Laleh Golshahi

Laleh Golshahi
Virginia Commonwealth University | VCU · Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering

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45
Publications
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Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Nasal sprays, which produce relatively large pharmaceutical droplets with sizes mostly higher than 10 μm, are primarily used to deliver locally acting drugs to the nasal mucosa. Due to the large spray droplet size and high spray velocity, these droplets carry significant momentum, which can influence the surrounding gas field (i.e., two-way couplin...
Article
This paper, one of several in a special issue of the Journal of Aerosol Science on “Inhaled Aerosol Dosimetry”, covers selected methods for defining the respiratory tract anatomy required as input to inhaled aerosol deposition models, along with some applications and challenges. “Anatomy” refers to the study of biological structures and to the stru...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeNasal delivery is a favorable route for vaccination against most respiratory infections, as antigen deposited in the nasal turbinate and Waldeyer’s ring areas induce mucosal and systemic immune responses. However, little is known about the nasal distribution of the vaccines, specifically for infants.Methods Anatomical nasal replicas of five...
Article
Introduction Unregulated e-cigarette devices and the levels of nicotine in them have amplified the potential of e-cigarettes as addictive agents. Several e-cigarette related parameters have been identified altering nicotine’s absorption profile, so their potential effects on addiction should be considered. Of these factors, nicotine forms (protonat...
Article
Background: Understanding the morphology of nasal airways is important in determining the nasal airway deposition of inhaled aerosol. Moreover, objective assessment of the anatomy of human nasal airways is useful to develop a database of reference or normal values as a resource to investigate anatomical abnormalities of airways. Current methods for...
Article
The optimal method for radiographic evaluation of the internal nasal valve (INV) has not been established. The objective of this study was to develop a method to assess the cross-sectional area and the angle of the INV using anatomically-accurate 3D digital nasal airway models. Axial CT images of the paranasal sinuses of twenty adult subjects with...
Article
Despite the increased use of high flow nasal cannula therapy, little has been done to predict airway pressures for a full breath cycle. A 3-month-old infant in vitro model was developed, which included the entire upper airway and the first three bifurcations of the lungs. A breathing simulator was used to create a realistic breath pattern, and high...
Article
Background: The majority of current nasal delivery devices, commercialized for children, are developed for adults. Differences in the dose reaching the target are expected due to significant differences between the pediatric and adult nasal airway geometries and their inhalation patterns. This study aims to compare the efficacy of most common nasal...
Article
Background: Intersubject variability in nasal deposition of inhaled aerosol is significant because of the differences in nasal anatomy and breathing rate. The notable limitation of the majority of previously developed predictive correlations is including a limited number of subjects. A few recent studies have considered a wide age range of subject...
Article
Filter media for respirator applications are typically exposed to cyclic flow condition instead of constant flow adopted in the standard filter media tests. The objective of this study is thus to investigate the effects of breathing frequency (BF) and peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) on the peak particle penetration of respirator filter media, espe...
Article
Physically realistic nasal models have been used to characterize regional nasal drug deposition. It is of interest to investigate post-nasal deposition events including dissolution and transepithelial transport of deposited drugs. A physically realistic nasal airway model was modified to accommodate three Transwell (TW) inserts in its middle (TW1 a...
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Full-text available
The accuracy of five extrathoracic deposition equations was examined by comparing model predictions with in vivo deposition measurements of 99mTc-DTPA radiolabelled 0.9% saline delivered via PARI LC Sprint nebulizers in 19 healthy human subjects. The average extrathoracic deposition fraction measured in vivo was 0.19 ± 0.10 (average ± standard devi...
Article
Filter media for respirator applications are typically exposed to the cyclic flow condition, which is different from the constant flow condition adopted in filter testing standards. To understand the real performance of respirator filter media in the field it is required to investigate the penetration of particles through respirator filters under c...
Article
Full-text available
Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of...
Article
Previous studies have demonstrated improved nose-to-lung aerosol drug delivery with controlled condensational growth methods using a mixer-heater developed to synchronize aerosol delivery with patient inhalation. The goal of this study was to develop a new mixer-heater that delivers aerosols with a transient flow profile similar to a sinusoidal bre...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Delivering aerosols to the lungs through the nasal route has a number of advantages, but its use has been limited by high depositional loss in the extrathoracic airways. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nose-to-lung (N2L) delivery of excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation aerosols generated with a new inline dry powder...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Use of submicrometer particles combined with condensational growth techniques has been proposed to reduce drug losses within components of high-flow nasal cannula therapy systems and to enhance the dose reaching the lower respiratory tract. These methods have been evaluated using continuous inhalation flow rather than realistic inhal...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Respiratory tract deposition models provide a useful method for optimizing the design and administration of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols, and can be useful for estimating exposure risks to inhaled particulate matter. As aerosol must first pass through the extrathoracic region prior to reaching the lungs, deposition in this region plays...
