Ladislao Salmerón

Ladislao Salmerón
University of Valencia | UV · Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación

Professor

About

114
Publications
45,105
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
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2,802
Citations
Citations since 2016
65 Research Items
2158 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - present
University of Valencia
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2000 - December 2005
University of Granada
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (114)
Chapter
Multiple texts refers to different text-based sources about the same topic. Learning from multiple texts involves selecting, comprehending, evaluating, and integrating information from two or more textual sources to meet a reading goal. This article provides an overview of learning from multiple texts. We overview models that describe learning from...
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The associations among readers’ cognitive skills (general cognitive ability, reading skills, and attentional functioning), task demands (easy versus difficult questions), and process measures (total fixation time on relevant and irrelevant paragraphs) was investigated to explain task-oriented reading accuracy and efficiency (number of scores in a g...
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This study focused on the potential effects of screen size (smartphone vs. tablet) and text movement (scrolling vs. paging) on integrated understanding of text information, strategic backtracking, and intrinsic reading motivation when Norwegian university students read an informational text on either a smartphone or a tablet by either scrolling or...
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Background: A large proportion of studies carried out in recent years in different populations have shown that stigma toward mental disorders is highly prevalent. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive assessment of stigma to describe and compare stigma toward mental disorders in students enrolled in five different university degrees....
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Background: The Internet provides individuals with intellectual disability with access to information and participation in a broader society, but it also presents risks when content is difficult to comprehend. This study aimed to test whether students with intellectual disability enhanced their comprehension of online blogs as a function of the fo...
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Concerns about the negative effects of digitalization on students’ reading comprehension, empirically backed by recent meta-analyses, question the efficacy of digital tools in the language arts classroom. By analyzing data from 4 and 8th grade US students from NAEP 2017, we aimed to test the generalization of the negative association between screen...
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Informational video blogs are a popular method of communication among students that may be fruitful educational tools, but their potential benefits and risks remain unclear. Streaming videos created by YouTubers are often consumed for entertainment, which may lead students to develop habits that hinder in-depth information processing. We aimed to t...
Article
In the present article, we examined the effect of the reading medium and the reading time-frame on text processing, metacognitive monitoring of comprehension , and comprehension outcomes. The eye movements of 116 undergraduates were recorded while they read three texts in print and three texts on a tablet under self-paced reading time or under time...
Article
Despite schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by a high psychopathological heterogeneity, the underlying psychological mechanisms that result in different clinical profiles are unclear. This study examined the cognitive processing of emotional faces (angry, happy, neutral, and sad) by means of assessing inhibitory control (antisaccade task) and atten...
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When using the Internet to learn about a curricular topic students face the challenge of not only understanding each single document, but also of integrating the ideas in a combined representation. Several intervention studies have tested instructional methods, such as building concept maps, aimed at teaching integration of multiple documents to Se...
Article
Due to the participatory nature of Web 2.0, polite communication on social media and news sites can stand side by side with uncivil comments. Research on online incivility has been conducted with users reading in their mother tongues (L1), while the potential effects of incivility in a second language (L2) have been largely under-explored. This pap...
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Introduction Autistic Spectrum Condition is often characterized by the presence of deficits in social interaction. An abnormal attentional processing may explain these difficulties, as it has been suggested that individuals with autism spectrum conditions may have problems with orienting attention to socially relevant stimuli and/or inhibiting thei...
Article
This study explored the influence of reading media and reading time-frame on readers' on-task attention, metacognitive calibration, and reading comprehension. One hundred and forty undergraduates were allocated to one of four experimental conditions varying on the reading medium (in print vs. on screen) and on the reading time-frame (free vs. press...
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Educational institutions across the world are increasingly integrating tablets in the classroom, under the assumption that tablets improve students' learning. However, little research has specifically focused on the effects of tablets on reading comprehension of primary school children. Based on previous research with undergraduate students, we tes...
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic Critical reading implies sourcing. Sourcing is the process of using information about documents in evaluating and interpreting documents' content. Sourcing is related to comprehension of multiple texts on the same topic. Interventions have been implemented to improve students' critical reading...
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This study investigated whether accessing conflicting claims in other documents by means of hyperlinks embedded within currently read documents may facilitate conflict detection and source-content integration. Norwegian undergraduates (n = 85) read multiple conflicting documents on a controversial health-related issue, with half of the conflicting...
