Ladislav Reinprecht

Ladislav Reinprecht
Technical University in Zvolen · Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology

Professor

About

158
Publications
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1,161
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Introduction
Wood and wooden composites, Protection, Biodegradation, Weathering, Structural analyses and properties

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Full-text available
This study deals with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the phase interfaces in the glued joints between Norway spruce wood elements thermally modified at 160, 180, 200, and 220 °C/4 h and polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glues with the aim of evaluating various anatomical influences of wood on the quality of joints....
Article
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Fungi play a critical role in the decomposition of wood and wood-based products in use. The ability of decaying fungi to cause degradation of polysaccharides and lignin in the thermally modified Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) wood was examined with pure culture decomposition tests in laboratory conditions using the brown-rot fungus Serpula l...
Article
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Recycled recovered wood, for example, from historic buildings, containing biocides, fire retardants or anti-weather paints is an attractive material for manufacturing composite wood panels which can be used for decoration as well as load-bearing walls with a typical patina. This paper investigates the effect of four inorganic wood preservatives—CuS...
Article
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In Central Europe, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood has a high potential for the production of construction and decorative materials, with the aim of replacing Norway spruce, oaks, and other traditionally used tree species. However, the biological resistance of beech wood—to decaying fungi, molds, and insects—is low, and in damp conditions...
Article
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Timber suffers from various biological damages. Recent efforts aim on nature-friendly sustainable technologies of wood protection to replace classical synthetic agents having usually negative impact on many non-target organisms including man. This research investigated the biocidal effectiveness of lavender oil (LO) in protecting the Norway spruce...
Article
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The intention of efficient processing and use of less valuable wood species, bio-damaged logs, sawmill residues, cuttings, chips, sawdust, recycled wooden products, and other lignocellulosic raw materials in the production of wood composites is the focus of several scientific research institutes in the world [...]
Article
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Various techniques of wood thermal modification in air, liquids, or melts at temperatures above 160 °C improve its resistance to biological damage and water. In this experiment, the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood was held for 1 to 4 hours in the melt of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and during a given time either heated at 100 °C or...
Article
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Worldwide production of wooden pallets continually increases, and therefore in future higher number of damaged pallets need to be recycled. One way to conveniently recycle pallets is their use for the production of particleboards (PBs). The 3-layer PBs, bonded with urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, were prepared in laboratory conditions using particles...
Article
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In recent years, the production and consumption of thermally modified wood (TMW) has been increasing. Offcuts and other waste generated during TMWs processing into products, as well as already disposed products based on TMWs can be an input recycled raw material for production of particleboards (PBs). In a laboratory, 16 mm thick 3-layer PBs bonded...
Article
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Durability-based designs with timber require reliable information about the wood properties and how they affect its performance under variable exposure conditions. This study aimed at utilizing a material resistance model (Part 2 of this publication) based on a dose–response approach for predicting the relative decay rates in above-ground situation...
Article
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Service life planning with timber requires reliable models for quantifying the effects of exposure-related parameters and the material-inherent resistance of wood against biotic agents. The Meyer-Veltrup model was the first attempt to account for inherent protective properties and the wetting ability of wood to quantify resistance of wood in a quan...
Preprint
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Citation: Brischke, C.; Alfredsen, G.; Humar, M.; Conti, E.; Cookson, L.; Emmerich, L.; Flaete, P.O.; Fortino, S.; Francis, L.; Hundhausen, U.; et al. Modeling the Material Resistance of Wood-Part 2: Validation and Optimization of the Meyer-Veltrup Model. Forests 2021, 12, 576. https://
Article
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The aim of this study was to test caffeine – harmless to health and eco-friendly natural compound – as a potentially effective fungicide and insecticide for wood protection. Caffeine treatment of wood, using simple and cheap long-term dipping technology, was tested against the brown-rot fungus Rhodonia placenta and termite Reticulitermes flavipes....
Article
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In the wood industry, laser technologies are commonly applied for the sawing, engraving, or perforation of solid wood and wood composites, but less knowledge exists about their effect on the joining and painting of wood materials with synthetic polymer adhesives and coatings. In this work, a CO2 laser with irradiation doses from 2.1 to 18.8 J·cm−2...
