisták aggregálásának elterjedt eszköze a pontozási rendszerek használata, amikor az egyes rangsorok minden pozíciója adott számú pontot ér, az aggregált sorrend pedig az alternatívák így összegyűjtött pontjai alapján alakul ki. Általában ezt az eljárást alkalmazzák több egymást követő versenyből álló sportbajnokságok eredményének...
Article
Full-text available
Many sports leagues are played in a tightly scheduled round-robin format, leaving a limited time window to postpone matches. If the season cannot resume due to an external shock such as the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, the ranking of the teams becomes non-trivial: it is necessary to account for schedule imbalances and possibly for the different nu...
Article
Full-text available
Penalty shootout in soccer is recognized to be unfair because the team kicking first in all rounds enjoys a significant advantage. The so-called Catch-Up Rule has been suggested recently to solve this problem but is shown here not to be fairer than the simpler deterministic Alternating (ABBA) Rule that has already been tried. We introduce the Adjus...
Preprint
Full-text available
Incentive compatibility is usually considered a binary concept in the academic literature. Our paper aims to present a method for quantifying the violation of strategy-proofness in the case of sports tournaments, in particular, through the example of the European Qualifiers for the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Even though that competition is known to be vu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many sports tournaments contain a group stage where the allocation of teams is subject to some constraints. The standard draw procedure extracts the teams from pots sequentially and places them in the first available group in alphabetical order such that at least one assignment of the teams still to be drawn remains acceptable. We show how this mec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tournaments are a widely used mechanism to rank alternatives in a noisy environment. We investigate a fundamental issue of economics in tournament design: what is the best usage of limited resources, that is, how should the alternatives be compared pairwise to best approximate their true but latent ranking. We consider various formats including kno...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pairwise comparison matrices are increasingly used in settings where some pairs are missing. However, there exist few inconsistency indices to analyse such incomplete data sets and even fewer measures have an associated threshold. This paper generalises the inconsistency index proposed by Saaty to incomplete pairwise comparison matrices. The extens...
Article
Full-text available
A model is proposed to allocate Formula One World Championship prize money among the constructors. The methodology is based on pairwise comparison matrices, allows for the use of any weighting method, and makes possible to tune the level of inequality. We introduce an axiom called scale invariance, which requires the ranking of the teams to be inde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scoring rules aggregate individual rankings by assigning some points to each position in each ranking such that the total sum of points provides the overall ranking of the alternatives. They are widely used in sports competitions consisting of multiple contests. We study the tradeoff between two risks in this setting: (1) the threat of early clinch...
Chapter
This chapter reveals three problems of the qualification for the 2020 UEFA European Championship. The tournament system is presented to violate incentive compatibility. An issue of unfairness is demonstrated in the path formation rule of the UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying play-offs. The third and most serious anomaly is found via computer simulations: a...
Chapter
Ranking rules are a crucial component of every tournament design. This chapter argues for a better consideration of theoretical results in the construction of ranking criteria. Our axiomatic approach provides insight into three fields: points scoring systems applied to determine the outcome of championships including multiple competitions, ranking...
Chapter
International soccer championships with 24 competitors traditionally allocate the teams into six groups of four teams each, followed by a knockout stage from the round of 16. Their standard knockout format, used until 2016, satisfies balance and diversity of the bracket but implies unequal group advantages. In addition, the rules are biased by an a...
Chapter
The business model of the sports industry depends on teams always trying their best. Therefore, tournament designs should not allow a contestant to be strictly better off by exerting a lower effort under any circumstances. This chapter uncovers that a specific format of group-based championships—when there are round-robin groups but some teams from...
Chapter
Previous studies have documented the probable advantage of the team kicking first in soccer penalty shootouts, which calls for better designs to ensure fairness. We offer a two-dimensional evaluation of these mechanisms by introducing a measure of complexity and adopting the equal treatment of equals requirement. Three alternatives to the Standard...
Chapter
Every sports rule should eliminate the possibility that a contestant can be worse off by winning compared to losing. Qualification systems composed of parallel knockout and round-robin tournaments have been proved to satisfy incentive compatibility only if their allocation rule favours the single round-robin competition in filling vacant slots. Thr...
Book
This Palgrave Pivot presents tournament design mainly within the axioms of incentive compatibility and fairness. It illustrates the advantages of an axiomatic approach through various examples, including several FIFA and UEFA tournaments, and uses theoretical tools and simulation methodology in its analysis. Chapter 1 discusses scoring systems of c...
