Larry Hettinger

Larry Hettinger
Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety

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76
Publications
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2,682
Citations

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Wearable technology has many industrial applications. Optimal use adherence and outcomes largely depend on employee acceptance of the technology. This study determined factors that predict employee acceptance of wearables. An online survey of 1273 employed adults asked about demographics, job and organizational characteristics, experience with and...
Article
Virtual environments such as those used in video games and driving/flight simulators are used for entertainment and training, but are often associated with visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). In this study, we asked whether passive restraint of the head and torso could reduce VIMS in younger and older adults. Twenty-one younger (18–35 years) a...
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Full-text available
Background Return-to-work (RTW) within a complex organizational system can be associated with suboptimal outcomes. Purpose To apply a sociotechnical systems perspective to investigate complexity in RTW; to utilize system dynamics modeling (SDM) to examine how feedback relationships between individual, psychosocial, and organizational factors make u...
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Background Visually-induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common sensation using driving simulators, typically characterized by pallor, cold sweat, fatigue, dizziness, and/or nausea. Postural instability resulting from visual motion inputs has been discussed as a potential cause of VIMS. Interestingly, older adults are not only known to have reduced...
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em>Background . Returning to work following a job-related injury or illness can be a complex process, influenced by a range of interrelated personal, psychosocial, and organizational components. System dynamics modelling (SDM) takes a sociotechnical systems perspective to view return-to-work (RTW) as a system made up of multiple feedback relationsh...
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The occurrence of visually induced motion sickness has been frequently linked to the sensation of illusory self-motion (vection), however, the precise nature of this relationship is still not fully understood. To date, it is still a matter of debate as to whether vection is a necessary prerequisite for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). That...
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Work disability (WD) is characterized by variable and occasionally undesirable outcomes. The underlying determinants of WD outcomes include patterns of dynamic relationships among health, personal, organizational and regulatory factors that have been challenging to characterize, and inadequately represented by contemporary WD models. System dynamic...
Article
Theoretical and practical approaches to safety based on sociotechnical systems principles place heavy emphasis on the intersections between social-organizational and technical-work process factors. Within this perspective, work system design emphasizes factors such as the joint optimization of social and technical processes, a focus on reliable hum...
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Unlabelled: The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the de...
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Unlabelled: Accurate comprehension and analysis of complex sociotechnical systems is a daunting task. Empirically examining, or simply envisioning the structure and behaviour of such systems challenges traditional analytic and experimental approaches as well as our everyday cognitive capabilities. Computer-based models and simulations afford poten...
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Unlabelled: The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end,...
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The development of methods for the design of work environments has a long history within human factors and ergonomics (Hendrick, 1991; Stanton et al., 2013). Recent discussions have centred on the effectiveness of macroergonomic methods in facilitating improvements to workplace design. The aim of the panel will be to summarise these and other debat...
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Auditory cues can create the illusion of self-motion (vection) in the absence of visual or physical stimulation. The present study aimed to determine whether auditory cues alone can also elicit motion sickness and how auditory cues contribute to motion sickness when added to visual motion stimuli. Twenty participants were seated in front of a curve...
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Full-text available
The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end, a Hopkinton C...
Article
Full-text available
Vection is the illusion of self-motion in the absence of real physical movement. The aim of the present study was to analyze how multisensory inputs (visual and auditory) contribute to the perception of vection. Participants were seated in a stationary position in front of a large, curved projection display and were exposed to a virtual scene that...
Article
The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of...
Article
The Sociotechnical Systems (STS) approach has had an enormous influence on both research and practice within occupational safety and has been applied across a range of domains including construction, healthcare, transportation and manufacturing. This panel will discuss the outcomes from a Hopkinton Conference on STS and Safety held at the Liberty M...