Article
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The quality of the bonded joints in wood structures and furniture products is influenced by the surface characteristics of wood and the physical-chemical characteristics of adhesive. In this study the polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesives were used for bonding the Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) wood which was firstly dr...
Article
The thermal treatment of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood specimens was performed in three different media - air, paraffin or polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) - during 1, 2, 3 or 4 hours, applying either only heating at a temperature of 100 °C or modification process at the temperatures of 190 °C and 210 °C. Following, the thermally trea...
Article
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The bonding of wood with assembly adhesives is crucial for manufacturing wood composites, such as solid wood panels, glulam, furniture parts, and sport and musical instruments. This work investigates 13 hardwoods—bangkirai, beech, black locust, bubinga, ipé, iroko, maçaranduba, meranti, oak, palisander, sapelli, wengé and zebrano—and analyzes the i...
Article
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The adhesion strength between the transparent acrylic or alkyd coatings and the Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L.) wood was determined by EN ISO 4624 and analyzed concerning four variables: (a) fungicidal pre-treatment of wood with boric acid or benzalkonium chloride, (b) cold plasma modification of wood surfaces, (c) presence of hindered amine l...
Article
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The effective recovery of wood waste generated in wood processing and also at the end of wood product life is important from environmental and economic points of view. In a laboratory, 16 mm-thick three-layer urea–formaldehyde (UF)-bonded particleboards (PBs) were produced at 5.8 MPa and 240 °C and with an 8 s/mm pressing factor, using wood particl...
Article
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The effect of natural and artificial weathering on the anatomy of seven tropical hardwoods: Bangkirai ( Shorea obtusa Wall.), Cumaru ( Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Wild.), Cumaru Rosa ( Dipteryx magnifica (Ducke) Ducke), Ipé ( Tabebuia serratifolia Nichols.), Jatobá ( Hymenaea courbaril L.), Kusia ( Nauclea diderrichii Merill) and Massaranduba ( Manilk...
Article
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The biological resistance of 21 tropical wood species against bacteria and molds was studied. The gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli had none or negligible activity on surfaces of zebrano and maçaranduba (up to 1 ×10 6 CFU/mL), and they had negligible or medium activity on surfaces of maca...
Article
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The European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood was thermally modified in the presence of paraffin at the temperatures of 190 or 210 °C for 1, 2, 3 or 4 h. A significant increase in its resistance to the brown-rot fungus Poria placenta (by 71.4%–98.4%) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor (by 50.1%–99.5%) was observed as a result of all modifi...
Article
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Laminated surfaces of wooden composites are created from decorative papers and impregnation thermosetting resins, mainly melamine-formaldehyde (MF). This type of surface treatment is not always resistant to microorganisms, especially when polluted with organic substances. Bioactive additives are often needed to improve the microbial resistance. In...
Article
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Interesting aesthetic properties of tropical woods, like surface texture and colour, are rarely impaired due to weathering, rotting and other degradation processes. This study analyses the colour of 21 tropical woods before and after six weeks of intentional attack by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. The CIEL*a*b* colour system was applied...
Article
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Effects of biological modification of Norway spruce wood with the wood-staining fungus Sydowia polyspora were evaluated relative to select physical and acoustical characteristics (PACHs), including the density (ρ), dynamic modulus of elasticity along the wood grain (EL), specific modulus (Esp), speed of sound along the wood grain (cL), resonant fre...
Article
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This paper compares the resistance of 20 commercial transparent and semi-transparent coatings applied to European and Siberian larch during artificial weathering in Xenotest. The change in gloss, colour, contact angle of wetting, resistance to Aspergillus niger and Penicillium brevicompactum moulds was evaluated, and visual changes at the top surfa...
Article
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The capability to correlate exactly the process of outdoor natural weathering for the coating systems on wood surfaces via their artificial weathering in laboratory conditions would significantly reduce the testing times. In this work, a weathering of 16 different coating systems applied on two wood species (Norway spruce and black locust) having t...
Article
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This work investigates how wood modification with silicon dioxide affects its selected physical and mechanical properties and resistance to moulds. Silicon mineralization can improve some of the technical properties of wood and extend the service-life of wooden structures. Silicon, which is contained in inorganic and organic-inorganic substances th...