Preprint
Full-text available
A mathematical model of seeding is analysed for sports tournaments where the qualification is based on round-robin contests. The conditions of strategyproofness are found to be quite restrictive: if each team takes its own coefficient (a measure of its past performance), only one or all of them should qualify from every round-robin contest. Thus th...
Article
Pairwise comparisons are used in a wide variety of decision situations where the importance of alternatives should be measured on a numerical scale. One popular method to derive the priorities is based on the right eigenvector of a multiplicative pairwise comparison matrix. We consider two monotonicity axioms in this setting. First, increasing an a...
Article
Egy sportverseny szabályaival szemben alapvető követelmény a minél jobb teljesítmény elérésére ösztönzés. Ez a követelmény sérül, ha a múltban eredményesebb csapatok hátrányosabb helyzetből indulnak. A tanulmány a 2020-as labdarúgó-Európa-bajnokság selejtezőjét vizsgálja ebből a nézőpontból. Számítógépes szimuláció segítségével megmutatjuk, hogy a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper challenges the traditional seeding regime of round-robin tournaments that aims to create balanced groups. In particular, the design of the most prestigious European men’s handball club competition is compared to two alternative formats with equally strong groups via simulations. We find that it is possible to increase the quality of all...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pairwise comparisons are used in a wide variety of decision situations where the importance of alternatives should be measured on a numerical scale. One popular method to derive the priorities is based on the right eigenvector of a multiplicative pairwise comparison matrix. We consider two monotonicity axioms in this setting. First, increasing an a...
Article
The play-offs of the UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying tournament determine the last four participants in the UEFA European Championship 2020. Sixteen teams, which have failed to obtain a slot in the qualifying group stage, will be selected and divided into four paths of four teams each based on the inaugural season 2018–19 of the UEFA Nations League. We p...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper investigates the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification process via Monte-Carlo simulations. The qualifying probabilities are calculated for 102 nations, all teams except for African and European countries. A reasonable method is proposed to measure the degree of unfairness, which shows substantial differences between the FIFA confederations:...
Article
Full-text available
Fairness has several interpretations in sports, one of them being that the rules should guarantee incentive compatibility, namely, a team cannot be worse off due to better results in any feasible scenario. The current seeding regime of the most prestigious annual European club football tournament, the UEFA (Union of European Football Associations)...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue for the application of bibliometric indices to quantify the intensity of competition in sports. The Euclidean index is proposed to reward quality over quantity, while the rectangle index can be an appropriate measure of core performance. Their differences are highlighted through an axiomatic analysis and several examples. Our approach also...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many sports leagues are played in a tightly scheduled round-robin format, leaving a limited time window to postpone matches. If the season cannot resume due to an external shock such as the coronavirus outbreak in 2020, the ranking of the teams becomes non-trivial because it is necessary to account for schedule imbalances. We identify a set of desi...
Article
Tanking, the act of deliberately dropping points or losing a game in order to gain some other advantage, is usually seen as being against the spirit of sports. It can be even more serious if playing a draw is a (weakly) dominant strategy for both teams in a match, since this may lead to collusion. We show that such a situation occurred in a particu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The standard design of soccer penalty shootouts has received serious criticism due to its bias towards the team that kicks the first penalty. The rule-making body of the sport has decided in 2017 to try an alternative mechanism. Although the adoption of the new policy has stalled, academic researchers have recently suggested some other designs to i...
Article
Tournament organisers supposedly design rules such that a team cannot be strictly better off by exerting a lower effort. However, the European qualification tournaments for recent FIFA soccer World Cups are known to violate this requirement, which inspires our study on the incentive compatibility of similar group-based qualification systems. Theore...
Article
Full-text available
A methodology is presented to rank universities on the basis of the lists of programmes the students applied for. We exploit a crucial feature of the centralised assignment system to higher education in Hungary: a student is admitted to the first programme where the score limit is achieved. This makes it possible to derive a partial preference orde...
