L. Monika Moskal

L. Monika Moskal
University of Washington Seattle | UW · School of Environmental and Forest Sciences

PhD

About

91
Publications
37,550
Reads
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3,438
Citations
Citations since 2016
34 Research Items
2276 Citations
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Introduction
Prof. Moskal specializes in Remote Sensing and Earth Observation at the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS), within the College of the Environment, at the University of Washington, Seattle. Prof. Moskal serves as the Director of the Precision Forestry Cooperative (PFC), in which her Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis Laboratory (RSGAL) is located.
Additional affiliations
June 2006 - January 2021
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • http://faculty.washington.edu/lmmoskal/
May 2003 - May 2006
Missouri State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 1997 - August 2000
The University of Calgary
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
August 2000 - May 2005
University of Kansas
Field of study
  • Geography
June 1997 - August 2000
The University of Calgary
Field of study
  • Geography
August 1992 - May 1996
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Environmental Studies

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
The distinct vertical structure (i.e., “overstory-understory-grass”) in natural forest stand causes significant differences in species composition, carbon–water cycles, and phenology variations in different vertical layers. Due to the complex forest structure and apparent topographic variations, it remains challenging to stratify a forest stand wit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate, un-biased wetland inventories are critical to monitor and protect wetlands from future harm or land conversion. However, most wetland inventories are constructed through manual image interpretation or automated classification of multi-band imagery and are biased towards wetlands that are easy to detect directly in aerial and satellite ima...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon monitoring is critical for the reporting and verification of carbon stocks and change. Remote sensing is a tool increasingly used to estimate the spatial heterogeneity, extent and change of carbon stocks within and across various systems. We designate the use of the term wet carbon system to the interconnected wetlands, ocean, river and stre...
Article
Spatiotemporal variations of forest canopy gaps are essential indicators for both forest dynamic monitoring by capturing their size and location variations and forest ecosystem management for tree seedling regeneration through altering the radiation regime within and under forest canopies. To differentiate the effects of forest canopy gaps on fores...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting wildfire behavior is a complex task that has historically relied on empirical models. Physics-based fire models could improve predictions and have broad applicability, but these models require more detailed inputs, including spatially explicit estimates of fuel characteristics. One of the most critical of these characteristics is fuel mo...
Article
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Forest structure and composition regulate a range of ecosystem services, including biodiversity, water and nutrient cycling, and wood volume for resource extraction. Forest type is an important metric measured in the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, the national forest inventory of the USA. Forest type information can...
Article
Green roofs are among the most popular type of green infrastructure implemented in highly urbanized watersheds due to their low cost and efficient utilization of unused or under-used space. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of green roofs to attenuate stormwater runoff across a large metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest, United Sta...
Article
Full-text available
Accurately mapping forest effective leaf area index (LAIe) at the landscape level is a crucial step to better simulate various ecological and physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and precipitation interception. The LAIe products obtained from two-dimensional (2-D) remotely sensed optical imageries are usually...
Article
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Wetlands provide society with a myriad of ecosystem services, such as water storage, food sources, and flood control. The ecosystem services provided by a wetland are largely dependent on its hydrological dynamics. Constant monitoring of the spatial extent of water surfaces and the duration of flooding of a wetland is necessary to understand the im...
Article
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Forest three-dimensional (3-D) structure, in the vertical dimension, consists of at least two components, including overstory and a forest background matrix (i.e., shrubs, grass, and bare earth). Quantitatively characterizing the proportions of forest sunlit (i.e., sunlit overstory and forest background) and shaded (i.e., shaded overstory and fores...
Article
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Tree spatial distribution patterns such as random, regular, and clustered play a crucial role in numerical simulations of carbon and water cycles and energy exchanges between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. An efficient approach is needed to characterize tree spatial distribution patterns quantitatively. This study aims to employ increasingly...
Article
Boreal forests are globally extensive and store large amounts of carbon, but recent climate change has led to drier conditions and increasing fire activity. The objective of this study is to quantify trends in fire size and frequency using data spanning multiple scales in space and time. We use multi-temporal Landsat image compositing on Google Ear...
Article
A century of fire suppression has left fire-dependent forests of the western United States increasingly vulnerable to wildfire, drought, and insects. Forest managers are trying to improve resilience using treatments such as mechanical thinning and prescribed fire; however, operational and resource constraints limit treatments to a fraction of the n...
Article
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Methods to quantify solar insolation in riparian landscapes are needed due to the importance of stream temperature to aquatic biota. We have tested three lidar predictors using two approaches developed for other applications of estimating solar insolation from airborne lidar using field data collected in a heavily forested narrow stream in western...