Article
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Special particleboards (PBs) proposed for kitchens, bathrooms, hospitals, and some other specific products for interiors should have a sufficient resistance against bacteria, molds, and decaying fungi. This work deals about effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) added into melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) glue in the amounts of 0, 2, 6, 12,...
Article
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This study investigates the effects of wood weathering on changes in its macroscopic and colour characteristics in connection with changes in its molecular and anatomical structure. Seven hardwoods suitable for outdoor architecture—bangkirai, cumaru, cumaru rosa, ipé, jatobá, kusia, and massaranduba—were exposed to the exterior out of ground contac...
Article
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The paper deals with antibacterial effect of silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles in acrylic coatings applied at treatment of commercial wooden composites - particleboard and medium density fibreboard. The silver nanoparticles usually better suppressed the activity of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staph...
Article
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Today, various kinds of natural oils based on fast-drying components are used for the treatment of garden furniture and other wood products exposed to water and sun without ground contact. The anti-mold and the color-stabilization effects of three natural oils, i.e. impregnating, teak and tung modified with zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO), UV-a...
Article
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Wood products are widely used in exposures convenient for their degradation by bacteria, fungi, insects, atmospheric agents, and fire. In such situations they should be protected by structural arrangements, modification methods or chemical preservatives. The efforts to replace traditional preservatives, e.g. creosote, chlorinated hydrocarbons or he...
Article
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This paper presents possibilities for increasing the decay and mould resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by treatment: (1) in one step with mixtures of aqueous solutions of methyltrimethoxysilane (0, 5, 10, 20 or 30 % MTMS) and benzalkoniumchloride (0, 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 % BAC), and (2) in two steps, first with BAC and then with MTMS...
Article
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Lamination is one of the most widely used techniques for the surface treatment of wood-based composites such as particleboards, fiberboards, etc. It is usually carried out using décor papers impregnated with amino thermosetting resins, mostly melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, or their mixture. Conventional laminates with non-bioactive surfa...
Article
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Molds in wet and warm environments often attack surfaces of products made from beech and other less or moderately durable woods. This paper presents the effects of the physical modification of beech wood with a CO2 laser having a constant power output of 45 W, using eight radiation doses from 7.8 to 75 J/cmcm². Variations in laser activations creat...
Article
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The paper deals about an anti-mould efficiency of nano-zinc oxide applied into wood alone (0.1%, 0.33%, 1% and 3% ZnO) or in combination with polyacrylate (5% Paraloid B-72) and essential oils (1% and 3% clove, oregano or thyme oil). Treatment of lime tree and maple samples 50×10×5 mm (L×R×T) with these chemicals was performed by one-step or two-st...
Article
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This work deals with selected physical and mechanical properties of the one layer particleboards (PBs) prepared with addition of biocide copper sulphate pentahydrate into melamine-urea formaldehyde glue in the amounts of 0, 2, 6, 12 or 24 w/w %. The following application properties of the copper-modified PBs were analysed – density, thickness swell...
Article
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Protection of particleboards (PBs) with inorganic water soluble biocides (e.g. copper salts) can be recommended for indoor occasionally moistened expositions – i.e. at a random effect of condensate water or at a water leaking from damaged pipeline – lasting a short time without damage of the adhesion connections between wooden particles and glue. T...
Book
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CONTENT Figures Tables Introduction 1 Timber Structures – Survey of Damages and their Restoration 1.1 Ancient and Modern Timber Structures 1.2 Service Life of Timber Structures 1.3 Biological and Abiotic Damages of Timber Structures 1.4 Principles of Maintenance, Damage-Diagnosis, Sterilization and Restoration of Timber Structures 2 Diagn...
Chapter
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The structural protection of wooden products and constructions is concerned with the aim to supress the danger of their damage by fungi, insects, marine organisms, fire and weather factors in interiors and exteriors. This can be achieved by: a selection of durable wood species and suitable types of wooden materials, and proper designs. Requirements...
Chapter
Wood modification as a potential alternative to chemical preservative treatments and replacement of rare durable exotic woods, mainly for products proposed for damp conditions convenient for activity of pests. Individual structural levels of wood can be modified by various methods: mechanical, plasma, laser, thermal, hydrothermal and other physical...