Preprint
Full-text available
A model is proposed to allocate Formula One World Championship prize money among the constructors. The methodology is based on pairwise comparison matrices, allows for the use of any weighting method, and makes possible to tune the level of inequality. We introduce an axiom called scale invariance, which requires the ranking of the teams to be inde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fairness has several interpretations in sports, one of them being that the rules should guarantee incentive compatibility, namely, a team cannot be worse off due to better results in any feasible scenario. The current seeding regime of the most prestigious annual European club football tournament, the UEFA (Union of European Football Associations)...
Preprint
Full-text available
The UEFA Champions League is the major football club tournament organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). It contains 32 teams, therefore the national champions of 43 lower-ranked UEFA associations have to play in the qualification in order to obtain a slot in the group stage. This paper evaluates the impact of reforming the...
Article
Full-text available
Journal ranking is becoming more important in assessing the quality of academic research. Several indices have been suggested for this purpose, typically on the basis of a citation graph between the journals. We follow an axiomatic approach and find an impossibility theorem: any self-consistent ranking method, which satisfies a natural monotonicity...
Article
Full-text available
Pairwise comparison matrices often exhibit inconsistency, therefore, a number of indices has been introduced to measure their deviation from a consistent matrix. Since inconsistency first emerges in the case of three alternatives, several inconsistency indices are based on triads. Recently, a set of axioms has been proposed, and is required to be s...
Article
Full-text available
In several decision-making problems, alternatives should be ranked on the basis of paired comparisons between them. An axiomatic approach for the universal ranking problem with arbitrary preference intensities, incomplete and multiple comparisons is presented. In particular, two basic properties -- independence of irrelevant matches and self-consis...
Preprint
The qualification for the UEFA European Championship 2020 is strongly connected to the inaugural season 2018-19 of the UEFA Nations League. The latter competition divides the 55 UEFA national teams into four leagues, and the qualifying play-offs guarantee at least one place in the final tournament for the best four teams of each league. Consequentl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Journal ranking, that is, placing journals within their respective fields, is an important research evaluation tool. Several indices have been suggested for this purpose, typically on the basis of citation graph. We follow an axiomatic approach and find an impossibility theorem: any self-consistent ranking method, which satisfies a natural monotoni...
Preprint
Full-text available
The 2018-19 UEFA Nations League is the inaugural season of this competition, which provides the basis of the seeding for the 55 men's national football teams participating in the qualification process of the UEFA European Championship 2020. In addition, unlike previous editions, the teams for the play-offs are also selected with the consideration o...
Article
Full-text available
In a generalized tournament, players may have an arbitrary number of matches against each other and the outcome of the games is measured on a cardinal scale with lower and upper bounds. An axiomatic approach is applied to the problem of ranking the competitors. Self-consistency (SC) requires assigning the same rank for players with equivalent resul...
Preprint
Full-text available
A labdarúgásban, több más sportághoz hasonlóan, ha egy mérkőzésen a rendes játékidőt követő hosszabbításban sem dől el, hogy melyik csapat juthat tovább, akkor ezt egy büntetőpárbaj segítségével határozzák meg. Az érvényben levő szabályok szerint mind az első öt körben, mind az esetleg szükségessé váló hirtelen halál szakaszban az egyik, pénzfeldob...
Article
Full-text available
An axiomatic approach is applied to the problem of extracting a ranking of the alternatives from a pairwise comparison ratio matrix. The ordering induced by row geometric mean method is proved to be uniquely determined by three independent axioms, anonymity (independence of the labelling of alternatives), responsiveness (a kind of monotonicity prop...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many sports tournaments are organised in a hybrid design consisting of a round-robin group stage followed by a knock-out phase. While the traditional seeding system is able to create balanced groups roughly at the same competition level, this may result in a number of uneven matches when the quality of the teams varies greatly. Therefore, the EHF C...
Preprint
Full-text available
A methodology is presented to rank universities on the basis of the applicants' revealed preferences. We exploit a crucial feature of the centralised admissions system to higher education in Hungary: a student is admitted to the first programme where the score-limit is achieved. It makes possible to derive a partial preference order of each applica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tanking, the act of deliberately dropping points or losing a game in order to gain some other advantage, is usually seen as being against the spirit of sports. It is especially problematic when the two teams playing a match are both interested in a draw, since it may lead to tacit collusion. It is revealed that this situation occurred in a particul...
