Kyrre Linné Kausrud

Kyrre Linné Kausrud
Norwegian Veterinary Institute · Department of Epidemiology

PhD

About

46
Publications
23,026
Reads
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2,293
Citations
Introduction
Kyrre Linné Kausrud currently works at the Veterinary Institute of Norway, at the Section for Epidemiology, and as a guest researcher for the Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo. Kyrre does research in Biostatistics, Ecology Epidemiology, and Evolutionary Biology.
Additional affiliations
March 2013 - present
University of Oslo
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2006 - July 2010
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (46)
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this report, we summarize the current state of knowledge and best estimates of how climate change is expected to impact Norwegian forest ecosystems from now to the year 2100
Article
Environmental factors are common forces driving infectious disease dynamics. We compared inter‐annual and seasonal patterns of anthrax infections in two multihost systems in southern Africa: Etosha National Park, Namibia, and Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using several decades of mortality data from each system, we assessed possible transmiss...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Import of roughage to Norway may introduce novel plant pests, invasive plants and disease-causing pathogens to both animals and humans. However, there is a high level of uncertainty behind these conclusions.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Scientific Opinion of the panel on Alien Organisms and Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). ISBN: 978-82-8259-382-3, ISSN: 2535-4019. Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM), Oslo, Norway.
Article
Full-text available
The survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an increasingly rare anadromous species, has declined dramatically during its marine phase, with disproportionate impacts on the poorly understood early post‐smolt period. Logistical constraints on collecting oceanic data to inform this issue pose a formidable obstacle. To advance understanding of post...
Article
Full-text available
Disease outbreaks are a consequence of interactions among the three components of a host–parasite system: the infectious agent, the host and the environment. While virulence and transmission are widely investigated, most studies of parasite life-history trade-offs are conducted with theoretical models or tractable experimental systems where transmi...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying a specific product causing a foodborne disease outbreak can be difficult, especially when dealing with a large amounts of suspicious food items and weak epidemiological evidence. A previously described likelihood model (Norström et al. 2015), improved within the OHEJP NOVA project, helps to prioritize food products that should be sample...
Article
Here we present a developing probabilistic simulation model and tool to assess likely lead times from emergence to detection and arrival for new emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Key aspects include combining real-world data available on multiple scales with a flexible underlying disease model. As demonstrated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and othe...
Article
Full-text available
Food business operators are responsible for food safety and assessment of shelf lives for their ready-to-eat products. For assisting them, a customized software based on predictive models, ListWare, is being developed. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive model for the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced roast beef....
Technical Report
Full-text available
Assessment of the risk to Norwegian biodiversity from import of wrasses and other cleaner fish for use in aquaculture. Opinion of the Panel on Alien Organisms and Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment. VKM report 2019: 15, ISBN: 978-82-8259-330-4, ISSN: 2535-4019. Norwegian Scientific Com...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Report from the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) 2019. Opinion of the Panel on Alien Organisms and Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment
Article
Full-text available
How a disease is transmitted affects our ability to determine R0, the average number of new cases caused by an infectious host at the onset of an epidemic. R0 becomes progressively more difficult to compute as transmission varies from directly transmitted diseases to diseases that are vector-borne to environmentally transmitted diseases. Pathogens...
Preprint
Full-text available
Environmentally transmitted diseases are comparatively poorly understood and managed, and their ecology is particularly understudied. Here we identify challenges of studying environmental transmission and persistence with a six-sided interdisciplinary review of the biology of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Anthrax is a zoonosis that is capable of ma...
Article
Full-text available
Environmentally transmitted diseases are comparatively poorly understood and managed, and their ecology is particularly understudied. Here we identify challenges of studying environmental transmission and persistence with a six‐sided interdisciplinary review of the biology of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Anthrax is a zoonotic disease capable of ma...
Article
Full-text available
To mitigate the effects of zoonotic diseases on human and animal populations, it is critical to understand what factors alter transmission dynamics. Here we assess the risk of exposure to lethal concentrations of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, for grazing animals in a natural system over time through different transmission mechanisms. W...
Article
Full-text available
Parasites can shape the foraging behaviour of their hosts through cues indicating risk of infection. When cues for risk co-occur with desired traits such as forage quality, individuals face a trade-off between nutrient acquisition and parasite exposure. We evaluated how this trade-off may influence disease transmission in a 3-year experimental stud...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, large-scale transmissions of infectious diseases are becoming more closely associated with accelerated globalization and climate change, but quantitative analyses are still rare. By using an extensive dataset consisting of date and location of cases for the third plague pandemic from 1772 to 1964 in China and a novel method (nearest neig...
