Larry B Crowder

Larry B Crowder
Stanford University | SU · Department of Biology

PhD Zoology, Michigan State

About

337
Publications
145,482
Reads
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32,254
Citations
Citations since 2016
80 Research Items
14397 Citations
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Additional affiliations
June 2011 - present
Stanford University
Position
  • Ed Ricketts Professor of Marine Biology
June 2011 - present
Stanford University
Position
  • Science Director
April 1995 - June 2011
Duke University
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (337)
Article
Land-dependent marine species are a unique guild of species whose life histories rely on both land and sea. This group is exposed to climate change-related stressors 2-fold, as climate change impacts likely occur at different velocities across land and sea habitat, leading to a greater probability of evolutionary traps. Thus, it is difficult to ass...
Article
Animal migration plays a central role in many ecological and evolutionary processes, yet migratory populations worldwide are increasingly threatened. Adjusting migration timing to match ecosystem phenology is key to survival in dynamic and changing ecosystems, especially in an era of human-induced rapid environmental change. Social cues are increas...
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Turbidity from land-based runoff has been identified as a possible driver of coral bleaching refugia, as particulate matter in turbid habitats may block excessive irradiance and alter the food supply to corals during ocean heatwaves. However, negative effects of turbidity have also been documented worldwide, and high-resolution data across reef reg...
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The end of the long and winding road towards a milestone new treaty focused on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) is near. The BBNJ treaty has the potential to dramatically transform environmental stewardship in the high seas, making it essential that vigorous support towards a strong tre...
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Trait-based approaches are increasingly recognized as a tool for understanding ecosystem re-assembly and function under intensifying global change. Here we synthesize trait-based research globally (n = 865 studies) to examine the contexts in which traits may be used for global change prediction. We find that exponential growth in the field over the...
Article
Matching the timing of life history transitions with ecosystem phenology is critical for the survival of many species, especially those undertaking long‐distance migrations. As a result, whether and how migratory populations adjust timing of life history transitions in response to environmental variability are important questions in ecology and con...
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Human access routes to coastal subsistence resources are being altered in Arctic regions as temperatures warm. The accessibility dimension of climate impacts on coastal resources is critical to food sovereignty and resilience of Indigenous Arctic communities, yet the issue of access is understudied relative to food availability. This issue also has...
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Recreational fisheries in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) have increased in popularity since the 1970s, contributing to the eco‐tourism industries of many Central American economies. However, pelagic gamefish face several direct and indirect threats which can affect population health and sustainability. We use daily catch logs from three recreat...
Preprint
1.Matching the timing of life history transitions with ecosystem phenology is critical for the survival of many species, especially those undertaking long-distance migrations. As a result, whether and how migratory populations adjust timing of life history transitions in response to environmental variability are important questions in ecology and c...
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Effective fisheries management requires an understanding of fisher behavior. Though vessel tracking systems are increasingly used to describe the movements and activities of industrial fishing fleets, their use has been limited within the small-scale fisheries employing the vast majority of the world's capture fishers. Here we combine novel vessel...
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Small-scale fisheries are critically important for livelihoods around the world, particularly in tropical regions. However, climate variability and anthropogenic climate change may seriously impact small-scale fisheries by altering the abundance and distribution of target species. Social relationships between fishery users, such as fish traders, ca...
Article
Spatial optimization algorithms show potential for prioritizing conservation areas on the high seas. Yet algorithmic approaches stand to reinforce global power asymmetries without careful consideration of process. We explain this problem’s origin and provide recommendations for a more equitable path forward in the application of algorithms to high-...
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The North Pacific Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) undergoes one of the greatest of all animal migrations, nesting exclusively in Japan and re-emerging several years later along important foraging grounds in the eastern North Pacific. Yet the mechanisms that connect these disparate habitats during what is known as the “lost years” have remai...
Preprint
In the coming months, international negotiations under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) will enter their fourth and final session to establish a legally binding agreement for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in one of our largest global commons, areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). I...
