Larry Nittler

Larry Nittler
Arizona State University | ASU

PhD

About

632
Publications
40,976
Reads
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15,477
Citations
Citations since 2016
158 Research Items
7926 Citations
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,2001,400
Education
July 1991 - November 1996
September 1987 - June 1991
Cornell University
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (632)
Article
Full-text available
We report the Sr and Ba isotopic compositions of 18 presolar SiC grains of types Y (11) and Z (7), rare types commonly argued to have formed in lower-than-solar metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the Y and Z grains show higher 88Sr/87Sr and more variable 138Ba/136Ba ratios than mainstream (MS) grains. According to FRANEC...
Article
Little is known about the origin of the spectral diversity of asteroids and what it says about conditions in the protoplanetary disk. Here we show that samples returned from Cb-type asteroid Ryugu have Fe isotopic anomalies indistinguishable from Ivuna-type (CI) chondrites, which are distinct from all other carbonaceous chondrites. Iron isotopes, t...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report the Sr and Ba isotopic compositions of 18 presolar SiC grains of types Y (11) and Z (7), rare types commonly argued to have formed in lower-than-solar metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the Y and Z grains show higher 88Sr/87Sr and more variable 138Ba/136Ba ratios than mainstream (MS) grains. According to FRANEC...
Preprint
Presolar grains are trace components in chondrite matrices. Their abundances and compositions have been systematically studied in carbonaceous chondrites but rarely in situ in other major chondrite classes. We have conducted a NanoSIMS isotopic search for presolar grains with O- and C-anomalous isotopic compositions in the matrices of the unequilib...
Preprint
We have conducted a NanoSIMS-based search for presolar material in samples recently returned from C-type asteroid Ryugu as part of JAXA's Hayabusa2 mission. We report the detection of all major presolar grain types with O- and C-anomalous isotopic compositions typically identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites: 1 silicate, 1 oxide, 1 O-anoma...
Article
Full-text available
We have conducted a NanoSIMS-based search for presolar material in samples recently returned from C-type asteroid Ryugu as part of JAXAʼs Hayabusa2 mission. We report the detection of all major presolar grain types with O-and C-anomalous isotopic compositions typically identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites: 1 silicate, 1 oxide, 1 O-anomal...
Article
Presolar grains are trace components in chondrite matrices. Their abundances and compositions have been systematically studied in carbonaceous chondrites but rarely in situ in other major chondrite classes. We have conducted a NanoSIMS isotopic search for presolar grains with O- and C-anomalous isotopic compositions in the matrices of the unequilib...
Article
Carbonaceous meteorites are thought to be fragments of C-type (carbonaceous) asteroids. Samples of the C-type asteroid (162173) Ryugu were retrieved by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. We measure the mineralogy, bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of Ryugu samples. They are mainly composed of materials similar to carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, par...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigated six presolar grains from very primitive regions of the matrix in the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite Semarkona with TEM. These grains include one SiC, one oxide (Mg-Al spinel), and four silicates. Structural and elemental compositional studies of presolar grains located within their meteorite hosts have the potential to provide in...
Article
We investigated six presolar grains from very primitive regions of the matrix in the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite Semarkona with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These grains include one SiC, one oxide (Mg-Al spinel), and four silicates. This is the first TEM investigation of presolar grains within an ordinary chondrite host (in situ) a...
Article
The Hayabusa2 spacecraft investigated the C-type (carbonaceous) asteroid (162173) Ryugu. The mission performed two landing operations to collect samples of surface and sub-surface material, the latter exposed by an artificial impact. We present images of the second touchdown site, finding that ejecta from the impact crater was present at the sample...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Mercury has a magnetic field which is similar to Earth's, and charged particles (electrons and protons) within it move in similar ways. At Earth, particles which reach the atmosphere generate the aurora borealis and aurora australis (northern and southern lights). At Mercury, there is no atmosphere so these particles reach th...
Article
Abiotic formation of organic molecules Mars rovers have found complex organic molecules in the ancient rocks exposed on the planet’s surface and methane in the modern atmosphere. It is unclear what processes produced these organics, with proposals including both biotic and abiotic sources. Steele et al . analyzed the nanoscale mineralogy of the Mar...
Conference Paper
Comets are remnants from the formation of the Solar System, and contain the most pristine material available today for deciphering the physical and chemical conditions of this process. As such, they are very interesting candidates for sample return missions, as indicated for example by the recent mission proposals CAESAR, CONDOR, and CORSAIR to the...
Article
We report the use of several cluster analysis techniques to evaluate the classification of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains. The stability of clusters and the confidence of individual cluster assignments of grains are assessed using consensus clustering with resampling methods. Our analysis shows that presolar SiC grains can be divided into se...