Conference Paper
The present study investigated the effects of three different graphic organizers (different types of concept maps) on students’ interaction with a hypertext and learning outcome. We examined the impact of a linear graphic outline, an expert-provided concept map and a self-generated concept map on students’ hypertext processing (i.e. time spent read...
Article
In many Internet videos authors appear in front of the camera to present their particular view on a topic. Given the high consumption rate of Internet videos by teenagers, we explored the pros and cons of using these videos to learn about complex topics, compared to learning from textual web pages. Specifically, we studied how 207 primary school st...
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This study investigated effects of reading medium (print vs. digital) on integrative processing and integrated understanding of an illustrated text on human sexuality, as well as whether reading medium indirectly affected integrated understanding via integrative processing. Participants were 100 undergraduate and graduate students in educational sc...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between teenagers’ use of social networking sites (SNS) and their sourcing abilities. Sourcing is defined as students’ ability (1) to discriminate reliable and unreliable links based on source characteristics, (2) to value source criteria as means to select information resources and (3) to select reliable te...
Article
This study examines the development of source evaluation skills in four groups of students from 10 to 19 years of age. We designed a set of tasks based on a distinction between three components of source evaluation: the identification of source parameters; the evaluation of source features such as the source’s competence or benevolence under explic...
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Two experimental studies were carried out to investigate whether adding multimedia features in a concept mapping task would improve the quality of the map built by students and promote more effective learning with expository hypertexts. Ninety-Nine undergraduates built a concept map to learn about a topic (water cycle or nitrogen cycle) either w...
Conference Paper
Search engine results pages (SERPs) are a frequent gateway to Internet content. Prior research has extensively documented strong effects of SERPs (e.g. rank order or the spatial distribution of the results) on users' attention to and selection of particular Web pages [1,2]. In the context of Web search, a common user behavior is the 'top link' or '...
Chapter
This chapter first presents theoretical models developed within educational psychology that highlight the important role of strategic processing. In particular, it discusses how strategic processing has been measured within these models. Based on a general definition of self-reports as utterances or answers to prompts or questions provided by indiv...
Article
In the digital age, the introduction of digital technologies (or information and communication technologies, ICT) in classrooms is a necessary, imperative reality. However, the educational results do not seem to match the expectations generated. For this reason, this revision seeks to make up for the scant attention paid to the possible harmful eff...
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This study investigated how four 10th-grade students with dyslexia processed and integrated information across web pages and representations when learning in a multiple source multimedia context. Eye movement data showed that participants' processing of the materials varied with respect to their initial exploration of the web pages, their overall p...
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The study addressed to what extent behavioral engagement and textual integration may differ when undergraduate readers work with identical printed versus digital texts in preparation for an exam versus for pleasure. We expected that working with printed texts would lead to greater engagement and better integration than working with digital texts, b...
Conference Paper
Previous research have found evidences of both, low traditional literacy skills (e.g. reading) and low digital literacy skills (computers and Internet skills) in the population of young students with intellectual disabilities ID). The main goal of this study was to test if learning content in the Internet was enhanced or interfered by video blog pr...
Article
The authors examined adolescents’ detection of features that affect the quality of web information. In experiment 1, participants (12–16 years old) rated the goodness/usefulness of four web‐like documents for a simulated study assignment. Each document came with an issue that potentially undermined its quality. Two documents had source‐related issu...
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Background Young people with intellectual disability (ID) are becoming frequent Internet users, but they present difficulties selecting reliable Internet sources. Methods The present authors tested an instructional programme aimed at increasing skills to evaluate information from the Internet of 33 young adult students with intellectual disability...
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Delgado, P. et al. (2018): “Un programa de formación en lectura crítica en internet para jóvenes con discapacidad intelectual”. Revista Española de Discapacidad,6 (II): 229-245.
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During the last 15 years, there have been some efforts to extend the use of eye-tracking to researching reading in complex contexts, such as the reading of multiple documents. The research community involved in this extension has been interested in higher-order comprehension processes occurring in complex reading contexts, such as sourcing, defined...
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***** OPEN ACCESS at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.09.003 **************** With the increasing dominance of digital reading over paper reading, gaining understanding of the effects of the medium on reading comprehension has become critical. However, results from research comparing learning outcomes across printed and digital media are mix...
Article
Con frecuencia, y con el objetivo de trabajar la competencia digital, pedimos a nuestros alumnos que utilicen Wikipedia ® para la búsqueda y comprensión de información académica. En el presente artículo se analizan algunas características que hacen diferente la lectura en Wikipedia de la lectura tradicional en papel, y la complejidad que añade esta...