Article
The media can be key in informing individuals around topics not easily observable, such as remote environmental issues and wildlife. Sea turtles are enigmatic animals that attract public attention, but they have faced severe population declines worldwide. Assessing how the news reports on sea turtle conservation is critical in evaluating how a conc...
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As the impacts of climate change on human society accelerate, coastal communities are vulnerable to changing environmental conditions. The capacity of communities and households to respond to these changes (i.e., their adaptive capacity) will determine the impacts of climate and co-occurring stressors. To date, empirical evidence linking theoretica...
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When assessing harmful human-wildlife interactions, researchers often attempt to calculate the risk that an interaction will occur. However, these analyses often quantify risk based on temporally static or spatially coarse measures of species distributions and human activity. As a result, risk estimates often do not reflect the dynamic nature of an...
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Meta-organizations (MO, i.e. organizations of organizations) are increasingly set up and used to tackle contemporary environmental or social problems. The primary focus of this novel concept has been traditional industries and cases of MO made of one single type of members, e.g. firms, often in the same industry. Little research has examined cross-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pre-print available to read here: https://www.authorea.com/users/346990/articles/472799-trait-based-approaches-to-global-change-ecology-from-description-to-prediction
Article
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Protection of highly mobile species and shifting habitats is a practical challenge for conservation in both marine and terrestrial systems, particularly in light of the acceleration of land‐use change and climate‐driven range shifts. Static protected areas have long been a keystone of conservation but are generally insufficient for such species and...
Article
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Protecting the ocean has become a major goal of international policy as human activities increasingly endanger the integrity of the ocean ecosystem, often summarized as “ocean health.” By and large, efforts to protect the ocean have failed because, among other things, (1) the underlying socio-ecological pathways have not been properly considered, a...
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The acceleration of global warming and increased vulnerability of marine social-ecological systems affect the benefits provided by the ocean. Spatial planning of marine areas is vital to balance multiple human demands and ensure a healthy ocean, while supporting global ocean goals. To thrive in a changing ocean though, marine spatial planning (MSP)...
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Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are ‘megafauna’? Here, we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal resea...
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Filling ecological and social data gaps for small-scale fisheries is crucial for global conservation of shark species. In 2016, international protection of vulnerable smooth hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna zygaena) resulted in a seasonal fishing ban to protect juvenile sharks in Peru's small-scale fisheries. Richer data on the fisheries' social-ecologic...
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The U.S. Congress is currently discussing the Shark Fin Sales Elimination Act to eliminate shark fin trade at the federal level. This bill was introduced in 2017 and has been proceeding very slowly in Congress because of mixed reviews from the scientific community. Debate exists on whether shark conservation and management are effectively addressed...
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Protecting mobile marine species and habitats under climate change will require innovative and dynamic tools
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In October 2016, the international community made history by adopting the world's largest marine protected area in the Ross Sea, Antarctica-by consensus. Achieving this feat required trade-offs and compromise among the 24-Member States (plus the European Union) comprising the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. The...
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Aim Animal tracking can provide unique insights into the ecology and conservation of marine species, such as the partitioning of habitat, including differences between life history stages or sexes, and can inform fisheries stock assessments, bycatch reduction and spatial management such as dynamic management. Location Northeast Pacific Ocean. Met...
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Interannual oceanic oscillations, climate change, and extreme events present a significant and complex challenge to management of pelagic fisheries. In recent years, anomalous oceanographic and atmospheric conditions have been reported across the northeast Pacific, yet research results concerning the biophysical mechanisms impacting specific organisms,...
Article
Seafood certification and eco-labeling programs, which leverage market forces to incentivize fisheries improvements, have changed the face of the global seafood market through an expanding supply of and demand for certified seafood. To contribute towards conservation goals, these programs employ a strategy termed the ‘theory of change, which predic...
Article
Fisheries management interventions that protect certain species by redistributing fishing effort may generate unintended consequences for other species. In the California drift gillnet fishery for swordfish and sharks, a large spatial closure was implemented in 2001 to protect endangered leatherback turtles, which limited fishing effort to the Sout...
