Lambert Richard Schneider

Lambert Richard Schneider
Öko-Institut e.V. · Energy & Climate Division

Dr

About

91
Publications
24,300
Reads
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1,763
Citations
Citations since 2016
47 Research Items
995 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
October 2010 - July 2012
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Position
  • Team Lead Methodologies Development and Improvement
October 2000 - December 2009
Öko-Institut e.V.
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement establishes provisions for using international carbon market mechanisms to achieve climate mitigation contributions. Environmental integrity is a key principle for using such mechanisms under the Agreement. This paper systematically identifies and categorizes issues and options to achieve environmental integrity, including how i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article 6 of the Paris Agreement establishes a framework for international cooperation that enables countries to engage in international carbon market mechanisms. Article 6.4 establishes a new crediting mechanism with international oversight. A key requirement of this new mechanism is that it “shall aim to (…) deliver an overall mitigation in globa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
By allowing allowances from one jurisdiction to be used for compliance in another jurisdiction, linking of ETSs enables mitigation to take place wherever it is cheapest. Emissions can thus shift across jurisdictions and over time. An important question arises as to whether and how linking affects the achievement of countries’ nationally determined...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This discussion paper explores key issues and options to ensure robust accounting of international transfers from market mechanisms under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. The paper first provides an overview of key issues that must be addressed to ensure robust account and highlights approaches to address them. The further analysis focuses on: the...
Article
Full-text available
Aviation may have contributed as much as 4.9% to global radiative forcing in 2005 and its carbon dioxide emissions could grow by up to 360% between 2000 and 20501. In 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization adopted a global scheme requiring airline operators to offset increases in carbon dioxide emissions from international flights abov...
Article
Full-text available
Under the Paris Agreement, Parties must track the implementation and achievement of their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). In many cases, NDC targets are expressed as a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions level and their implementation and achievement is tracked through national GHG inventories. To achieve their targets, it is thus essential...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper assesses the sustainable development im- pact of four selected project types of the voluntary car- bon market: afforestation, improved cookstoves, off- grid photovoltaics and water filters. The assessment draws on the Agenda 2030 with its sustainable development goals and targets as a framework for the analysis. The results show that all...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 2015 Paris Agreement requires Parties to regularly communicate nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in which they specify their national climate mitigation targets and actions. This document provides practical guidance for countries on how to account for greenhouse gas emissions targets communicated in NDCs. The Guidance explains key elem...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of how carbon crediting programs and complementary standards in the VCM address impacts of projects beyond climate change mitigation. It shows that the evaluated programs and standards differ considerably in how they ensure environmental and social safeguards and assess positive and negative sustainable development i...
Research
Full-text available
Nature-based Solutions (NbS) build synergies between biodiversity conservation and societal challenges such as climate change. This paper derives a working definition of NbS based on an evaluation of existing definitions, in particular the IUCN (2016) definition. It comprises the key elements of the existing definitions that we believe to be import...
Article
Under the Paris Agreement, most countries have communicated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) with mitigation targets for a single year. Single-year targets present considerable challenges when countries use international carbon markets to achieve their NDCs. This paper assesses the environmental integrity implications of the two options t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The World Wildlife Fund (WWF-US), Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and Oeko-Institut are developing the "Carbon Credit Quality Initiative" (previously referred to as "Carbon Credit Guidance for Buyers") to guide buyers of carbon credits amidst a complex market. The project is implemented in several phases: Phase 1 of the project identified criteria...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report explores three key unresolved issues in international negotations on the rules for international carbon markets under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement: achieving an overall mitigation in global emissions (OMGE), collecting a share of proceeds (SOP) for adaptation and the transition of the Clean Development Mechanism into the Paris Agree...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Aviation is the most environmentally-damaging mode of transport and contributes substantially to global warming. At the same time, aviation enjoys numerous privileges compared to other modes of transport. Kerosene is exempt from the energy tax and no VAT is charged on flights that cross German borders. In the European Union’s Emissions Trading Syst...