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Background: Reading on the Internet requires specifi c skills (e.g., navigation), apart from comprehension abilities, but there is no test in Spanish to assess these skills in adolescents. The goal of this study is to fi ll this gap with a test called WebLEC, inspired by the PISA framework. Method: WebLEC was validated with secondary education stud...
Chapter
Full-text available
The internet offers readers the unique opportunity to access rich information scenarios, but doing so requires the use of advanced digital reading skills. Examples of such scenarios are searching and acquiring information from multiple sources (e.g., hypertext, images, videos) and participating in the social exchange of information (e.g., web forum...
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Internet offers people with intellectual disabilities (ID) unique opportunities to access information and to participate in society. But concerns have been raised about the potential risks they face when accessing the Internet (e.g. giving credit to false information, being exposed to manipulative content). As part of the current debate between pos...
Article
Increased amounts of information available from the Internet have triggered new demands for students to evaluate information quality. Our study presents an instructional intervention aimed at fostering ninth grade students’ critical evaluation of source reliability. The intervention was grounded into theories of multiple text comprehension and used...
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During the last decade several studies have proposed and tested different instructional methods for teaching digital reading strategies to young students. In this study, we have tested the effectiveness of a program combining eye-movements modeling examples (EMME) and contrasting cases to instruct ninth grade students how to plan, evaluate and moni...
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Internet-based reading involves integration and evaluation of information from different sources and different formats, but also requires fluent navigation skills for adequate comprehension. The effects of linguistic (word decoding and comprehension-based print reading) and non-cognitive factors (reading frequency and self-efficacy) have extensivel...
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This study investigated the extent to which students' sourcing and comprehension can be supported by the reading of real, as opposed to print-out versions of multiple documents. It was found that the reading of real rather than print-out versions of multiple documents on the issue of climate change increased students' memory for source information...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the use of multiple online sources to seek information in such informal or non-academic contexts. It discusses models relevant to understanding non-academic use of multiple sources on the Internet. Several theories on multiple source use on the Internet have been developed in different disciplines, including educational psyc...
Article
The present study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of Bipolar Disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] vs. control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoi...
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The goal of this study was to determine the effect of setting a delay between reading a text and answering comprehension questions on when-to-search and what-to-search decisions in a task-oriented reading environment. Fifty-five eighth-grade students were randomly divided into two groups. One group read one text, answered comprehension questions re...
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While Arabic users represent by far the fastest growing language population on the Internet, research about how the peculiarities of Arabic language may shape users’ web interactions is still scarce. The preferences of Arabic users for menu location in websites have been studied. Two competing arguments have been proposed regarding the best locatio...
Article
Social question & answer forums offer great learning opportunities, but students need to evaluate the credibility of answers to avoid being misled by untrustworthy sources. This critical evaluation may be beyond the capabilities of students from primary and secondary school. We conducted two studies to assess how students from primary, secondary an...
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Social networks enable people with intellectual disabilities (ID) to participate actively in society and to promote their self-determination. However, concerns have been raised regarding the potential limitations of people with ID to deal with untrustworthy information sources on the Internet. In an experiment, we assessed how adult students with I...
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p>El presente estudio investiga los efectos interactivos de la navegación y las habilidades de comprensión en el desempeño de la lectura digital. Se consideraron como indicadores de la navegación la selección de páginas relevantes y la selección de páginas irrelevantes. Se encontró que en 533 secundarias españolas los estudiantes de 11 a 17 años mu...
Article
The present study investigated to what extent encountering a textual claim that contradicts one's prior beliefs may increase readers’ memory for the source of the information, such as the author or publication. A sample of 71 Norwegian economics and administration undergraduates were presented with texts on cell phones and potential health risks th...
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This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on dig...
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Answering questions from texts are assessment and instructional activities that are frequently used in schools. Nevertheless, little is known about the strategic processes that students take while performing these tasks. We explored the amount and frequency that students initially read of a text before they answered questions pertaining to the mate...
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This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation, relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on di...
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La competencia en la lectura digital consiste en la comprensión, uso, reflexión y disfrute de los textos escritos con el fin de conseguir nuestros objetivos, desarrollar nuestro conocimiento y potencial, y participar en nuestra sociedad. En la actualidad se considera que los “nativos digitales”, aquellos estudiantes que desde la infancia han crecid...