Article
The US Navy is currently implementing ?optimal manning? approaches to the design of future warships. Simply put, this emphasis takes the form of designing and deploying ships whose blend of human and mechanical/computer-based systems reduces the need for traditionally large crews while improving overall system performance and safety. Reflecting thi...
Article
The authors discuss developing a dual-use doctrine that utilizes information superiority and network-based organization.
Article
This paper describes the integration of cognitive analysis into the early stages of design of a new, large-scale system—a next generation US Navy Surface combatant. Influencing complex system designs in ways cognizant of human–system integration principles requires work products that are timely and tightly coupled to other elements of the design pr...
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This article describes an emerging approach to the design of human-machine systems referred to as 'neuroadaptive interface technology'. A neuroadaptive interface is an ensemble of computer-based displays and controls whose functional characteristics change in response to meaningful variations in the user's cognitive and/or emotional states. Variati...
Article
A user-centered design philosophy attaches primary importance to human-machine system performance as the key criterion in assessing the operational utility of complex systems. When the system under consideration is uniquely novel and emphasizes the use of relatively immature technologies, system validation must occur at a number of points in the de...
Article
Adynamically adaptive interface (DAI) is a computer interface that changes the display or control characteristics of a system (or both) in real time. The goal of DAIs is to anticipate informational needs or desires of the user and provide that information without the requirement of an explicit control input by the user. DAIs have the potential to i...
Article
We explored relations between visual performance and postural control. Variability in postural sway was analyzed in the context of variations in supra-postural visual tasks. We varied target distance (near vs. far) and visual task (inspecting a blank target vs. counting the frequency of letters in a block of text). Variability in postural sway was...
Article
A major portion of the research conducted throughout the history of aviation psychology has been devoted to the analysis and design of cockpit displays. Military and commercial aviators, as well as the travelling public, have significantly benefited from many years of research that have produced displays that facilitate safe and effective crewmembe...
Article
Modern aerial combat represents a highly complex task domain that imposes many significant challenges on aviators. In modern cockpits there are more sources of dynamic information than any single pilot has the ability to attend to, let alone comprehend, all at once. As technological developments lead to the deployment of new weapons systems, the fu...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of providing target location information via head-coupled visual and spatial audio displays presented in adaptive and non-adaptive configura-tions. Twelve USAF pilots performed a simulated flight task in which they were instructed to maintain flight parameters while searching for ground and ai...
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We evaluated the prediction that postural instability would precede the subjective symptoms of motion sickness in a fixed-base flight simulator. Participants sat in a cockpit in a video projection dome and were exposed to optical flow that oscillated in the roll axis with exposure durations typical of flight simulation. The frequencies of oscillati...
Article
Unisensory and multisensory adaptive interfaces for precision aircraft navigation were tested under varying concurrent task demands. Participants - 12 USAF pilots - were required to perform a simulated terrain-following, terrain-avoidance navigation task, including evasive maneuvers, while also performing: (1) no additional task; (2) a visual searc...
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory inf...
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The US Air Force Research Laboratory is developing color HMD technology to enhance information conveyance to the pilot. One essential component of this technology is an understanding of the best ways to use color. We describe two opposing color-coding strategies and explain how we applied them to the weapons functionality of a pre-existing, monochr...
Conference Paper
To what extent can similarities in the general demands placed on human performance in apparently disparate task domains be used to enhance human-machine interface design in each? How can the “lessons learned” in one area of human endeavour be systematically and successfully applied to another? What is the nature of the information that permits such...
Article
Information overload problems are tackled in an interface design process that includes early human factors input.
Article
The purpose of the research proposed herein is to develop an empirical, methodological tool for the assessment of visual depth perception in virtual environments (VEs). Our goal is to develop and employ a behaviorally-based method for assessing the impact of VE design features on the perception of visual depth as indexed by the performance of funda...
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This report represents a committee summary of the current state of knowledge regarding aftereffects and sense of presence in virtual environments (VEs). The work presented in this article, and the proposed research agenda, are the result of a special session that was set up in the framework of the Seventh International Conference on Human Computer...
