Kyle J Haynes

Kyle J Haynes
University of Virginia | UVa · Blandy Experimental Farm

PhD

About

62
Publications
13,561
Reads
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1,954
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
1039 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Additional affiliations
May 2007 - June 2009
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Position
  • PostDoc Position
June 2004 - April 2007
Miami University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2001 - May 2004
Louisiana State University
Field of study
  • Ecology (Zoology)
January 1995 - May 1998
Utah State University
Field of study
  • Ecology (Wildlife)
September 1990 - May 1994
University of California, Santa Barbara
Field of study
  • Ecology and Evolution

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
To identify general patterns in the effects of climate change on the outbreak dynamics of forest-defoliating insect species, we examined a 212-year record (1800-2011) of outbreaks of five pine-defoliating species (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini, and Diprion pini) in Bavaria, Germany for the evidence of clima...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating the causes of spatial synchrony in population dynamics in nature is notoriously difficult due to a lack of data and appropriate statistical methods. Here, we use a recently developed method, a multivariate extension of the local indicators of spatial autocorrelation statistic, to map geographic variation in the synchrony of gypsy moth ou...
Article
Light pollution impacts both intra- and inter-specific interactions, such as interactions between mates and predator–prey interactions. In mobile organisms attracted to artificial lights, the effect of light pollution on these interactions may be intensified. If organisms are repelled by artificial lights, effects of light pollution on intra- and i...
Article
Full-text available
Explaining why fluctuations in abundances of spatially disjunct populations often are correlated through time is a major goal of population ecologists. We address two hypotheses receiving little to no testing in wild populations: (i) that population cycling facilitates synchronization given weak coupling among populations, and (ii) that the ability...
Article
Evolutionary traps are phenomena in which rapid environmental change causes environmental cues that historically guided adaptive behavioral or life-history decisions to become poor predictors of the consequences of such decisions for an organism’s fitness. Evolutionary trap theory offers an ideal framework for understanding and mitigating the effec...
Article
The causes of spatial synchrony in population dynamics are often elusive. We review how recent advances have enhanced understanding of the causes of the spatial synchrony of insect populations and revealed previously underappreciated complexities in patterns of synchrony. We highlight how regional-scale studies of population genetic structure have...
Article
Full-text available
The population dynamics and impacts of non-native species often change following their initial establishment, with impacts either increasing or decreasing over time. The reasons why the abundance of an invading species may change are varied but often reflect changes in the way in which populations interact with resident communities. Here we analyze...
Article
Full-text available
Although spatial variation in climate can directly affect the survival and reproduction of forest insects and the tree species compositions of forests, little is known about the indirect effects of climate on outbreaks of forest insects through its effects on forest composition. In this study, we use structural equation modeling to examine the dire...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial light at night (ALAN) can impact the trophic structure of assemblages of ground-dwelling invertebrates, and changes in such assemblages can affect decomposition in terrestrial systems due to the various functional roles of these invertebrates, including microbial grazing, comminution of litter, and predation of other invertebrates, that...
Article
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Abstract Prior studies of how artificial light at night (ALAN) alters the abundances of herbivores, predators, and other trophic groups have yielded evidence of the alteration of energy and nutrient flows through ecosystems. Because the impacts of ALAN on arthropod assemblages may be context‐dependent, there is a need for more experimental work acr...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been shown to alter aspects of plant growth, but we are not aware of any studies that have examined whether the effects of ALAN on plants depend upon the backdrop of variation in other abiotic factors that plants encounter in field populations. We conducted a field experiment to investigate whether ALAN affects...
Poster
We present preliminary findings from an experiment testing the whether ALAN initiates a trophic-cascade affecting decomposition via invertebrates in the litter layer.
Article
Full-text available
Defoliating insects are a major factor impacting tree growth in temperate and boreal forests, but the effects of climate change on the severity and frequency of outbreaks of these insects are not well understood. Dendrochronological reconstruction of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) outbreaks on trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in...
Poster
Full-text available
Underlying mechanisms that create and perpetuate temperate butterfly diversity are not well understood, but are particularly important for developing informed management plans. To explore the explanatory power of the niche-assembly model and the productivity hypothesis, my study examined the relative importance of resource abundance, plant richness...
Article
Full-text available
Though a number of effects of artificial light pollution on behavior and physiology have been described, there is little understanding of their consequences for the growth and distribution of populations. Here, we document impacts of light pollution on aspects of firefly population ecology and underlying mating behaviors. Many firefly species have...
Article
Range expansions are a function of population growth and dispersal, and nascent populations often must overcome demographic Allee effects (positive density dependence at low population densities) driven by factors such as mate-finding failure. Given the importance of individual movement to mate finding, links between landscape structure and movemen...
Article
Allee effects are thought to slow range expansion and contribute to stable range boundaries. Recent studies have shown Allee effects to vary spatiotemporally due to influences of environmental heterogeneity on population processes. Gradients in Allee effects might occur as a species' range approaches suboptimal conditions while expanding into new t...
Article
Full-text available