Article
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Three-dimensional point data acquired by Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is used as ground observation in comparisons with fire severity indices computed from Landsat satellite multi-temporal images through Google Earth Engine (GEE). Forest fires are measured by the extent and severity of fire. Current methods of assessing fire severity are limite...
Article
One challenge that land managers face in the southern Sierra Nevada is how to balance conservation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) habitat with the reintroduction of fire. The fisher population in the southern Sierra Nevada is of high conservation priority, due to its small population size, genetic isolation, and the risk of habitat loss due to wildfi...
Article
Full-text available
Methods to quantify solar insolation in riparian landscapes are needed due to the importance of stream temperature to aquatic biota. We have tested two approaches developed for other applications of estimating solar insolation from airborne lidar using field data collected in a heavily forested narrow stream in western Oregon, USA. We show that a r...
Article
Full-text available
Top predators have cascading effects throughout the food web, but their impacts on scavenger abundance are largely unknown. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) provide carrion to a suite of scavenger species, including the common raven (Corvus corax). Ravens are wide‐ranging and intelligent omnivores that commonly take advantage of anthropogenic food resourc...
Article
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Research related to object-based image analysis has typically relied on data inputs that provide information on the spectral and spatial characteristics of objects, but the temporal domain is far less explored. For some objects, which are spectrally similar to other landscape features, their temporal pattern may be their sole defining characteristi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a collective sensing approach that integrates imperfect Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) obtained through Citizen Science (CS) tree mapping projects with very high resolution (VHR) optical remotely sensed data for low-cost, fine-scale, and accurate mapping of trees in urban orchards. To this end, an individual tree crown...
Article
Restoration of western dry forests in the USA often focuses on reducing fuel loads. In the range of the spotted owl, these treatments may reduce canopy cover and tree density, which could reduce preferred habitat conditions for the owl and other sensitive species. In particular, high canopy cover (≥70%) has been widely reported to be an important f...
Article
Fluctuations in weather and forest productivity influence the abundance and richness of bird populations, however in a rapidly urbanizing landscape the relative importance of each factor may vary. We assessed this possibility in the Seattle, WA, USA region by correlating ten years of bird richness and relative abundance of nine guilds indicative of...
Article
Accurately retrieving the extinction coefficient (k) of foliage elements is a key step to spatially mapping the radiation regime within and under a forest canopy. The azimuthal angle of foliage elements (characterized by their normal vectors) is an important factor for improving the retrieval accuracy of k using 3-D voxels derived from lidar data....
Article
Accurately determining woody-to-total area ratio (WTA) is a key step to indirectly retrieve leaf area index (LAI) from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. In this work, we first collected both individual tree and forest plot point cloud data (PCD) from broadleaf and coniferous tree species and leaf characteristics using both side-lateral and ful...
Article
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The scan angle information implicitly contained within the 3-D point cloud data (PCD) generated from light detection and ranging strongly affects the retrieval accuracy of the forest canopy structural parameters. Using information generated from overlapping aerial laser scanning (ALS) flight paths with multiple scan angles over a forest canopy can...
Article
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Habitat suitability maps are important tools for conservation planning and species investigations, but maps at resolutions that are biologically meaningful and useful for local-level decision-making are lacking for many species that use resources at fine scales. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) describes 3-dimensional structure of fores...
Article
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Large woody debris (LWD) plays a critical structural role in riparian ecosystems, but it can be difficult and time-consuming to quantify and survey in the field. We demonstrate an automated method for quantifying LWD using aerial LiDAR and object-based image analysis techniques, as well as a manual method for quantifying LWD using image interpretat...
Article
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In precision forestry, tree species identification is key to evaluating the role of forest ecosystems in the provision of ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and assessing their effects on climate regulation and climate change. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of tree species classification of urban forests using aerial...
Article
The sourcing of food plays a significant role in assessing the sustainability of a city, but it is unclear how much food a city can produce within its city limits. In this study, we propose a method for estimating the maximum food crop production capacity of a city and demonstrate the method in Seattle, WA USA by taking into account land use, the l...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate separation of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic components in a forest canopy from 3-D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data is a challenging but of key importance to understand the spatial distribution of the radiation regime, photosynthetic processes, and carbon and water exchanges of the forest canopy. The objective of this paper was...
Article
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Local-scale environmental heterogeneity can provide microhabitats that influence the spatial distribution of competing species. Microhabitats may influence the distribution of seagrasses along elevation gradients, but difficulty measuring intertidal microtopography has hindered quantification. Using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), we mapped and...
Article