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Limited data on the spatial, environmental, and human dimensions of small‐scale fisheries hinder conservation planning, so the incorporation of fishers' local ecological knowledge may be a valuable way to fill data gaps while legitimizing management decisions. In Peru, vulnerable and poorly assessed juvenile smooth hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna zygaen...
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External drivers increasingly impact small-scale fisheries worldwide. As globalization accelerates the flow of information, commodities, and capital across geographic space, neoliberal reforms have fueled the development of the international seafood trade. Small-scale fisheries traditionally driven by local forces and market demands are increasingl...
Article
Fishery improvement projects (FIPs) are emerging as a popular market‐based means to improve fisheries sustainability and have been employed in scores of fisheries around the world; however, project ability to realize improvements has been highly variable, and little is known about how fishery and project conditions affect improvement efforts. In or...
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As changes in climate, governance, and organization reshape the dynamics of small-scale fisheries around the globe, the persistence of many local livelihoods appears contingent upon the ability of resource users to respond and adapt. Though significant scholarship has considered the limiting roles of resources and infrastructure, recent research ha...
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Coral reefs worldwide face unprecedented cumulative anthropogenic effects of interacting local human pressures, global climate change and distal social processes. Reefs are also bound by the natural biophysical environment within which they exist. In this context, a key challenge for effective management is understanding how anthropogenic and bioph...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview on the current status of MSP, starting by addressing what MSP is and why is it needed. It then reviews the global distribution of MSP around the world and, finally, analyses some of the most prominent and widespread challenges, present and future, that are linked to the development of MSP.
Article
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Abstract Coral reefs worldwide face an uncertain future with many reefs reported to transition from being dominated by corals to macroalgae. However, given the complexity and diversity of the ecosystem, research on how regimes vary spatially and temporally is needed. Reef regimes are most often characterised by their benthic components; however, co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ensuring sustainable planning and management of the ocean space is of paramount importance, as no area of the world’s oceans is unaffected by human activities. On the contrary, a significant percentage is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. Marine spatial planning is globally widespread and a topic of increasing importance in the scientif...
Article
Planning for marine areas, from coastal to open-ocean regions, is being developed worldwide to foster sustainable ocean management and governance. Over the past decades, significant progress has been made by governments in their thinking about marine spatial planning (MSP). MSP is globally widespread and a topic of increasing importance in the scie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seafood is the world's most internationally traded food commodity. Approximately three out of every seven people globally rely on seafood as a primary source of animal protein (1). Revelations about slavery and labor rights abuses in fisheries have sparked outrage and shifted the conversation (2, 3), placing social issues at the forefront of a sect...
Preprint
Full-text available
Inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis of the root causes of overfishing can lead to misguided and ineffective fisheries policies and programmes. The “Malthusian overfishing narrative” suggests that overfishing is driven by too many fishers chasing too few fish and that fishing effort grows proportionately to human population growth, requiring policy i...
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Species distribution models (SDMs) have become key tools for describing and predicting species habitats. In the marine domain, environmental data used in modeling species distributions are often remotely sensed, and as such have limited capacity for interpreting the vertical structure of the water column, or are sampled in situ, offering minimal sp...
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The United States has been at the forefront of marine resource stewardship since the 1970s when Federal officials began to implement a series of national policies aimed at the conservation and management of public trust resources in the ocean. Beginning with the establishment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970, soon foll...
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Seafood is an essential source of protein for more than 3 billion people worldwide, yet bycatch of threatened species in capture fisheries remains a major impediment to fisheries sustainability. Management measures designed to reduce bycatch often result in significant economic losses and even fisheries closures. Static spatial management approache...
Article
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A major challenge for coral reef conservation and management is understanding how a wide range of interacting human and natural drivers cumulatively impact and shape these ecosystems. Despite the importance of understanding these interactions, a methodological framework to synthesize spatially explicit data of such drivers is lacking. To fill this...
Data
Driver data analysis, assumptions, and limitations. (DOCX)
Data
Correlation matrix for driver layers used in PCA. (XLSX)
Data
Detailed GIS methods used to create fisheries catch maps. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their you...