Article
Full-text available
It is becoming increasingly clear that global warming is taking place; however, its long-term effects on biological populations are largely unknown due to lack of long-term data. Here, we reconstructed a 1,910-y-long time series of outbreaks of Oriental migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) in China, on the basis of information extracte...
Article
Full-text available
Plague (caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis) is a zoonotic reemerging infectious disease with reservoirs in rodent populations worldwide. Using one-half of a century of unique data (1949-1995) from Kazakhstan on plague dynamics, including data on the main rodent host reservoir (great gerbil), main vector (flea), human cases, and external (clima...
Article
Full-text available
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a mammalian vector-borne disease, transmitted by fleas that serve as the vector between rodent hosts. For many pathogens, including Y. pestis, there are strong evolutionary pressures that lead to a reduction in 'useless genes', with only those retained that reflect function in the specific environ...
Article
Full-text available
Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) feed and breed in dead or severely weakened host trees. When their population densities are high, some species aggregate on healthy host trees so that their defences may be exhausted and the inner bark successfully colonized, killing the tree in the process. Here we investigate under what conditi...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades we have seen rapid and co-occurring changes in landscape structure, species distributions and even climate as consequences of human activity. Such changes affect the dynamics of the interaction between major forest pest species, such as bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), and their host trees. Normally breeding m...
Article
Full-text available
This review highlights the latest developments associated with the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in ecology. Over the last decade, the NDVI has proven extremely useful in predicting herbivore and non-herbivore distribution, abundance and life history traits in space and time. Due to the continuous nature of NDVI since mid...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have linked climatic and social instabilities in ancient China; the underlying causal mechanisms have, however, often not been quantitatively assessed. Here, using historical records and palaeoclimatic reconstructions during AD 10-1900, we demonstrate that war frequency, price of rice, locust plague, drought frequency, flood frequenc...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change has been identified as a causal factor for diverse ecological changes worldwide. Warming trends over the last couple of decades have coincided with the collapse of long-term population cycles in a broad range of taxa, although causal mechanisms are not well-understood. Larch budmoth (LBM) population dynamics across the European Alps,...
Data
Supporting information containing additional figures. Figures S1-S13.
Article
Full-text available
Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis) infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies hav...
Article
Full-text available
Contigs assembled from 454 reads from bacterial genomes demonstrate a range of read depths, with a number of contigs having a depth that is far higher than can be expected. For reference genome sequence datasets, there exists a high correlation between the contig specific read depth and the number of copies present in the genome. We developed a seq...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of species interactions are of central importance for the understanding of ecological coexistence, community structure and the effects of biological invasions. Using bark beetles that colonize the same habitat as an example, we explore species interactions in a resource-based model system with positive feedback between insect abundance...
Article
Full-text available
The population cycles of rodents at northern latitudes have puzzled people for centuries, and their impact is manifest throughout the alpine ecosystem. Climate change is known to be able to drive animal population dynamics between stable and cyclic phases, and has been suggested to cause the recent changes in cyclic dynamics of rodents and their pr...
Article
Full-text available
A 56-year time series of human plague cases (Yersinia pestis) in the western United States was used to explore the effects of climatic patterns on plague levels. We found that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), together with previous plague levels and above-normal temperatures, explained much of the plague variability. We propose that the PDO's...
Article
Full-text available
In central Asia, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the main host for the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the cause of bubonic plague. In order to prevent plague outbreaks, monitoring of the great gerbil has been carried out in Kazakhstan since the late 1940s. We use the resulting data to demonstrate that climate forcing synchronizes the dynamics of...
Article
Full-text available
The bacterium Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague. In Central Asia, where human plague is still reported regularly, the bacterium is common in natural populations of great gerbils. By using field data from 1949–1995 and previously undescribed statistical techniques, we show that Y. pestis prevalence in gerbils increases with warmer springs and we...
Article
Foraging patterns of large herbivores may give important clues as to why their life history varies depending on population density. In this landscape-scale experi- ment, domestic sheep Ovis aries were kept at high (80 sheep km� 2) and low (25 sheep km� 2) population densities during summer in high mountain pastures in Hol, Norway. We predicted an i...

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Projects (4)