Article
Full-text available
We report NanoSIMS Si and Mg-Al isotopic data (and C, N, and Ti isotopic data when available) for 85 submicron-to micron-sized presolar SiC grains from the CM2 Murchison meteorite, including 60 MS, 8 AB1, 8 X, 7 AB2, and 2 Y grains. The MS and Y grain data demonstrate that (1) C and N contamination mainly appears as surface contamination, and suffi...
Preprint
We report NanoSIMS Si and Mg-Al isotopic data (and C, N, and Ti isotopic data when available) for 85 submicron- to micron-sized presolar SiC grains from the CM2 Murchison meteorite, including 60 MS, 8 AB1, 8 X, 7 AB2, and 2 Y grains. The MS and Y grain data demonstrate that (1) C and N contamination mainly appears as surface contamination, and suff...
Article
Full-text available
A catalog of mercurian craters that retain their central peak or peak‐ring structure was created to aid target prioritization for the Mercury Imaging X‐ray Spectrometer (MIXS), now on its way to Mercury aboard BepiColombo. Preliminary analysis of the MIXS crater catalog suggested a potential spatial correlation between an abnormally high spatial de...
Article
Full-text available
Known and probable cometary material available for study on Earth includes chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs), ultra-carbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites (UCAMMs), and particles returned by the Stardust mission. Recently, a hypothesized cometary micro-xenolith was identified in the Renazzo-like (CR) carbonaceous chondrite...
Article
Full-text available
We present the results of a coordinated NAUTILUS and NanoSIMS isotopic study of epsilon (ε) phase metallic aggregates from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor zone (RZ) 13. We observed that fissionogenic Tc and Cs were heterogeneously sequestered within the aggregates. Isotopes of these elements are relevant for improving the safety of spent nuclear f...
Article
Presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains in meteoritic samples can help constrain circumstellar condensation processes and conditions in C-rich stars and core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). This study presents our findings on eight presolar SiC grains from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars (four mainstream and one Y grain) and CCSNe (three X grains),...
Preprint
Presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains in meteoritic samples can help constrain circumstellar condensation processes and conditions in C-rich stars and core-collapse supernovae. This study presents our findings on eight presolar SiC grains from AGB stars (four mainstream and one Y grain) and core-collapse supernovae (three X grains), chosen on the b...
Article
X-ray imaging spectroscopy is a powerful tool to probe the compositions of diverse planetary bodies, which provide clues to their formation and evolutionary history. We encourage NASA to continue to support to the development of novel X-ray instrumentation and to consider such instruments for planetary missions in the coming decade.
Article
Lunar X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (LuXIS) is a SmallSat mission concept with a compact, highly radiation-tolerant, focusing X-ray telescope that identifies and spatially maps lunar crust and mantle materials excavated by impact craters, and also serves as a pathfinder for autonomous precision deep-space navigation using X-ray pulsars.
Article
The partial pressures and isotopic compositions of volatiles present during chondrule formation can be constrained by the highly volatile element or HVE (H, C, F, Cl, and S) abundances and isotopic compositions in chondrules. Here we present the results of high spatial resolution and low background secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses of...
Article
Full-text available
Cluster analysis of presolar silicon carbide grains based on literature data for 12C/13C, 14N/15N, δ 30Si/28Si, and δ 29Si/28Si including or not inferred initial 26Al/27Al data, reveals nine clusters agreeing with previously defined grain types but also highlighting new divisions. Mainstream grains reside in three clusters probably representing dif...
Article
Full-text available
We report a NanoSIMS search for presolar grains in the CM chondrites Asuka (A) 12169 and A12236. We found 90 presolar O‐rich grains and 25 SiC grains in A12169, giving matrix‐normalized abundances of 275 (+55/−50, 1σ) ppm or, excluding an unusually large grain, 236 (+37/−34) ppm for O‐rich grains and 62 (+15/−12) ppm for SiC grains. For A12236, 18...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cluster analysis of presolar silicon carbide grains based on literature data for 12C/13C, 14N/15N, {\delta}30Si/28Si, and {\delta}29Si/28Si including or not inferred initial 26Al/27Al data, reveals nine clusters agreeing with previously defined grain types but also highlighting new divisions. Mainstream grains reside in three clusters probably repr...
Preprint
We report a NanoSIMS search for presolar grains in the CM chondrites Asuka (A) 12169 and A12236. We found 90 presolar O-rich grains and 25 SiC grains in A12169, giving matrix-normalized abundances of 275 (+55/-50, 1$\sigma$) ppm or, excluding an unusually large grain, 236 (+37/-34) ppm for O-rich grains and 62 (+15/-12) ppm for SiC grains. For A122...