Article
Full-text available
A cikk a labdarúgásban alkalmazott rangsorolási szabályok problémáit tárgyalja. Bemutatjuk a 2018. évi labdarúgó-világbajnokság európai selejtezőjének manipulálhatóságát: még 2017 októberében, a mérkőzések négyötödének lejátszását követően is megtörténhetett volna, hogy – az összes többi eredmény változatlansága mellett – egy csapat az utolsó mérkő...
Preprint
Full-text available
Qualification for UEFA club tournaments is known to be incentive incompatible in certain seasons, meaning that a team could be strictly better off by exerting a lower effort. We show that it is not only a theoretical scenario: SC Heerenveen was ex ante interested in not kicking a goal on its last match in the 2011/12 Dutch national soccer champions...
Preprint
Full-text available
Penalty shootout in soccer is known to be unfair ex post: the team kicking first all the five penalty kicks has a significant advantage as verified by theory and proved in practice. A so-called Catch-Up Rule has been suggested recently for making the shootout fairer. We show that it does not outperform the more simple Alternating (ABBA) Rule, but t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Egy sportverseny csalásbiztos, ha nem fordulhat elő olyan állapot, ahol egy játékos jobban jár számára rosszabb (kisebb erőfeszítéssel elérhető) eredmény bekövetkezése esetén. Az előadásban olyan, a gyakorlatból vett szabályok mellett alkalmazható manipulációs stratégiákat tárgyalunk, melyek révén egy versenyző biztosan – tehát nem csak várható ért...
Article
Full-text available
Tournament organisers supposedly design rules such that a team cannot be better off by exerting a lower effort. It is shown that the European qualifiers to the 2018 FIFA World Cup are not strategy-proof in this sense: a team might be eliminated if it wins its last match in the group stage, while it advances to the next qualification round by playin...
Article
Full-text available
There exist many alternative formats to tournaments for game sports and they are often revised over time. Our study aims to compare different designs for world men's handball championships. This event, organized in every two years, has adopted four hybrid formats consisting of knockout and round-robin stages in recent decades. They are evaluated un...
Article
Full-text available
Pairwise comparisons between alternatives are a well-known method of decision-making. Since the preferences do often not exhibit consistency, a number of inconsistency indices have been defined in order to measure the deviation from this ideal case. Recently, some axioms have been proposed to identify indices that evaluate inconsistency correctly....
Article
Full-text available
Survey of sport ranking rules from a theoretical perspective can reveal their possible unintended consequences. The importance of incentive compatibility seems to be beyond dispute as the act of deliberately dropping points or losing a game in order to gain some other advantage is seen as being against the spirit of the game. This paper investigate...
Article
Full-text available
A cikk a labdarúgásban alkalmazott rangsorolási szabályok problémáit tárgyalja. Néhány vitát generáló mérkőzés felidézése mellett bemutatjuk a 2018-as labdarúgó-világbajnokság európai selejtezőjének manipulálhatóságát: 2017 októberében, a mérkőzések négyötödének lejátszását követően is megtörténhetett volna, hogy – az összes többi eredmény változat...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the strategy-proofness of multistage tournaments. In a tournament with subsequent group stages, players are divided into groups in the preliminary and main rounds, where they play pairwise matches against each other. The higher ranked players qualify to the next stage such that matches are not repeated in the main round if two qualified...
Article
Full-text available
Network analysis has emerged as a key technique in communication studies, economics, geography, history and sociology, among others. A fundamental issue is how to identify key nodes in a network, for which purpose a number of centrality measures have been developed. This paper proposes a new parametric family of centrality measures called generaliz...
Article
Full-text available
UEFA Euro 1996 qualifying is known to violate strategy-proofness. It is proved that a team could be better off by exerting a lower effort: it might be optimal to concede some goals in order to achieve a better position among runners-up, and hence avoid a hazardous play-off. We show that it is not only an irrelevant scenario with a marginal probabil...
Article
Full-text available
In the European section of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification, 13 national teams, which are members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), can qualify for the final competition. The 54 teams are divided into nine groups to play home-and-away round-robin matches in 10 matchdays. The winners of each group qualify, while the eight b...
Article
Full-text available
The paper suggests a family of paired comparison-based scoring procedures using linear algebra for ranking the participants of a Swiss system chess team tournament. We present the main challenges of ranking in Swiss system, the features of individual and team competitions as well as the failures of official lexicographical orders. The tournament is...