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Object-based image analysis (OBIA) is becoming an increasingly common method for producing land use/land cover (LULC) classifications in urban areas. In order to produce the most accurate LULC map, LiDAR data and postclassification procedures are often employed, but their relative contributions to accuracy are unclear. We examined the contribution...
Article
Full-text available
We developed new vegetation indices utilizing terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to quantify the three-dimensional spatial configuration of plant communities. These indices leverage the novelty of TLS data and rely on the spatially biased arrangement of a TLS point cloud. We calculated these indices from TLS data acquired within an existing long term...
Article
In this paper, we discuss the importance of developing integrated assessment models to support the design and implementation of policies to address water quality problems associated with agricultural pollution. We describe a new modelling system, LUMINATE, which links land use decisions made at the field scale in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio and Ten...
Article
Full-text available
When processing scanning LiDAR data, it is commonly assumed that the extracted full-waveform LiDAR pulse registers truly vertical information of forest canopies. This assumption may lead to uncertain results for the spatiotemporal analysis of the waveforms due to off-nadir scanning angles and varying trajectories travelled by the pulses in overlapp...
Article
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Stream depth and bathymetry in forested environments is difficult and costly to measure in the field, but critically important for stream-dwelling organisms. Green (bathymetric) LiDAR can be used to characterize stream bathymetry, but little is known of its ability to accurately characterize stream bathymetry in narrow (width less than 5 m), heavil...
Article
Full-text available
Precise knowledge of fuel conditions is important to predict fire hazards and to simulate fire growth and intensity across the landscape. We present a methodology to retrieve and map forest canopy fuel and other forest structural parameters using small-footprint full-waveform airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Full-waveform LiDAR se...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of this exploratory project was to quantify seedling density in post fire regeneration sites, with the following objectives: to evaluate the application of second order image texture (SOIT) in image segmentation, and to apply the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach to develop a hierarchical classification. With the utilization...
Article
Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS)-based leaf area index (LAI) retrieval is an appealing concept, due to the ability to capture structural information of canopies as 3-D point cloud data (PCD). TLS-based LAI estimation methods promise a nondestructive tool for spatially explicit calibration of LAI estimated by aerial or satellite remote sensing techni...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing urbanization around the globe is leading to concern over the loss of tree canopy within cities, but quantifying urban forest canopy cover can be difficult. We discuss methods of assessing canopy cover within cities, and then use a case study of Seattle, WA, USA to examine issues of uncertainty in canopy cover assessment. We find that unc...
Article
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The characterization of soil attributes using hyperspectral sensors has revealed patterns in soil spectra that are known to respond to mineral composition, organic matter, soil moisture and particle size distribution. Soil samples from different soil horizons of replicated soil series from sites located within Washington and Oregon were analyzed wi...
Article
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Species information is a key component of any forest inventory. However, when performing forest inventory from aerial scanning Lidar data, species classification can be very difficult. We investigated changes in classification accuracy while identifying five individual tree species (Douglas-fir, western redcedar, bigleaf maple, red alder, and black...
Article
Forest stand point clouds generated from multiple scan locations using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have diverse range of spatial distribution patterns. These in turn have an effect on the direct leaf area index (LAI) estimation from the point cloud. However, the most effective placement of the scanning equipment in homogeneous vs. heterogeneou...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying the 3-D forest canopy structure and leaf area index of an individual tree or a forest stand is challenging. The canopy structural information implicitly contained within point cloud data (PCD) generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) makes it possible to characterize directly the spatial distribution of foliage elements. In this...
Article
Full-text available
Tree leaf orientation, including the distribution of the inclinational and azimuthal angles in the canopy, is an important attribute of forest canopy architecture and is critical in determining the within and below canopy solar radiation regimes. Characterizing leaf orientation is a key step to the retrieval of leaf area index (LAI) based on remote...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Wetlands have been identified by wildlife, vegetation, and aquatic groups as sensitive and critical habitat. However, management of wetlands has been hampered historically by a lack of information on their spatial distribution. Manual photo interpretation using aerial photographs is the primary method for mapping wetla...
Article
Full-text available
We present the point cloud slicing (PCS) algorithm, to post process point cloud data (PCD) from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). We then test this tool for forest inventory application in urban heterogeneous forests. The methodology was based on a voxel data structure derived from TLS PCD. We retrieved biophysical tree parameters including diamete...
Article
Full-text available
In precision forestry, tree species identification is one of the critical variables of forest inventory. Lidar, specifically full-waveform Lidar, holds high promise in the ability to identify dominant hardwood tree species in forests. Raw waveform Lidar data contain more information than can be represented by a limited series of fitted peaks. Here...
Article
Full-text available
Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly vari...