Preprint
Full-text available
Comets hold answers to mysteries of the Solar System by recording presolar history, the initial states of planet formation and prebiotic organics and volatiles to the early Earth. Analysis of returned samples from a comet nucleus will provide unparalleled knowledge about the Solar System starting materials and how they came together to form planets...
Article
Several observations suggest that the Solar system has been located in a region affected by massive stellar feedback for at least a few Myr; these include detection of live 60Fe in deep-sea archives and Antarctic snow, the broad angular distribution of 26Al around the Galactic plane seen in all-sky γ-ray maps, and the all-sky soft X-ray background....
Preprint
Comets likely formed in the outer regions of the protosolar nebula where they incorporated and preserved primitive presolar materials, volatiles resident in the outer disk, and more refractory materials from throughout the disk. The return of a sample of volatiles (i.e., ices and entrained gases), along with other components of a cometary nucleus,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Whether it is fluorescence emission from asteroids and moons, solar wind charge exchange from comets, exospheric escape from Mars, pion reactions on Venus, sprite lighting on Saturn, or the Io plasma torus in the Jovian magnetosphere, the Solar System is surprisingly rich and diverse in X-ray emitting objects. The compositions of diverse planetary...
Article
The Asuka (A)‐12236 meteorite has recently been classified as a CM carbonaceous chondrite of petrologic type 3.0/2.9 and is among the most primitive CM meteorites studied to date. Here, we report the concentrations, relative distributions, and enantiomeric ratios of amino acids in water extracts of the A‐12236 meteorite and another primitive CM cho...
Article
TEM Structural and Compositional Studies of Presolar SiC Grains and Their Relation to Raman Spectra - Sheryl Singerling, Nan Liu, Larry Nittler, Conel Alexander, Rhonda Stroud
Preprint
Full-text available
We advocate for the realization of volatile sample return from various destinations including: small bodies, the Moon, Mars, ocean worlds/satellites, and plumes. As part of recent mission studies (e.g., Comet Astrobiology Exploration SAmple Return (CAESAR) and Mars Sample Return), new concepts, technologies, and protocols have been considered for s...
Preprint
Several observations suggest that the Solar system has been located in a region affected by massive stellar feedback for at least a few Myr; these include detection of live $^{60}\text{Fe}$ in deep-sea archives and Antarctic snow, the broad angular distribution of $^{26}{\rm Al}$ around the Galactic plane seen in all-sky $\gamma$-ray maps, and the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Small bodies are time-capsules of different eras of solar system history from the most primitive materials within the solar system to evolved pieces of larger bodies. A small body sample return program is an essential component of small body exploration, and such a program should include opportunities for both missions and laboratory analysis.
Article
Planetary remote-sensing instruments are often required to cover a relatively large field of view, ideally with a uniform angular resolution over the field, due to relatively large apparent sizes of planetary targets at close proximities. They also have to comply with relatively tight mass and volume constraints. For these reasons, planetary x-ray...
Preprint
Stardust grains that originated in ancient stars and supernovae are recovered from meteorites and carry the detailed composition of their astronomical sites of origin. We present evidence that the majority of large ($\mu$m-sized) meteoritic silicon carbide (SiC) grains formed in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that were more metal-rich t...
Article
Full-text available
BepiColombo has a larger and in many ways more capable suite of instruments relevant for determination of the topographic, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of Mercury’s surface than the suite carried by NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft. Moreover, BepiColombo’s data rate is substantially higher. This equips it to confirm, elaborate upon, a...
Article
Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and micrometeorites (MMs) were likely major sources of extraterrestrial organics at the surface of the early Earth. However, these particles experience heating to >500 °C for up to several seconds during atmospheric entry. In this study, we aim to understand the effects of atmospheric entry heating on the domina...
Article
We built a collector to filter interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) larger than 5 μm from the clean air at the Amundsen Scott South Pole station. Our sampling strategy used long duration, continuous dry filtering of near‐surface air in place of short duration, high‐speed impact collection on flags flown in the stratosphere. We filtered ~10⁷ m³ of c...
Article
In this study we investigate the likeliness of the existence of an iron sulfide layer (FeS matte) at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) of Mercury by comparing new chemical surface data obtained by the X-ray Spectrometer onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft with geochemical models supported by high-pressure experiments under reducing conditions. We present...
Preprint
The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft provided measurements of major-element ratios across Mercury's surface. We present global maps of Mg/Si, Al/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si derived from XRS data collected throughout MESSENGER's orbital mission. We describe the procedures we used to select and filter data and to combine them to ma...