Lars Kroener

Lars Kroener
Laboratory Dr. Wisplinghoff · Forensic and Clinical Toxicology

Dr. rer. nat. Dipl.-Chem.

About

32
Publications
7,818
Reads
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1,236
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2003 - March 2008
University of Cologne
Position
  • Head of Department
October 1999 - July 2003
University of Bonn
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (32)
Article
Stopping trigger agents and prompt administration of dantrolene are the cornerstones of treatment of malignant hyperthermia. However, significant time is lost in treatment of the condition because of the cumbersome preparation and administration of the commercially available dantrolene sodium for injection. A potential improvement has become availa...
Article
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is an emerging drug of abuse. Beside relaxation and euphoria it causes hypnosis and unconsciousness. Therefore the substance is misused as recreational drug and at drug-facilitated sexual assaults. An automated and effortless method for quantitation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine was optimized and validate...
Article
In Europe, the misuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its analogues has increased within the recent years. Here, 2 fatalities and 1 nonfatal intoxication resulting from ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), a precursor of GHB, are presented. GHB was quantified involving the conversion to GBL by application of a gas chromatography-mass spec...
Article
Es wird berichtet über einen 8 Monate alten männlichen Säugling mit Ingestion einer ganzen Ecstasytablette (3,4-Methylenedioxymetamphetamine, MDMA) unbekannter Wirkstoffkonzentration. Der Patient wurde mit stark erhöhter motorischer Aktivität, hypertherm, tachykard und in reduziertem Allgemeinzustand aufgenommen. Durch sofortige Sedierung, Rehydrat...
Article
We report on an 8-month-old male infant who accidentally ingested an Ecstasy tablet (3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine, MDMA). Here we discuss, according to the available literature, the treatment, complications, and pharmacokinetics of MDMA intoxication in a young infant. Serum MDMA level 2 hours after ingestion was with 785 ng x mL(-1) above the d...
Article
In the field of post-mortem forensic toxicology, a wide variety of body fluids and tis- sues have to be analyzed. Due to the heterogeneity of these specimens, the possibility of post- mortem changes, and the vast number of potentially toxic compounds, it is difficult to recommend one single, generally applicable procedure for sample preparation. Ho...
Article
In contrast to typical autoerotic fatalities, when death is due to asphyxia mostly by mechanical compression of the neck, atypical autoerotic accidental deaths (AADs) involve sexual self-stimulation by other means such as electrocution or inhalation of chemical agents. Especially in lethal cases of volatile substance abuse (VSA), a differentiation...
Article
The alcoholic beverage absinthe is recently experiencing a revival after a yearlong prohibition. This review article provides information on all aspects of this bitter spirit and its major components, especially wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), which contains the toxic monoterpene thujone. Over 100 references on historic and current literature a...
Article
Full-text available
Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history...
Article
Full-text available
In 1991, the European Commission permitted the addition of thujone-containing plant extracts (wormwood, mugwort) as well as aroma extracts to alcoholic beverages and spirits. For bitter spirits, such as absinthe, which has enjoyed more and more popularity in recent years, a limit of 35 mg/l alpha-/beta-thujone was established by the European Commis...
Article
Amisulpride is a substituted benzamide used as an atypical antipsychotic drug. It antagonizes dopamine D2 and D3 receptor-mediated effects with greater affinity for the limbic system suggesting better neurological tolerance than classical neuroleptics. However, occasionally amisulpride intoxications associated with seizures, comatose conditions and...
Article
Occupational accidents, often presenting with lethal outcomes, are a rarely reported issue in forensic literature. However, these incidents are part of medicolegal casework with special regard to reconstruction, liabilities and insurance law-related issues, respectively. We report on a lethal occupational accident in a metropolitan sewage plant. Wh...
Article
In contrary to "physical restraint", describing a fixed body position due to external devices, "positional restraint" is defined as an abnormal body position, resulting from accidental fixation under unfortunate circumstances. We report on a remarkable case of positional asphyxia of an alcoholised young man after a fall down a staircase. On externa...
Article
The second part of the paper on suicides by gunshots to the head in the presence of witnesses focuses on relevant morphological autopsy findings such as entrance site, signs of close range or contact shots, bullet path etc. and also discusses selected aspects of ascertaining gunshot residues. For the identification of the shooter an integral medico...