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We explored how high-school students’ use of hyperlink relevance cues to navigate while learning from a web document. Current evidence has shown that students may navigate by either performing a deep semantic analysis of the relationship between their learning goal and the existing hyperlinks, or by matching words in their task to words in the hype...
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When students solve problems on the Internet, they have to find a balance between quickly scanning large sections of information in web pages and deeply processing those that are relevant for the task. We studied how high school students articulate scanning and deeper processing of information while answering questions using a Wikipedia® document a...
Article
Los resultados de las pruebas de evaluación internacionales indican que las habilidades de lectura digital de nuestros adolescentes están por debajo de la media de los países de la OCDE. Este es el punto de partida del presente estudio, que analiza la efectividad de un programa de instrucción basado en la técnica del modelado por video a partir de...
Chapter
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Comprehension and learning with hypertexts is challenging due to the non-linearity of such digital documents. Processing hypertexts may involve navigation and comprehension problems, leading learners to cognitive overhead (DeStefano & LeFevre, 2007). Concept maps have been added to hypertexts to reduce the cognitive requirements of navigation and c...
Article
Las personas con trastorno bipolar se caracterizan por una desregulación emocional que afecta a cómo atienden a la información que les rodea. Investigaciones recientes han encontrado sesgos atencionales en las personas con trastorno bipolar, tanto cuando su estado de ánimo es bajo (mayor atención a palabras negativas y rostros tristes) como cuando...
Article
Attentional biases toward emotional information may represent vulnerability and maintenance factors in bipolar disorder (BD). The present experimental study examined the processing of emotional information in BD patients using the eye-tracking technology. Bipolar patients in their different states (euthymia, mania, depression) simultaneously viewed...
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Web users tend to search only the pages displayed at the top of the search engine results page (the ‘top link’ heuristic). Although it might be reasonable to use this heuristic to navigate simple and unambiguous facts, it might be risky when searching for conflicting socio-scientific topics, such as potential measures to reduce greenhouse gas emiss...
Article
An antisaccade experiment, using happy, sad, and neutral faces, was conducted to examine the effect of mood-congruent information on inhibitory control (antisaccade task) and attentional orienting (prosaccade task) during the different episodes of bipolar disorder (BD)-manic (n=22), depressive (n=25), and euthymic (n=24). A group of 28 healthy cont...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El presente estudio analiza cómo el tipo de anáfora (Por repetición vs. Pronominal vs. Anáfora nula) afecta al procesamiento lector, medido a través de movimientos oculares, de lectores con discapacidad intelectual. Resultados preliminares indican que el llamado Repeated Name Penalty, predicho por la Teoría de la Prominencia en el Discurso (Gordon...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Este estudio compara la ejecución en una tarea de detección de inconsistencias en anáforas pronominales de lectores con discapacidad intelectual (DI) con la de un grupo de lectores sin DI similar en edad cronológica. Se registraron los movimientos oculares mientras leían textos breves con o sin inconsistencias. Los lectores con DI realizan más fija...
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A major goal of formal education is to foster the transfer of learning, defined as the application of some knowledge learned in a particular context to a different situation. Nevertheless, too often students are not able to apply what they have learned at school to real life situations. Although there is ample consensus on the relevance of transfer...
Conference Paper
Los lectores con discapacidad intelectual (DI) presentan frecuentemente problemas cuando tratan de comprender textos. Tales problemas pueden ser en parte explicados por una dificultad para afrontar correferencias o recursos anafóricos tales como la elipsis o los pronombres (Fajardo et al. 2010). Los pronombres personales (ej. ella) pueden ser espec...
Article
Hypertexts include new structural features, such as navigable graphical overviews, that dramatically change the way students interact with texts. Nevertheless, at school students traditionally practice literacy skills appropriate for reading and comprehending printed texts. We explored the possibility that those skills might not be the same as the...
Conference Paper
This study investigates how students with intellectual disability and low reading comprehension levels process and resolve anaphoric pronouns. The influence of the order of mention of the antecedent and its syntactic function in the resolution of ambiguous pronouns in Spanish texts were tested by means of the analyses of readers’ eye movements. Eig...
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Prior research has identified two important navigation strategies that have a clear impact on hypertext comprehension: link selection and overview processing strategies. The first relate to the order in which students select hyperlinks while trying to comprehend a hypertext, whereas the second relate to when and for how long students process naviga...