Article
Full-text available
The oral route has been considered superior to the nasal route for aerosol delivery to the lower respiratory tract (LRT) in adults and children. However, there are no data comparing aerosol delivery via the oral and nasal routes in infants. The aim of this study was to compare nasal and oral delivery of aerosol in anatomically correct replicas of i...
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Deposition of drug emitted from two commercially available inhalers was measured in an in vitro child oral airway model and compared to existing in vivo data to examine the ability of the child model to replicate in vivo deposition. In vitro deposition of drug from a QVAR® pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) and Pulmicort® Turbuhaler® dry powde...
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Patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation with an endotracheal tube (ETT) can often benefit from pharmaceutical aerosols; however, drug delivery through the ventilation circuit is known to be very inefficient. The objective of this study was to improve the delivery of aerosol through an invasive mechanical ventilation system by redesigning...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the delivery of nasally administered aerosols to the lungs during noninvasive ventilation using controlled condensational growth techniques. An optimized mixer, combined with a mesh nebulizer, was used to generate submicrometer aerosol particles using drug alone (albuterol sulfate) and with mannitol or so...
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Full-text available
Aerosol delivery efficiency during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is known to be low (~10%) and is associated with poor outcomes of aerosol therapy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the benefit of redesigning ventilation circuit components using a streamlining approach to improve aerosol delivery during nasal high flow therapy in adult...
Article
Full-text available
Deposition of particles in the aerodynamic diameter range of 0.5-6.7 μm was measured in nine replicas of the extrathoracic airways of adults with four sinusoidal patterns and oral breathing. The four chosen breathing patterns are typical of those occurring during natural resting breathing and during nebulization therapy. Additionally, deposition of...
Article
Full-text available
Copyright 2012 American Association for Aerosol Research
Article
To test the feasibility of replicating a face mask seal in vitro, we created 5 geometrically accurate reconstructions of the head and neck of an adult human subject using different materials. Three breathing patterns were simulated with each replica and an attached N95 mask. Quantitative fit testing on the subject and the replicas showed that none...
Article
An in vitro study was conducted with the goal of developing empirical correlations to predict the deposition of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 0.5–5.3μm in nasal airways of children with ages 4–14 years. CT images of nasal airways of thirteen healthy subjects and one with congested nasal airways were used for fabricating the replicas by...
Article
To determine the feasibility of formulating and aerosolizing powders containing bacteriophages KS4-M and ΦKZ for lung delivery and treatment of pulmonary Burkholderia cepacia complex and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Endotoxin-removed bacteriophages KS4-M and ΦKZ were lyophilized in lactose/lactoferrin 60 : 40 w/w matrix and deagglomerated in...
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Full-text available
This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Experimentally measured deposition of ultrafine particles, ranging from 13–100 nm in diameter, in na...
Article
Granular filtration has been widely used for liquid filtration and hot gas filtration, but less is known for the filtration of airborne particles, especially the ultrafine ones, at the room conditions. A cylindrical packed bed was designed and tested for the filtration of particles in the range of about 10 nm to 15 μm in diameter at different confi...
Chapter
Recent developments in understanding the physical processes responsible for gas and aerosol transport in the alveolar region of the lung are reviewed. Predicting regional deposition in the lungs is important both for environmental exposure and respiratory drug delivery. There is a strong connection between transport and deposition in the lung; thus...
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections have renewed interest in finding substitute methods of treatment. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to investigate the possibility of respiratory delivery of a Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteriophage by nebulized aerosol administration. Bacteriophages in isotonic saline were aerosolized...
Article
Despite the promising applications of granular filtration, there is a shortage of literature for its application for airborne nanoparticles in indoor environments. Accordingly, a pack-bed granular filter with body diameter (D) of 25.4 cm was designed and evaluated using 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm uniform glass beads as the bed media. Experiments were con...

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