Chapter
Abiotic material and energetic potentials have different intensities in interior and exterior environments, which corresponds with the modes and intensity of wood abiotic degradation. At higher temperatures, the solubility of photochemically disrupted wood components is increased and they can be better washed away from weathered surfaces of wood by...
Chapter
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The best known wood preservatives are bactericides, fungicides, insecticides, fire retardants, anti-weathering and anti-corrosive agents. Wood should be adequately protected with preservatives in consideration of its intended use, defined, for example, by EN 335 or American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Commodity Standards. At present, the pre...
Chapter
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In the world, to the most dangerous pests acting on wood products belong the decay-causing fungi, boring insects and marine borers, while rather less dangerous are the bacteria, wood-staining fungi, moulds, birds and mammals. The physiology of wood-damaging fungi is influenced by trophic, abiotic, biological and anthropogenic factors present in an...
Chapter
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The service life of wooden products and constructions can be increased by their regular maintenance. However, when degradation processes in wood and/or in additional materials occur and cause damage, appropriate restoration methods should be used. In wood degradation, the dominant role is played by its molecular structure. However, its higher struc...
Chapter
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The implementation of a restoration project for a wooden object includes several operations such as a thorough diagnosis of individual wooden elements in order to ascertain their current state, sterilization, mainly depending upon whether the biological damage is actual, and restoration using suitable conservation and/or reinforcement techniques. M...
Article
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This paper utilized 12 coating systems, based on an acrylate and a hydrophobic polymer, with the addition of light pigments, nano-sized polyvalent metal (AsS-chelate complex) for ultraviolet protection, and iodopropynyl butylcarbamate fungicide. This study deals with the impact of the number of coats on the color stability and the surface defects o...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with the study of colour and chemical changes in lime wood treated with CO2 laser and subsequently subjected to the impact of xenon lamp radiation with the aim to simulate the ageing of wood due to the UV component of solar radiation. The separated areas were created on the surface of lime tree (Tilia vulgaris, L.) using CO2 laser (...
Article
This study assesses the suitability and sensitivity of select acoustic devices (Arborsonic Decay Detector, Fakopp Ultrasonic Timer with two types of sensors–TD45 and US10, and Fakopp 2D) for identification of damage in seven approximately 315 year old fir joining beams acquired during the reconstruction of the Baroque truss in the St. Mary of the A...
Article
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This work investigates the anti-decay efficiency of nano-zinc oxide (ZnO-Nano: 0.1, 0.33, 1 or 3% ethanol dispersions), three essential oils (clove, oregano and thyme: 1 or 3% ethanol solutions), as well as their mixtures – introduced into samples 25 × 25 × 3 mm (L × R × T) of maple wood (Acer pseudoplatanus) by dipping at 20°C/1hour. The anti-deca...
Article
Full-text available
This paper utilized 12 coating systems, based on an acrylate and a hydrophobic polymer, with the addition of light pigments, nano-sized polyvalent metal (AsS-chelate complex) for ultraviolet protection, and iodopropynyl butylcarbamate fungicide. This study deals with the impact of the number of coats on the color stability and the surface defects o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study is aimed to determine whether the addition of ZnO nanoparticles to thermosetting resin have effect on laminated surface resistance to cold liquids (and aggressive chemicals), dry heat and resistance to abrasion. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles into melamine formaldehyde resin did not change surface resistance to cold liquids. Laminated...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper was to study effect of transparent and pigmented vegetable oils on the colour stability of selected tropical woods during their natural and artificial weathering. The surfaces of four tropical woods recommended for garden furniture and outdoor architecture—kusia (Nauclea diderrichii Merill), bangkirai (Shorea obtusa Wall., Sh....
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the color stability of painted Norway spruce (Picea abies) samples subjected to natural and accelerated weathering, using Duncan's tests and correlation analyses. The following effects were studied: (1) the different initial roughness of the wood; (2) use of transparent or lightly-pigmented topcoat layers; and (3) the presence o...
Article
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Fungal attacks on beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) samples (25 × 25 × 3) mm were performed using the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana over a period of 8 weeks, without or with their previous accelerated ageing in a Xenotest and a drying oven. Due to the fungal and ageing-fungal attacks, respectively, the top surfaces of the reference beech sample...
