Larry Ludlow

Larry Ludlow
Boston College, USA | BC · Measurement Evaluation Statistics

PhD

About

135
Publications
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4,867
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Publications

Publications (135)
Article
Full-text available
Development of purpose is an important goal of post-secondary education. This study advances the measurement of purpose by (a) enriching the construct through incorporating the facet of horizon; (b) providing a framework for Rasch/Guttman Scenario score interpretation; and (c) providing evidence of convergent, divergent, and known groups validity....
Article
Purpose in life is a key construct in the development of young adults, particularly college students. There are many instruments measuring sense of purpose in life, but few studies have examined their measurement properties among college students. The current study compares the measurement invariance properties of the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale an...
Article
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Rasch/Guttman Scenario (RGS) scales produce scores that map onto interpretable descriptions of individuals at different levels of hierarchically progressive constructs. The unique scenario item format provides actionable and rich content-relevant feedback about (a) respondent status, (b) intervention design, and (c) longitudinal change on a constru...
Article
Objective: The social lives of individuals with psychiatric conditions are often characterized by isolation and a lack of meaningful engagement in communities of their choice. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a comprehensive and multidimensional measure of community participation for use in research, evaluation, and service provis...
Article
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Meaning and purpose in life are important components of young adult development, and are associated with a myriad of positive outcomes. Recently, Bronk, Riches, and Mangan (2018) developed a set of short Likert-of purpose includes three dimensions: Meaningfulness, Goal-Orientation, and Beyond-the-Self. Drawing on their work, we employ a scenario-ba...
Article
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Parental involvement (PI) in the education of their children is an important factor which should be taken into account when assessing and predicting children’s school outcomes. However, PI encompasses numerous operationalizations from checking homework, to communication with school, to organizing cultural outings. This study describes a Rasch/Guttm...
Article
The emotional burden of living with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is experienced differently in each life stage. Thus the measurement of diabetes distress (DD) warrants tailoring to particular developmental stages, specifically emerging adulthood (ages 18-30). The new measure entitled the Problem Areas in Diabetes- Emerging Adult version (PAID-EA) is inten...
Article
Full-text available
Rasch/Guttman Scenario (RGS) scales produce scores that map onto interpretable descriptions of individuals at different levels of hierarchically progressive constructs. The unique scenario item format provides actionable and rich content-relevant feedback about (a) respondent status, (b) intervention design, and (c) longitudinal change on a constru...
Article
The field of educational measurement has evolved considerably since the first doctoral programs were established. In response, programs have typically tacked on courses that address newly developed theories, methods, tools, and techniques. As our review of current programs evidences, this approach produces artificial distinctions among topics and t...
Article
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This study presents the development and implementation of a novel approach to measure enactment of equity-centered teaching practice. The construct of practice for equity is drawn from international syntheses and the details of the scenario-format scale development are emphasized. The result is a 15-item Teaching Equity Enactment Scenario (TEES) Sc...
Article
Purpose As the demographic landscape in the USA becomes more culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), schools must build educators’ professional knowledge and skills to better serve students whose mother tongues are not English. The purpose of this paper is to report on the formation of a network of schools collaboratively transforming their a...
Article
While youth bullying is a critical public health problem, standardized exposure screening is not routinely practiced. The Child-Adolescent Bullying Scale, (CABS), a psychometrically robust 22-item tool, was designed and evaluated for this purpose using classical test theory. The goals of the present study were to examine and optimize the measuremen...
Article
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Supporting continued involvement of older adults in productive activities is beneficial to individuals and society-at-large. Meaningful measurement of quality engagement in such activities is therefore essential. This article describes revisions to and validation of the Productive Engagement Portfolio–Scenario (PEP–S8) Scales, employing Rasch measu...
Presentation
Using Social Network Analysis methods this work characterizes change within a Two-Way Immersion Network for Catholic Schools, identifying how the relevance of different groups of actors has shifted over time and pointing out the implications of this change for the evolution of the network.
Article
Aim To develop and psychometrically assess the Ethical Awareness Scale using Rasch measurement principles and a Rasch item response theory model. Background Critical care nurses must be equipped to provide good (ethical) patient care. This requires ethical awareness, which involves recognizing the ethical implications of all nursing actions. Ethic...
Article
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Student ratings of instruction (SRI) are widely used sources of information among higher education staff and faculty. Numerous factors influence these SRIs both within and outside the classroom. The present longitudinal case-study illustrates a practical methodological approach to reveal the impact that one-time career-related events may have on st...
Article
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While youth bullying is a significant public health problem, healthcare providers have been limited in their ability to identify bullied youths due to the lack of a reliable, and valid instrument appropriate for use in clinical settings. We conducted a multisite study to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new 22-item instrument for assessing...
Article
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Our purpose is to provide an exploratory statistical representation of initial teacher education as a complex system comprised of dynamic influential elements. More precisely, we reveal what the system looks like for differently-positioned teacher education stakeholders based on our framework for gathering, statistically analyzing, and graphically...
Article
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Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in many countries are grappling with ways to address the persistent problem of inequitable educational outcomes between advantaged and disadvantaged students. This paper reports the results of a unique cross-country, cross-cultural analysis undertaken to provide insights into teaching practices that pro...
Conference Paper
Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are often used as measures of teaching quality and are sources of information for administrative decisions and feedback for faculty to improve their teaching techniques. Despite conflicting perceptions of what effective teaching is and how valid the student faculty evaluations are to measure it, these evaluatio...
Article
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Despite a growing body of knowledge about what content, processes and arrangements for learning may result in more effective initial teacher education, there remains a problem with the variability of outcomes from teacher education programmes. This paper reports on a multi-perspective exploration of what influences learning to teach in valued ways...
Article
This article examines evidence regarding the assessment learning of preservice teachers (PTs) in a new Master of Teaching designed to prepare teachers to address the less than equitable outcomes of certain groups of students in New Zealand. The assessment curriculum was integrated across all of the courses and the in-school experiences as one of si...
Article
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Differential student achievement has particular significance in New Zealand as it has one of the largest gaps between high and low achievers among all OECD countries. Students from low socio-economic status (SES) communities, who are often Māori and Pasifika, are heavily over-represented in the low achieving group, while students from wealthier com...
Article
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The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), a measure of walking balance ability, was developed to eliminate the ceiling effect observed in the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). Three presumably more difficult tasks were added while one easier task was removed from the original eight DGI tasks. The effects of these modifications on item hierarchy have not previo...
Article
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Multi-source evaluation of school principals is likely to become increasingly common in education contexts as the evidence accumulates about the relationship between principal effectiveness and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the magnitude and direction of discrepancy between how principals and their teachers perce...
Article
Full-text available
Correlated predictors in regression models are a fact of life in applied social science research. The extent to which they are correlated will influence the estimates and statistics associated with the other variables they are modeled along with. These effects, for example, may include enhanced regression coefficients for the other variables—a situ...
Article
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Background/Context In many countries, there are multiple studies intended to improve initial teacher education. These have generally focused on pieces of teacher education rather than wholes, and have used an underlying linear logic. It may be, however, that what is needed are new research questions and theoretical frameworks that account for whole...
Article
Theories of reading skill hierarchies postulate that reading comprehension consists of separate, increasingly complex, cumulative skills. Part of the inconsistency in the results from studies investigating such hierarchies is attributed to the analytic techniques most often employed. In the present research, the psychometric models of Rasch and Gut...
Conference Paper
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Society expects that degree granting institutions will ensure that college students develop discipline-specific competence as well as general skills (e.g., communication, written, oral, tolerance, compassion) and dispositions (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, curiosity) at the completion of a bachelor's degree. Current research suggests that undergraduate...
Article
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The development of Rasch-based "comparative engagement scenarios" based on Guttman's facet theory and sentence mapping procedures is described. The scenario scales measuring engagement in work, caregiving, informal helping, and volunteering illuminate the lived experiences of role involvement among older adults and offer multiple advantages over ty...
Article
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The present study tested the possibility of operationalizing levels of knowledge acquisition based on Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive growth. An assessment tool (SAM-Math) was developed to capture a hypothesized hierarchical structure of mathematical knowledge consisting of procedural, conceptual, and functional levels. In Study 1, SAM-Math was admi...
Article
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may be freely shared among individuals, but it may not be republished in any medium without express written consent from the authors and advance notification of the editor. Abstract Correlated predictors in regression models are a fact of life in applied social science research. The extent to which they are correlated will influence the estimates a...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-source evaluation of school principals is likely to become increasingly common in education contexts as the evidence accumulates about the relationship between principal effectiveness and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the magnitude and direction of discrepancy between how principals and their teachers percei...
Article
Full-text available
This study draws from the work engagement literature to define engagement as an indicator of role quality and to develop a measure—The Productive Engagement Portfolio (PEP)—that can be used to assess engagement in work, volunteering, caregiving, and informal helping among older adults. A Rasch measurement approach was used to develop both Likert-ba...
Article
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Assessment for Learning (AfL) may be conceptualized as minute-to-minute, day-by-day interactions between learners and teachers with the improvement of learning as the principal focus. A feature of the literature on assessment is the lack of research instruments to evaluate teachers' assessment literacy following exposure to AfL. This paper traces t...
Article
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Reforms of national curricula, in recent years, have increasingly emphasized attention to pedagogy, and in particular to teaching and learning approaches that reflect five dimensions of responsiveness. These dimensions relate to key competencies, values, inquiry, partnerships and student agency. While these dimensions are evident in the curricula o...
Article
To examine the discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, administration time and acceptability of the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory computer adaptive test (PEDI-CAT). A sample of 102 parents of children 3 through 20 years of age with (n = 50) and without (n = 52) disabilities was recruited for this prospective field study. A su...
Article
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Given increasing pressure and demand from regulatory initiatives and standards for student achievement on the teaching field, it is critical to study and measure psychosocial factors that can potentially influence an individual's ability to teach effectively. The present study describes the process of developing and validating items for an instrume...
Article