Article
A study involving 8 Air Force pilots was conducted to examine the efficacy of a force-reflecting joystick to improve performance during a simulated landing task in wind turbulence. By adding certain force characteristics to a joystick, it was of interest to see if performance may change, different control effort may be utilized, and workload measur...
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Full-text available
Designing effective human machine interfaces is one of the more challenging and exciting issues facing engineers today. Many virtual environment (VE) designers approach this problem by examining the way humans interact with their natural environment. In essence, they have attempted to mimic the various ways humans use their senses to gather informa...
Article
Modern air combat represents a highly complex, dynamic domain that presents many significant challenges for military aviators. Current military aircraft provide much more, complex dynamic information than a single human has the ability to simultaneously attend to, let alone comprehend. As technological developments lead to the deployment of enhance...
Conference Paper
A program of research and development is currently underway at the US Air Force Armstrong Laboratory's Synthesized Immersion Research Environment (SIRE) Facility to develop adaptive interfaces for use in advanced airborne crew stations. The purpose of the work is to develop displays and controls whose characteristics can be automatically updated an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The US Air Force Armstrong Synthesized Immersion Research Environment Facility is currently investigating the development and potential application of direct vestibular displays. The Electrical Vestibular Stimulus (EVS) technology described in the paper uses electrodes located behind the ears to deliver a low level electrical current in the vicinit...
Conference Paper
Alternative control technologies enable users to control human machine systems without using their hands For example, the Cyberlink<sup>TM</sup> interface, a brain body actuated control technology, employs a combination of EEG and EMG signals produced at the user's forehead to generate computer inputs that can be used for a variety of tasks. An exp...
Article
Pilots from three NATO countries participated in simulated air combat scenarios in which they either flew a conventional cockpit, consisting of F-16/F-15 type cockpit displays, or a virtually-augmented cockpit, consisting of advanced head down/head up displays, helmet mounted displays/trackers, 3 dimensional auditory displays, and haptic displays....
Article
Virtually-augmented display concepts are being developed at the US Air Force Armstrong Laboratory's Synthesized Immersion Research Environment (SIRE) Facility at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, for use in future USAF crew stations. These displays incorporate aspects of virtual environment technology to provide users with intuitive, multisens...
Article
Simulator sickness is a significant human factors issue in simulator and virtual environment systems. The extent to which users are adversely affected by sickness-inducing stimuli in virtual environments may hinder the behavioral goals sought (training, systems evaluation, etc.). To alleviate the problem, it is first necessary to accurately and rel...
Article
The US Air Force Armstrong Laboratory's Human Interface Technology Branch is currently investigating the development and potential application of direct vestibular displays. The Electrical Vestibular Stimulus (EVS) technology described in this paper uses electrodes located behind the ears to deliver a low-level electrical current in the area of the...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses several general research and development issues that the authors view as critical to the design of adaptive interfaces for future US Air Force crew stations. Its major intent is to propose and describe three classes of variables and events that are considered to be potentially useful “triggers” for the introduction of functiona...
Article
Vection (V) refers to the compelling visual illusion of self-motion experienced by stationary individuals when viewing moving visual surrounds. The phenomenon is of theoretical interest because of its relevance for understanding the neural basis of ordinary self-motion perception, and of practical importance because it is the experience that makes...
Article
Future airborne crewstations are currently being designed that will incorporate multisensory virtual displays to convey operationally relevant information to crewmembers. In addition, these displays and associated controls will be designed to adapt to the changing psychological and physiological state of the user, and the tactical/environmental sta...
Article
An experiment was conducted to assess visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and a conventional flight simulation dome display. Measures of workload and mood were also obtained. Participants in both viewing conditions scanned an area 120 degrees vertical by 240 degrees horizontal while attempting to locate targets...