Technical Report
Full-text available
German Environment Agency. https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/5750/publikationen/2021_01_11_cc_04-2020_voluntary_offsetting_credits_and_allowances_1.pdf
Technical Report
Full-text available
Single-year targets present considerable challenges if countries use international carbon markets to achieve their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement. This paper assesses the environmental integrity implications of the two main options – averaging and multi-year approaches – for accounting for internationally trans...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a summary report of the Guidance on Governance Models for Host Country Engagement in Article 6. The report was commissioned by the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) as part of the Mobilising Article 6 Trading Structures (MATS) Program, funded by the Swedish Energy Agency (SEA).
Technical Report
Full-text available
The end of 2020 marks a fundamental change in the global governance of greenhouse gas emissions with the shift from the Kyoto Protocol era to that of the Paris Agreement. This also has implications for the future role and the feasible models of the voluntary carbon market. A critical focus is whether and how 'double counting' of emission reductions...
Technical Report
Full-text available
World Wildlife Fund (WWF-US), Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and Oeko-Institut are developing a “Carbon Credit Guidance for Buyers” to guide buyers of carbon credits amidst a complex market. The project is implemented in four phases: This paper presents the results from Phase 1 in which criteria are identified for assessing the quality of carbon...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently deliberating on the implications of the COVID-19 crisis on its Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). From 2021 onwards, the scheme requires airlines to either adopt mitigation measures, such as using more efficient aircraft, or to buy carbon cred...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This discussion paper assesses options for improving the current Emissions Unit Eligibility Criteria (EUCs) used for the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), with the goal of ensuring the scheme's environmental integrity. Clearly articulated EUCs...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This discussion paper assesses how different elements of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - including its rules, its institutional framework, its projects, and its certified emission reductions (CERs) - could be used under the Paris Agreement. The analysis identifies a number of regulatory elements, overarching processes and procedures along t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
At the 25th Conference of the Parties (COP25) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, delegates will negotiate the further implementation of the Paris Agreement. This study provides an overview of the international framework to address climate change, the stakeholders involved, the status of the negotiations and recent develop...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The International Civil Aviation Organisation is in the process of finalising the design of a scheme – the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) – to address carbon dioxide emissions from international aviation. In this discussion paper we estimate the potential supply of carbon offset credits to meet demand fro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This discussion paper assesses how robust accounting could be implemented under the Paris Agreement in order to avoid double counting between nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) implemented under the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The paper...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). The scheme requires participating airline operators to purchase carbon offset credits to compensate for the increase in their carbon dioxide emissions from international flights above 2019/2020 levels...
Article
The 24th international climate conference in Katowice, Poland, in December 2018 was a major achievement in the multilateral response to climate change. More than 190 countries managed to agree on nearly all elements of a comprehensive rulebook that puts flesh on the bones of the 2015 Paris Agreement. The rules require, for the first time, that all...
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement establishes provisions for using international carbon market mechanisms to achieve nationally determined contribution (NDCs). In international negotiations on the rules governing the Agreement, an important question is whether and under which conditions mitigation outcomes that are not covered by the scope of NDCs should be elig...
Research
Full-text available
Currently, international carbon market mechanisms operate under the rules set by the Kyoto Protocol and are in principle a zero-sum game for the atmosphere - meaning that no net reduction of global emissions occurs as a result of transfers between Parties. A ton of greenhouse gas emissions is reduced in one place, and the international transfer of...
Article
Full-text available
International carbon markets can be an important tool in achieving countries’ mitigation targets under the Paris Agreement, but they are subject to a number of environmental integrity risks. An important risk is that some countries have mitigation targets that correspond to higher levels of emissions than independent projections of their likely emi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This discussion paper explores environmental risks from the inclusion of forest offset credits in the Paris Agreement’s Article 6 and CORSIA, and examines approaches to address such risks. A number of challenges surrounding environmental integrity notably baseline determination, additionality, permanence, and leakage are discussed as well as enviro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this discussion paper we estimate the marginal cost of supplying certified emissions reduction units (CERs) from projects that are currently registered under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). We develop a supply curve using data on the individual ability of projects to potentially supply CERs over the period up to 2020. We analyse changes t...