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To meet demands for accountability, most schools and departments of education at institutions of higher education (IHEs) gather information on their current students and graduates. This paper describes issues to consider when designing a longitudinal data collection and management system, drawing on seven years' experience developing such a system....
Article
The aims of the study were to: (1) build new item banks for a revised version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) with four content domains: daily activities, mobility, social/cognitive, and responsibility; and (2) use post-hoc simulations based on the combined normative and disability calibration samples to assess the accura...
Article
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The development of the Survey of Knowledge of Internet Risk and Internet Behavior is described. A total of 1,366 Grades 7 and 8 male and female students from an urban, suburban, and rural school offered agree—disagree responses to 26 statements defining one Knowledge Scale and five behavior dimensions. Literature-based support is presented for cont...
Article
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The pressure for accountability in higher education is extremely high. Some advocate accountability systems that use standardised measures of student learning and non‐cognitive outcomes; others argue that locally developed measures provide a better fit with the unique mission of institutions. We first describe a general ‘proof of possibility’ accou...
Article
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The wide use of the Internet has potential for students to become victims of Internet predators or other students who engage in inappropriate cyberbullying. Educational programming efforts targeted for students, teachers and parents need instrumentation that provides meaningful and reliable data assessing students' knowledge of Internet risk and th...
Article
BACKGROUND Understanding more about student decisions to leave engineering may lead to higher retention. This study builds on the literature and focuses on the experiences of a cohort of students who aimed to complete their undergraduate work in 2007. PURPOSE (HYPOTHESIS) This paper presents the outcomes of the longitudinal administration of the Pe...
Article
To investigate what keeps teachers motivated on a day‐to‐day basis, we traced the importance of routinely encountered affective episodes. Significant research on emotions already highlights the relative importance of positive versus negative episodes, the importance of perceived origins of events and the need to differentiate between the frequency...
Article
The purpose of this article is to review the innovations, applications, and effect of the original Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) published in 1992 and to describe planned revisions. During the past decade, the PEDI has helped to shift thinking from a developmental to a functional focus. Using the PEDI, researchers and clinicia...
Article
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This investigation uses student course evaluations to examine the relationship between class size and perceived student learning, after student effort and instructor quality have been taken into account. This study found that despite the efforts by students and instructors, class size had a significant negative relationship wiThperceived student le...
Article
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Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) item banks may need to be updated, but before new items can be added, they must be linked to the previous CAT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 41 pretest items prior to including them into an operational CAT. We recruited 6,882 patients with spine, lower extremity, upper extremity, and nonorthopedic imp...
Article
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This article introduces the Measurement Skills Assessment (MeSA), which was designed to evaluate the mastery of measurement in elementary school students. The primary objectives for the MeSA include covering a broad range of measurement concepts, distinguishing between major subtypes of measurement, and constructing a continuum of items varying in...
Article
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In an effort to make decisions about teacher education policy and practice that were informed by research and evidence, participants in Boston College's ‘Teachers for a New Era’ Evidence Team (http://www.teachersforanewera.org) designed a portfolio of assessments and studies. This article describes one project in the portfolio – a series of surveys...
Article
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This article speaks to two current trends in teacher education—the press to assess teacher education in terms of measurable outcomes, on one hand, and the growing emphasis on social justice as a theme of teacher education, on the other. The article begins with a discussion of the concept of teacher education for social justice. Then, using Rasch It...
Article
Our objectives were to examine the proportion of children who achieved a minimally important difference (MID) in physical function during inpatient rehabilitation and to identify factors related to achievement of MID. For a consecutive series of 452 inpatient admissions to a pediatric rehabilitation hospital in the northeastern United States, chang...
Article
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The authors illustrate how a Rasch model can guide the development of a new affective measurement instrument - the Learning to Teach for Social Justice-Beliefs scale. The results provide strong evidence of a meaningful continuum of attitudes about teaching for social justice ranging from those easier to endorse to those more difficult to endorse.
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine bronchoscopy findings for children and young adults with long-term tracheostomies due to congenital anomalies and neurological impairment and identify characteristics associated with abnormal bronchoscopic findings. We conducted a retrospective study of 128 bronchoscopy cases (81 children) at a pediatric rehabil...
Article
To compare the measurement efficiency and precision of a multidimensional computer adaptive testing (M-CAT) application to a unidimensional CAT (U-CAT) comparison using item bank data from 2 of the functional skills scales of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Using existing PEDI mobility and self-care item banks, we compared...
Article
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In a 4‐year study of new teachers who completed the MINT (Massachusetts Institute for New Teachers) alternative teacher‐licensing program, we found that this particular fast‐track model recruited a group of highly committed new teachers. However, these new teachers expressed dissatisfaction with the effectiveness of their teacher education program....
Article
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Institutions of higher learning employ compulsory attendance policies with the expectation that these mandates enhance students' academic performance and perceptions of course quality. However, numerous empirical investigations demonstrate equivocal and often contradictory findings regarding the relationship between attendance and various markers o...
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This article describes the construction of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI), which was designed to assess womens conformity to an array of feminine norms found in the dominant culture in the United States. In addition, we present four studies in which the psychometric properties of the CFNI were examined. In Study 1, factor analysi...