Kwang-Hee Kim

Kwang-Hee Kim
Pusan National University | PNU · Department of Geological Sciences

29.07
 · 
Ph.D.

About

76
Publications
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567
Citations

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Full-text available
An effective method, involving time and frequency domains was developed to interpret seismic precursors by comparing groundwater-level fluctuations recorded immediately and long before the occurrence of a known earthquake. The proposed method, consisting of the pre-processing (3-point filtering, band-pass filtering, and spectrum analysis) and post-...
Article
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We apply the single-station microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method to image the geometry of Pohang Basin, South Korea, which experienced the greatest earthquake damage in Korea during a series of anthropogenic earthquakes between November 2017 and February 2018. We collected and analysed the ambient seismic noise at 124 tem...
Article
The 2017 ML 5.4 Pohang Earthquake in southeastern Korea, which was induced by fluid injection from an enhanced geothermal system, and its foreshock–aftershock sequence has been recorded by a dense and portable temporary seismic array. The hypocentral distribution of the earthquake sequence reveals the reactivation of a complex subsurface fault syst...
Article
Two major tectonic units in NE Asia are the Sino-Korean (or North China) and South China Blocks that collided in the Permo-Triassic periods. The South China Block is suggested to extend eastward to the Korean Peninsula across the southern Yellow Sea. The Gunsan Basin is a well-defined, fault-bounded sedimentary basin in the SE Yellow Sea and is reg...
Article
A matched filter has been applied to continuous seismic records from the eastern offshore region of South Korea to identify small earthquakes undetected by routine processing. The resulting density of the regional earthquake catalog has increased by a factor of five relative to the detections reported by the Korea Meteorological Administration. Hig...
Article
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The moment magnitude (Mw) 5.4 Pohang earthquake, the most damaging event in South Korea since instrumental seismic observation began in 1905, occurred beneath the Pohang geothermal power plant in 2017. Geological and geophysical data suggest that the Pohang earthquake was induced by fluid from an enhanced geothermal system (EGS) site, which was inj...
Article
Seismograms are mainly composed of three key factors: seismic source, path effects and site amplification characteristics. Among these, amplification characteristics are critical in evaluating the reliability of not only seismic design for engineering but also seismic source and crustal attenuation characteristics for seismology. In this study, the...
Article
Both 1900 years of historic literature and recent instrumental seismic records indicate the Korean Peninsula has repeatedly experienced small and large earthquakes. This study has used historical and instrumental records of Korea to investigate the characteristics of earthquakes in the peninsula. Results of GIS spatial analyses indicate Pyongyang,...
Article
The fluvial Tamna Formation, consisting of conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone layers, is widely distributed in Jeiu Island. Various sizes of quartz crystals were identified from most of the Tamna Formation, including the mudstone layer. XRD analysis also shows that the mudstone layer is composed of various minerals, quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspa...
Article
The ML 5.8 earthquake in Gyeongju, southeastern Korea, on September 12, 2016 11:32:54 (UTC) was the largest earthquake on the Korean Peninsula since instrumental monitoring began in 1978. It was preceded by an ML 5.1 foreshock and is being followed by numerous aftershocks. Within an hour of the mainshock, the first temporary seismic station to moni...
Article
Two earthquakes (ML 5.1 and 5.8) ruptured branches of the Yangsan Fault System in Gyeongju, S. Korea on September 12, 2016. After the ML 5.8 earthquake, aftershock earthquakes continued to occur, including two notable earthquakes (ML 4.3 and 4.5) on September 12 and 19, 2016. This paper details the early reports of the Yangsan Fault System in the G...
Chapter
HAZUS is a damage- and loss-estimation software package used in the management of natural disasters. The software enables federal and local authorities to provide rapid and effective recovery measures under actual earthquake situations. It also provides the information required to establish a realistic and comprehensive earthquake risk mitigation p...
Article
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A study of microseismicity in a 15 × 20 km² subregion of Gyeongju, southeastern Korea, establishes a direct link between minor earthquakes and known fault structures. The study area has a complex history of tectonic deformation and has experienced large historic earthquakes, with small earthquakes recorded since the beginning of modern instrumental...
Article
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The NNE-trending dextral Yangsan fault is a > 190-km-long structure in the Korean Peninsula traced to the southeastern coast. The scarcity of Quaternary deposits onland precludes any detailed investigation of the Quaternary activity and structure of the Yangsan fault using seismic reflection profiling. We acquired offshore high-resolution seismic p...
Article
A moment magnitude 3.1 earthquake occurred in the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR), Korea, on 9 February 2010. The unexpected shaking attracted much attention and raised concerns about the seismic hazards and risks in the SMR, which was regarded as an area safe from any earthquake hazard. The SMR has a population of 25 million and is one of the larg...
Article
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Small to large earthquakes have been reported in Gyeongju and its vicinity in southeast Korea during historical period as well as instrumental observation period. We identified and located more than 300 earthquakes that occurred between January 2010 and December 2014 in a 20km{\times}30km area, but were unreported because of their small magnitudes....