Article
In the USA the frequency of witnessed suicide, i.e. suicide committed in the presence of at least one further individual, is reported to range between 5 and 15%. As up to now no detailed analysis of this special issue has been given in the medicolegal literature, this article presents and discusses a number of cases including 8 males and 1 female (...
Article
A fully automated procedure using alkaline hydrolysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (GC–MS) detection has been developed for determination of cannabinoids in hemp food samples. After addition of a deuterated internal standard, the sample was hydrol...
Article
Using a solid-phase extraction procedure, an enantioselective derivatization and a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method, the levels of dopamine (DA) and of the dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids (R)/(S)-salsolinol (SAL) and norsalsolinol (NorSAL) were determined in human brain samples. A complex pre-analytical synthesis of r...
Article
Four commonly used immunoassay kits were evaluated for their efficiency in screening for drugs of abuse in whole blood. Six groups of illicit drugs (opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, cocain and benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, and methadone) were determined by using the homogenous assays ADx and CEDIA DAU and compared with the results produced...
Article
This article describes a fully automated procedure for detecting cannabinoids in human hair samples. The procedure uses alkaline hydrolysis and headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction (HS-SPDE), followed by on-coating derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). SPDE is a further development of solid-phase microextraction (SPME...
Article
A new method combination, headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction coupled with gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE/GC/MS/MS), is introduced to determine drugs of abuse in hair samples. This highly automated procedure utilizes SPDE for pre-concentration and on-coating derivatization as well as GC and triple quadrupole MS/MS for sel...
Article
This paper describes a fully automated procedure using alkaline hydrolysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection of cannabinoids in human hair samples. Ten milligrams of hair was washed with deionized water, petroleum ether, and dichlorome...
Article
This study describes a fully automated procedure using alkaline hydrolysis and headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by onfiber derivatization and gas chromatographic (GC)-mass spectrometric (MS) detection of amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamine, methylendioxymethamphetamine, methylendioxyethylamphetamine, met...
Article
The technique of automated headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was evaluated for the determination of amphetamines and synthetic designer drugs in hair samples. Headspace SPDE is a novel method for the solventless extraction of organic compounds in aqueous samples. In a so-called inside...
Article
Full-text available
Zur Bestimmung von Drogen in Haarproben ist die GC-MS/MS-Kopplung in Verbindung mit der SPDE-Technik ein leistungsstarkes, wirtschaftliches Analyseverfahren, das überdies robust und hoch reproduzierbar ist.
Article
Using an ion exchange membrane as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE technology) electro-organic syntheses are possible in non-conductive fluids. In order to expand the application limits in non-aqueous media the methoxylation of p-methoxytoluene was investigated as an example of commercial interest. By means of specially adapted equipment, the elect...
Article
The electrochemical methodology is an intrinsically environmentally friendly technique. It is especially excellently suited for preventive environmental protection because the practically mass-free electrons are used as reagents. Therefore, it allows the production of organic compounds without the formation of ecologically critical waste which has...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Headspace Festphasenmikroextraktion (HS-SPME) in Kombination mit Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie (GC-MS) stellt eine einfache, empfindliche und lösungsmittelfreie Analysenmethode dar. Bei der Analyse von Haarproben war diese Methode bisher nur beschränkt einsetzbar, da zum einen die Haarproben aufgeschlossen werden müssen und zum anderen die...
Article
The axial and planar chiral biphenanthrene complexes 1 are synthesized by benzannulation reactions and have been studied by CD spectroscopy. Oxidation of 1 affords the diquinone 2, which has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry.
Article
The biscarbene chromium complex 1 (derived from binaphthol) undergoes benzannulation upon reaction with 1- and 3-hexyne to give the biphenanthrenes 2-5. Subsequent column chromatography and recrystallisation yield two diastereomeric Cr(CO)3 complexes 3 a and 3b, which bear elements of both axial and planar chirality. The annulation products have be...

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