Over large areas, synchronous fluctuations in population density are often attributed to environmental stochasticity (e.g., weather) shared among local populations. This concept was first advanced by Patrick Moran who showed, based on several assumptions, that long-term population synchrony will equal the synchrony of environmental stochasticity am...
Article
Full-text available
To date, research on the effects of forest defoliator outbreaks and pesticide applications to suppress these outbreaks on non-target forest arthropods has generally focused on non-target Lepidoptera and has not examined effects on regional diversity. In this study, we assessed the effects of forest defoliation by gypsy moths and application of the...
Article
Classical theories of biological invasions predict constant rates of spread that can be estimated from measurable life history parameters, but such outcomes depend strongly on assumptions that are often unmet in nature. Subsequent advances have demonstrated how relaxing assumptions of these foundational models results in other spread patterns seen...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how cycles of forest-defoliating insects are affected by forest destruction is of major importance for forest management. Achieving such an understanding with data alone is difficult, however, because population cycles are typically driven by species interactions that are highly nonlinear. We therefore constructed a mathematical model...
Article
Natural enemies and environmental factors likely both influence the population cycles of many forest-defoliating insect species. Previous work suggests precipitation influences the spatiotemporal patterns of gypsy moth outbreaks in North America, and it has been hypothesized that precipitation could act indirectly through effects on pathogens. We i...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Aposematic herbivores may be primarily bottom-up regulated due to their apparent toxicity, making them ideal organisms for studying the mechanisms of bottom-up regulation. Yet, few studies have examined bottom-up regulation of aposematic species. In this experiment we specifically examined Chrysochus auratus, the dogba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods As outbreaks of forest-defoliating insects can have severe ecological and socioeconomic impacts, it is critical that we understand the influences of climate change on the population dynamics of these insects. Using a pre-existing tree-ring reconstruction of defoliation of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), in Manit...
Article
1. Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-depen...
Article
Despite considerable interest in the impacts of forest-defoliating insects and pesticide-based suppression of defoliator outbreaks on non-target arthropods, studies have often been hampered by the unpredictability of outbreaks.We evaluated the long-term impacts of forest defoliation by gypsy moths, and the suppression of their outbreaks with Bacill...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Many forest insects undergo outbreaks, in which their densities rise from undetectable to extremely high. Outbreaks are widely assumed to be driven by specialist natural enemies such as infectious pathogens, but gypsy moth outbreaks show alternating severe and mild outbreaks in forests with a high percentage of oaks, a pattern that can...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Since its introduction to North America, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) has become a major defoliator of Eastern hardwood forests. While there has long been interest in understanding the impact of these defoliation events on native arthropods, research has met with limited success due to the unpredictability of g...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the pervasiveness of spatial synchrony of population fluctuations in virtually every taxon, it remains difficult to disentangle its underlying mechanisms, such as environmental perturbations and dispersal. We used multiple regression of distance matrices (MRMs) to statistically partition the importance of several factors potentially synchro...
Article
Full-text available
Recent collapses of population cycles in several species highlight the mutable nature of population behavior as well as the potential role of human-induced environmental change in causing population dynamics to shift. We investigate changes in the cyclicity of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) outbreaks by applying wavelet analysis to an 86-year time s...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods An important question in biotic invasions is why invaders spread more rapidly through particular environments than others. A number of challenges make this question difficult to answer. Monitoring spread over time and space is resource-intensive and may be unfeasible, and conventional methods of calculating spread rate...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Despite the pervasiveness of spatial synchrony of population fluctuations, the ability to isolate the underlying mechanisms (e.g., synchronous environmental perturbations, dispersal, or mobile predators) remains elusive. In this study, we use a novel approach to examine the mechanisms driving spatial synchrony of popul...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Climatic variation can trigger strong nonlinear responses in species, such as population crashes or outbreaks. For example, drought conditions have been hypothesized to facilitate outbreaks of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) (SPB) in the southeastern U.S. SPB outbreaks are defined here as rapid...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Synchrony in population fluctuations over long distances is often attributed to correlations in environmental stochasticity, but identifying the climatic factors generating synchrony remains difficult. Analyses frequently focus on finding similar synchrony distance-decay relationships between the population and a clima...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliations have damaged millions of acres of forest habitat and caused important changes to forest composition. To lessen the adverse impacts of defoliation, a variety of pest control strategies have been employed with varying effects on non-target taxa. In this study, we assessed the ef...
Conference Paper