Article
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The black fault gouge having 5-10 cm width occurs at the center of the fault fracture zone developed at the early Miocene basaltic rocks that is located at the Geumkwang-ri area in Donghae-myeon, Pohang city. The fault gouge was analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTA/TGA, SEM, TEM, XRF, EPMA. Analyses reveal that the fault gouge is Fe-rich sepiolite having h...
Article
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The China Sea-West Pacific is the junction among Eurasian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. The intense interaction produces many trenches and marginal seas. The various geological structures such as the active continental margins(Ryukyu Trench and Okinawa Trough) and passive continental margins(the northern South China Sea) make it a...
Article
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ML ≥ 3 earthquakes (ML = local magnitude) that occurred in the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA) from 1973 - 2013 are selected to study the dominant seismicity period of this area. The epicentral distribution and temporal sequences of earthquake magnitudes are simply described. These earthquakes can be divided into two groups: one for events shallower...
Article
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Strong-motion seismograms from the 11 February, 2014 Tatunshan earthquake were recorded at stations around the source area. These recordings were used to analyze the strong-motion characteristics in the area. The largest peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of 100.7, 93.4, and 66.6 cm sec(-2) in the vertical, EW, and NS directions, respectively, w...
Article
Seismic hazard in the active collision zone of southeastern Taiwan has been poorly known. Although the area has experienced only a few magnitude 6 earthquakes during the modern seismic observation period, there are good geological and instrumental evidences that the area has repeatedly experienced magnitude 7 earthquakes, including a sequence in 19...
Article
Upper-mantle structure between 100 and 300 km depth below the northern Antarctic Peninsula is imaged by modelling P-wave traveltime residuals from teleseismic events recorded on the King Sejong Station (KSJ), the Argentinean/Italian stations (JUBA and ESPZ), an IRIS/GSN Station (PMSA) and the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) br...
Article
Array observations indicate that the relative PKP travel-time residuals in the Taiwan region vary from −2.5 to +2.0 s, a range greater than the largest known teleseismic travel-time residuals from deep Earth. PKP waves are generally employed to probe structures of the deep Earth; however, the contribution of shallow geological structures to PKP wav...
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a proxy for the calculation of seismic wave site amplifications and response spectral shape, as a part of our work to implement a nationwide system of earthquake loss estimation for Korea. Although direct measurements are desirable for constructing a site-amplification map, such data are expensive and time consu...
Article
Regionally varying seismic hazards can be estimated using an earthquake loss estimation system(e.g. HAZUS). The resulting estimates for actual earthquakes help federal and local authorities develop rapid, effective recovery measures. Estimates for scenario earthquakes help in designing a comprehensive earthquake hazard mitigation plan. Local site c...
Article
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High-quality first-arrival data collected with a high-density temporary seismic array and regional seismic network were used to construct a P-wave velocity model and identify the precise location of earthquakes in the active collision zone of southeastern Taiwan. A crustal-scale weak zone, defined by high seismicity, is characterized by a steeply e...
Article
The Hualien mainshock-aftershock sequence from December 1990 to January 1991 was used to investigate seismicity, active faults, stress patterns, and complex rupture processes in the Hualien region of eastern Taiwan. A combined data set, compiled from observations by the regional seismic network (Taiwan Telemetered Seismograph Network, TTSN) and a d...
Article
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We acquired and interpreted more than 650 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles in the Hupo Basin, offshore east coast of Korea at 37 °N in the East Sea (Japan Sea) to image shallow and basement deformation. The seismic profiles reveal that the main depocenter of the Hupo Basin in the study area is bounded by a large offset border fault...
Article
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Site conditions affect the magnitude of loss due to geologic hazards including, but not limited to, earthquakes, landslides and liquefaction. Reliable geologic loss estimation system requires site information which can be achieved by GIS-based method using geologic or topographic maps. Slope data derived from DEM can be an effective indicator for c...
Article
Site characteristic is an important input parameter in the hazard assessments of earthquakes, liquefactions, landslides and other natural disasters. We prepared a preliminary site classification map using the geologic and topographic maps of Korea in the previous study, in which slope and elevation data derived from digital elevation model (DEM) we...
Article
Located at the heart of the Taiwan orogenic process, the Longitudinal Valley is the surface representation of the plate collision and characterized by its narrow and long topographic features. Due to the oblique convergence of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate, it is widely considered the collision is in its initial stage...
Article
Two empirical magnitude scaling relationships, predominant period (tpmax{\tau _p^{\max}}) and peak ground displacement (Pd) magnitudes, were investigated for the first 3s after P-wave arrivals using 1,412 vertical waveforms recorded by the Korea National Seismic Network (KNSN) between 2001 and 2007. To evaluate the accuracy of the derived magnitude...
Article