Conference Paper
Future airborne crewstations are currently being designed that will incorporate multisensory virtual displays to convey operationally relevant information to crew members. In addition, these displays and associated controls will be designed to adapt to the changing psychological and physiological state of the user, and the tactical/environmental st...
Article
The current research was conducted to evaluate the effect of employing multi-sensory displays for fighter aircraft cockpit on the performance of a simulated air combat task. Each of four experienced U.S. Air Force F-16 pilots flew twelve simulated missions which required them to locate and destroy four enemy bombers whose flight path was pre-progra...
Article
Virtual environment technologies, such as helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), are challenged by problems involving time delay--the time between an input to a system, and its corresponding output. An experiment was conducted to evaluate two methods of time delay compensation--algorithmic prediction and perceptual adaptation--during a time-delayed, head-...
Article
Visual target detection was used to demonstrate the ability of subjects to localize with a virtual audio display. The testing facility consisted of audio presented over headphones with and without localization cues and a projection screen bearing the visual scene. In each trial the visual target appeared as one pixel at a random location of the scr...
Article
The use of multi-sensory displays for fighter aircraft cockpits is being investigated at the U.S. Air Force's Armstrong Laboratory as a means of enhancing pilot performance. The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of employing such displays on the performance of a simulated air combat task. Each of four experienced US Air Force...
Article
The relationship between the dark focus of accommodation and simulator sickness, a form of motion sickness, was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, dark focus was measured in 18 college students in a laboratory setting before and after they viewed a projected motion scene depicting low altitude helicopter flight. In Experiments 2 and 3,...
Article
Visually induced motion sickness is a syndrome that occasionally occurs when physically stationary individuals view compelling visual representations of self-motion. It may also occur when detectable lags are present between head movements and recomputation and presentation of the visual display in helmet-mounted displays. The occurrence of this ma...
Article
The purpose of this research was to identify visual scene content important in helicopter shipboard landings, particularly in the hover phase, for further study in a research simulator. A second purpose was to illustrate the use of a methodology (Protocol Analysis) which may hold promise for many areas of human factors research. Discussions with pi...
Article
Simulator sickness has been identified as a form of motion sickness in which users of simulators exhibit symptoms characteristic of true motion sickness. In a fixed-base simulator, visual and vestibular sources of information specifying dynamic orientation are in conflict to the extent that the optical flow pattern viewed by the pilot creates a com...
Article
A workshop entitled 'Visually Guided Control of Movement' was held at NASA Ames Research Center on June 26 - July 14, 1989. The workshop brought together individuals with diverse backgrounds related to the areas of the visual perception and control of motion. During the workshop, participants designed and conducted experiments using NASA Ames fligh...
Article
In a review of flight simulation performance experiments conducted at the U.S. Navy's Visual Technology Research simulator (VTRS), it was observed that individual difference variables accounted for a major portion of the total explained variance, in many cases more than the simulator equipment variables that were deliberately manipulated. This find...
Article
The history of research on visually-induced illusory self motion, or vection, has demonstrated that in many instances observers have experienced disturbances similar to those of motion sickness. Visual displays in flight simulators may also produce the experience of vection, and illusions of self motion are likely to become more common with the inc...
Article
During locomotion, the entire optic array along the path of travel is continuously transformed. The nature of the transformations is informative about changes in altitude, speed, and imminence of contact with environmental surfaces. Some global optic-array variables are self scaled and some are environment scaled. By unlinking the two types of vari...
Article
Several methods are presented for breaking linkages among global optical flow and texture variables in order to assess their usefulness in experiments requiring observers to distinguish change in speed or heading of simulated self motion from events representing constant speed or level flight. Results of a series of studies testing for sensitivity...
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine whether accuracy and efficiency of detecting loss in one's own forward speed are constant when optical information is invariant over a wide range of environmental variables. Deceleration rate, initial forward velocity, and altitude were varied so as to isolate initial optical flow rate, optical flow decelera...

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