Low density populations are prone to decline and possible extinction due to environmental and demographic stochasticity, and Allee effects. Allee effects collectively refer to decreases in the per capita population growth rate with decreases in population abundance. Understanding Allee effects can be critically important in the management of threat...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Spatial synchrony of population fluctuations is a pervasive phenomenon, yet the causal mechanisms are rarely known for a given system. Previous work suggests that spatial synchrony in outbreaks of the gypsy moth in North America is a result of indirect synchronization due to resource pulses caused by acorn masting. A m...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change has been identified as a causal factor for diverse ecological changes worldwide. Warming trends over the last couple of decades have coincided with the collapse of long-term population cycles in a broad range of taxa, although causal mechanisms are not well-understood. Larch budmoth (LBM) population dynamics across the European Alps,...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods A common outcome of population models incorporating trophic interactions is that population behavior is transient; however, due to the rarity of long-term records of population abundance, the prevalence of transient behavior in natural systems is unclear. We investigate changes in the periodicity of gypsy moth populati...
Article
In many study systems, populations fluctuate synchronously across large regions. Several mechanisms have been advanced to explain this, but their importance in nature is often uncertain. Theoretical studies suggest that spatial synchrony initiated in one species through Moran effects may propagate among trophically linked species, but evidence for...
Article
Habitat area, fragmentation, and the surrounding matrix influence levels of herbivory in various ecosystems, but the relative importance of these effects has rarely been assessed. We compared levels of herbivory and densities of dominant arthropod herbivores (the hemipteran insects Agallia constricta, Empoasca fabae, Therioaphis trifolii, Lygus lin...
Article
Full-text available
Observed changes in the cyclicity of herbivore populations along latitudinal gradients and the hypothesis that shifts in the importance of generalist versus specialist predators explain such gradients has long been a matter of intense interest. In contrast, elevational gradients in population cyclicity are largely unexplored. We quantified the cycl...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods In the classic source-sink models, net immigration from a population with a pre-dispersal growth rate > 1 (source) subsidizes the density of a population with a pre-dispersal growth rate < 1 (sink). When the source population is absent, the sink population deterministically either goes extinct (true sink) or decreases t...
Article
Full-text available
Outbreaks of many forest-defoliating insects are synchronous over broad geographic areas and occur with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however, there is considerable geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. Furthermore, gypsy moth outbreaks exhibit...
Article
Full-text available
1. Animals move commonly through a variety of landscape elements and edges in search of food, mates and other resources. We developed a diffusion model for the movement of an insect herbivore, the planthopper Prokelisia crocea, that inhabits a landscape composed of patches of its host plant, prairie cordgrass Spartina pectinata, embedded in a matri...
Article
Few studies have disentangled the effects of the area and fragmentation of a focal habitat type on species that use multiple habitat types within a landscape. We experimentally investigated the effects of habitat area, habitat fragmentation, and matrix composition on the movement and distribution of Melanoplus femurrubrum. Adults of this grasshoppe...
Article
Traditionally, ecologists have focused on direct effects of habitat area and arrangement on individual species or pairwise species interactions. Indirect effects of habitat heterogeneity on multiple interacting species are often neglected or lack experimental support. In a factorial field experiment, we explored the direct and indirect effects of h...
Article
Full-text available
Past studies with spatially structured herbivore populations have emphasized the primacy of intrinsic factors (e.g., patch quality), patch geometry (e.g., patch size and isolation), and more recently landscape context (e.g., matrix composition) in affecting local population abundance and dispersal rate. However, few studies have examined the relati...
Article
Full-text available
Animal interpatch movement and spatial distribution are known to be influenced substantially by the composition of the landscape matrix, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In previous mark–recapture experiments we have found that the rates of emigration and immigration for the planthopper Prokelisia crocea are greater within a mat...
Article
Full-text available
In theory, the rate of interpatch dispersal significantly influences the pop-ulation dynamics of predators and their prey, yet there are relatively few field experiments that provide a strong link between these two processes. In tallgrass prairies of North America, the planthopper, Prokelisia crocea, and its specialist parasitoid, Anagrus columbi,...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation strategies often call for the utilization of corridors and/or stepping stones to promote dispersal among fragmented populations. However, the extent to which these strategies increase connectivity for an organism may depend not only on the corridors and stepping stones themselves, but also on the composition of the surrounding matrix....
Article
Full-text available
Nonlethal (trait-mediated) effects of predators on prey populations, partic- ularly with regard to prey dispersal, scarcely have been considered in spatial ecological studies. In this study, we report on the effects of spider predators on the mortality, dispersal, and spatial population dynamics of Prokelisia crocea planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphac...
Article
Full-text available
Although the landscape matrix is increasingly incorporated into spatial-ecological population studies, little consideration has been given to the likely possibility that patch quality is confounded with the composition of the matrix surrounding each patch. For example, the nutritional quality of host-plant patches to an herbivore may be highly corr...
Article
Full-text available
To date, there is a lack of well-controlled field experiments that disentangle the effects of the intervening matrix from other landscape variables (e.g., patch geography or quality) that might influence animal dispersal among patches. We performed a field experiment to investigate how the movement of a delphacid planthopper (Prokelisia crocea) amo...
Article
Full-text available
Escape from natural enemies may favor the incorporation of a novel host plant into the diet of an herbivorous insect. This scenario has been suggested for the recent host-plant shift by the goldenrod stem galler, Eurosta solidaginis Fitch (Diptera: Tephritidae), from the ancestral host Solidago altissima L. (Compositae) to the derived host Solidago...
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--Utah State University. Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife, 1998. Includes bibliographical references.

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