Article
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Above-ground Norway spruce telecommunication poles impregnated with creosote in 1965 were subjected to regular in situ inspection near the end of their service-life in 2013 using also ultrasonic (Fakopp Ultrasonic Timer) and drill-resistance (Resistograph IML-Resi-F-400) techniques. The 1.2 m-long bottom parts of five poles proposed for exchange un...
Article
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Bacteria and mould exposures are reported to be associated with allergies, respiratory symptoms and asthma. Wood products with antimicrobial surface would reduce the risk of spreading microbial infections especially in healthcare facilities and public buildings. In future is perspective of their use.In this study, twenty five wooden composites comm...
Article
Full-text available
Wooden artefacts have to be in some situations conserved with the aim to restore their aesthetical, strength and durability properties. Various types of conservation agents can be used for these purposes. In this work, there is searched individual and combined anti-fungal effect of the oxide nanoparticles (0.1 %, 0.33 % and 1 % ZnO-Nano) and the et...
Article
Full-text available
Photostability (valued in the CIE-L*a*b* colour system) of spruce samples painted with two types of acrylic coatings and exposed outdoor under a slope of 45° in accordance with EN 927-3 was a slightly positively affected by their plasma pretreatment. Plasma decreased especially yellowing of spruce surfaces at weathering. On the other hand, positive...
Article
Full-text available
Wooden artefacts have to be in some situations conserved with the aim to restore their aesthetical, strength and durability properties. Various types of conservation agents can be used for these purposes. In this work, there is searched individual and combined anti-fungal effect of the oxide nanoparticles (0.1 %, 0.33 % and 1 % ZnO-Nano) and the et...
Article
Full-text available
This work examined the colour stability, measured in the CIE-L*a*b* colour system, of the Norway spruce samples which have firstly been pre-treated with the ADRE (Atmospheric Discharge with Runway Electrons) low temperature plasma, following painted with acrylic or alkyd transparent coatings containing UV stabilizers, and finally subjected for one...
Article
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Durability and aesthetical characteristics of wooden products exposed outdoor are influenced by various factors: – wood species, treatment of wood, severity of exposure, etc. In this study have been investigated effects of accelerated weathering (in Xenotest with alternation of UV-light irradiation and water spray) on colour changes of samples from...
Article
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Paper presents the decay and mould resistance of the Scots pine sapwood specimens modified with four organo-silanes, the methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), the vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS), the propyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS), or the 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS), and some of them additionally painted with the transparent acrylic coating (Balalcr...
Article
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V současné době prochází stavebnictví procesem implementace politiky trvale udržitelného rozvoje. V této souvislosti se mění přístup k použití materiálů a technologií na ochranu dřeva ve stavebních konstrukcích. Není žádoucí, aby dřevo v konstrukcích znehodnocovaly látky typu toxických biocidů apod., například tím, že zvyšují podíl nerecyklovatelný...
Article
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Damaging of thermal insulations in wooden structures by mechanical, physical, chemical or biological factors leads to impair of their efficiency in a connection with energy and economy losses. Paper discusses resistance of selected synthetic-organic (expanded polystyrene, extruded polystyrene and polyurethane), natural-organic (cellulose, straw, he...
Article
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Improvement of insufficient fungal resistance of beech plywood for wet conditions was examined by: (1) incorporation of durable oak (Quercus robur) or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) surface veneers instead of beech (Fagus sylvatica) ones; (2) primordial treatment of beech surface veneers with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 3 % solutions of fungicides DDAC, I...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to analyse changes in the colour of wood treated with selected transparent coatings after accelerated ageing in Xenotest. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) heart-wood samples were treated with three transparent coatings recommended for outdoor exposures: PerlColor, Osmo UV-Protection Oil 420 and AquaStop, creating eigh...
Article
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This work analyses the anti-fungal efficacy and stability of 10 essential oils, as well as their colour stability, in wood. The efficacy of oils against the decay fungi Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor as well as the moulds Aspergillus niger and Penicillium brevicompactum was evaluated first on filter papers treated with 1, 3.5, 10%, or 1...
Data
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