Article
Full-text available
An axiomatic approach is applied for the problem of extracting a ranking of the alternatives from a pairwise comparison ratio matrix. The ordering induced by the Logarithmic Least Squares, or row geometric mean, Method is proved to be uniquely determined by anonymity (independence of the labelling of alternatives), responsiveness (a kind of monoton...
Article
Full-text available
It has been shown recently that the Eigenvector Method may lead to strong rank reversal in group decision making, that is, the alternative with the highest priority according to all individual vectors may lose its position when evaluations are derived from the aggregated group comparison matrix. We give a minimal counterexample and prove that this...
Article
Full-text available
Derivation of preference vectors from pairwise comparison matrices may be a crucial step in the modelling of decision-making problems. We provide an axiomatic characterization of the Logarithmic Least Squares Method (sometimes called row geometric mean), which has gained popularity because of the unique and simply computable solution as well as a n...
Article
Full-text available
Assume a set of objects is given with information about their bilateral relationships, allowing for incomplete and multiple comparisons as well as different preference intensities. An axiomatic approach is applied for the problem of ranking the objects. Consistency requires the preservation of relative ranking if two sets of such preferences are ag...
Article
Full-text available
The paper builds a general model of vote transfer systems on the basis of the current Hungarian electoral rules. It combines single-seat districts and list mandates with three possible compensation rule for 'wasted' votes in constituencies: no compensation (direct vote transfer, DVT), compensation for votes cast for losing party candidates (positiv...
Article
Full-text available
Chess championships are often organised as a Swiss-system tournament, causing great challenges in ranking the participants due to the different strength of schedules and possible circular triads. The paper suggests that pairwise comparison matrices perform well in similar ranking problems. Some features of the proposed method are illustrated by the...
Article
Full-text available
Pairwise comparison is an important tool in multi-attribute decision making. Pairwise comparison matrices (PCM) have been applied for ranking criteria and for scoring alternatives according to a given criterion. Our paper presents a special application of incomplete PCMs: ranking of professional tennis players based on their results against each ot...
Article
A felsőoktatási intézmények rangsorolása a jelentkezők preferenciái alapján alkalmas lehet számos mérési probléma - például a szempontok önkényes súlyozása - okozta torzítások elkerülésére. Azon feltevés alapján, hogy egy felvételiző pontosan akkor preferál egy objektumot (intézményt, kart, szakot stb.) egy másikkal szemben, ha jelentkezési lapján...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reviews some axioms of additivity concerning ranking methods used for generalized tournaments with possible missing values and multiple comparisons. It is shown that one of the most natural properties, called consistency, has strong links to independence of irrelevant comparisons, an axiom judged unfavourable when players have different o...
Article
Full-text available
The paper considers a general model of electoral systems combining district-based elections with a compensatory mechanism in order to implement any outcome between strictly majoritarian and purely proportional seat allocation. It contains vote transfer and allows for the application of three different correction formulas. Analysis in a two-party sy...
Article
Full-text available
The paper attempts to develop a suitable accessibility index for networks where each link has a value such that a smaller number is preferred like distance, cost, or travel time. A measure called distance sum is characterized by three independent properties: anonymity, an appropriately chosen independence axiom, and dominance preservation, which...
Article
Full-text available
A special class of preferences, given by a directed acyclic graph, is considered. They are represented by incomplete pairwise comparison matrices as only partial information is available: for some pairs no comparison is given in the graph. A weighting method satisfies the property linear order preservation if it always results in a ranking such tha...
Article
A cikk a páros összehasonlításokon alapuló pontozási eljárásokat alkalmazza svájci rendszerű sakk csapatversenyek eredményének meghatározására. Bemutatjuk a nem körmérkőzéses esetben felmerülő kérdéseket, az egyéni és csapatversenyek jellemzőit, valamint a hivatalos lexikografikus rendezések hibáit. Axiomatikus alapokon rangsorolási problémaként mo...
Article
Full-text available
The paper aims at analyzing the least squares ranking method for generalized tournaments with possible missing and multiple paired comparisons. The bilateral relationships may reflect the outcomes of a sport competition, product comparisons, or evaluation of political candidates and policies. It is shown that the rating vector can be obtained as a...
Article
The paper reviews some additive and multiplicative properties of ranking procedures used for generalized tournaments with missing values and multiple comparisons. The methods analysed are the score, generalised row sum and least squares as well as fair bets and its variants. It is argued that generalised row sum should be applied not with a fixed p...