Article
Full-text available
With over 17 emissions trading systems (ETSs) now in place across four continents, interest in linking ETSs is growing. Linking ETSs offers economic, political, and administrative benefits. It also faces major challenges. Linking can affect overall ambition, financial flows, and the location and nature of investments, reduces regulatory autonomy, a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study assesses the environmental integrity risks of international carbon markets under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement and discusses possible international rules to address them. A considerable risk is that several countries have mitigation targets that correspond to higher levels of emissions than business-as-usual (BAU) projections. The amo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This discussion paper estimates the potential supply of certified emission reductions (CERs) from projects registered under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for the period 2013 to 2020. The supply potential estimation considers the most recent information on the status of CDM projects and their ability to issue CERs, if sufficient demand were...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Countries are currently considering using certified emission reductions (CERs) issued under the Clean Development Mechanism to achieve targets under the Paris Agreement and the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) recently adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Using CERs could lower complian...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article 6 of the Paris Agreement introduces provisions for using international market mechanisms to fulfil nationally determined contributions (NDCs). International rules governing these approaches are currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The diversity of (intended) nationally determin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This discussion paper explores key issues and options to ensure robust accounting of international transfers from market mechanisms under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. The paper provides an overview of key issues that must be addressed to ensure robust account and highlights approaches to address them. The further analysis focuses on two aspect...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article 6 of the Paris Agreement introduces provisions for using international market mechanisms to fulfil nationally determined contributions. In developing national and international rules governing these approa- ches it is important to draw on the lessons learnt from the existing flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol and to understand...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study explores how results-based funding could be delivered effectively by using tools and processes of crediting mechanisms. The study focuses on key design aspects for programmes using crediting mechanisms, including the suitability of using crediting mechanisms to deliver results-based funding, achieving a high mitigation impact, fostering...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This study systematically evaluates the environmental integrity of Joint Implementation (JI) in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Our analysis indicates that about three-quarters of JI offsets are unlikely to represent additional emissions reductions. This suggests that the use of JI offsets may have enabled global GHG emissions to...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive resea...
Article
Avoiding double counting of emission reductions is a key policy concern to Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Double counting of emission reductions can occur when a single greenhouse gas emission reduction or removal, achieved through a mechanism issuing units, is accounted more than once towards attaini...
Technical Report
Full-text available
2 The lack of ambition in emission reduction targets be-yond 2012 and the related low demand of emission re-duction certiicates jeopardizes the further operation of CDM and JI project activities and even more so the development and registration of new projects. Espe-cially project activities without beneets beyond emis-sion reduction are depending...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Avoiding double counting of emission reductions is a key policy concern to Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper systematically assesses how double counting can occur and how it could be addressed. It finds that double counting can occur not only directly, but in rather indirect ways which can be...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This working paper explores the question of target “time frame” and its implications for the generation and use of tradable emissions units. Under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreements, some countries have adopted continuous or multiple-year emissions targets, while others have taken on discontinuous or single-ye...
Technical Report
Full-text available
At COP 17 in Durban, the Parties called for new market mechanisms, and more broadly, “various approaches, including markets” to “achieve a net decrease and/or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions”. This paper explores what a net decrease might mean in practice, how it might be achieved, and the potential scale of the net atmospheric benefit that c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
For a long time, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been criticized for its cumbersome procedures and risks of weak environmental integrity. As a potential solution to both of these shortcomings, the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) called for the use of "standardized baselines" at the Cancun conf...
Article
The clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol allows industrialized countries to use credits from greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement projects in developing countries. A key requirement of the CDM is that the emission reductions be real, measurable and additional. This article uses data from registered projects to evaluate the extent to...