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In late 2010, the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration proposed a national monitoring project involving the deployment of 8 realtime ocean data buoys. The area occupied by the buoy-array, located south of the Ieodo Ocean Research Station, can be regarded as a kind of gateway to Korean waters with respect to warm currents and the ship...
Article
High-resolution 3-D VP and VS velocity models around the source region of the Mw7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake show significant lateral and vertical variations. The mainshock occurred within a narrow low velocity zone along the Chelungpu fault. A sudden increase of velocity and seismicity took place across the Shuilikeng fault to the east. Most af...
Article
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The Taipei basin, historically low in seismicity, is located in northern Taiwan. A dense broadband seismic array was deployed in the basin in June 2004 to monitor seismic activity. During the period of operation, three felt earthquakes occurred near the eastern part of the Taipei basin, about 3 km to the south of Taipei 101 then the tallest buildin...
Article
Teleseismic events are used to obtain shear-wave velocity models beneath the stations of the Yellow Sea Broadband Seismic Network (YSBSN). Some stations are located on top of either a thick sedimentary basin or highly porous volcanic rocks and receiver functions at these stations exhibit prominent high-amplitude and long-period reverberations which...
Article
Basing on gravity and magnetic data, the wavelet and textural analysis methods are used to analysis the geophysical field features, extract faults information, and calculate magnetic basement in Yellow Sea. Results of new seismic tomography and shallow reflection seismic soundings are taken as the constraint, and three gravity and magnetic profiles...
Article
A moderate-sized earthquake (ML 4.8) occurred in the mideast Korea Peninsula on 20 January 2007. It was the largest inland earthquake to occur there since the inception of a modern seismic observation system. Although only four after- shocks were noticed in previous studies, a careful review of continuous data revealed that the main event was accom...
Article
Full-text available
The fundamental purpose of an earthquake early warning (EEW) system is to provide an advance warning/alarm of strong ground shaking from large earthquakes that will help to mitigate earthquake damage. To accomplish this goal, both the location and the size of an earthquake must be automatically estimated as rapidly as possible, i.e., essentially in...
Article
P-wave travel time residuals from anti-pole earthquakes (~180 degrees) recorded at seismic network stations in Taiwan show a wide range of lateral variations, from -2 seconds on the mountains to +2 seconds on the coastal sedimentary basins. This dramatic pattern of P-wave travel time residuals correlates excellently with surface geology and is cons...
Article
Hazards and risk assessments are highly dependent on geologic site conditions. Especially, soil or bedrock properties of shallow subsurface influence amplitudes, frequency contents, and durations of strong ground motion during earthquakes. The average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m defined from borehole data is routinely used for classifying...
Article
Teleseismic events are used to obtain shear-wave velocity models beneath the stations of the Yellow Sea Broadband Seismic Network (YSBSN). Some stations are located on top of either a thick sedimentary basin or highly porous volcanic rocks and receiver functions at these stations exhibit prominent high-amplitude and long-period reverberations which...
Article
We studied the largest inland earthquake to occur in South Korea since the installation of the Korea National Seismic Network in 1998. The earthquake occurred on 20 January 2007. The earthquake caused minor damage to adjacent structures and temporary failure of the electrical power supply. Although only four aftershocks were noticed in previous stu...
Article
P wave velocity structure in the crust of the Yellow Sea region was inverted by using P wave arrival data from the earthquakes recorded by Chinese, Korea and ISC stations. Taken together with gravity anomaly and fault system, Pn velocity and anisotropy, we analyzed the relation of various geophysical anomalies and the tectonic difference in the wes...
Article
Although earthquake damage was negligible in Korea during the last a few decades, its historic records suggest that the peninsula have experienced severe earthquake damages throughout the history. The potential for disastrous earthquakes, therefore, should always be considered. Harbors handle 99.6% of imported and exported cargo in Korea. Thus, it...
Article
Full-text available
Ground shaking recorded during the January 20, 2007, 4.8 Odaesan earthquake (Korea) were used to investigate the role of the crustal structure in producing a strong ground motion, which includes the identification of the phases responsible for the strong ground motion and their implications for seismic hazard assessment. Analyses of strong-motion d...
Article
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Economic growth, industrialization and urbanization have made society more vulnerable then ever to seismic hazard in Korea. Although Korea has not experienced severe damage due to earthquakes during the last few decades, there is little doubt of the potential for large earthquakes in Korea as documented in the historical literature. As we see no im...
Article
Korean peninsula consists of Precambrian tectonic blocks (Nangrim, Gyeonggi, and Yeongnam massifs) that are bounded by fold belts (Imjingang Belt and Ogcheon Fold Belt). A recent review of the tectonic evolution in the Korean Peninsula suggests that the Imjingang Belt represent the collision zone between the North China Block and the South China Bl...
Article
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Knowledge of expected losses in terms of physical, economic, and social damages due to a potential earthquake will be helpful in the effort to mitigate seismic hazards. In this study, losses due to a magnitude 6.7 scenario earthquake in the Gyeongju area have been estimated using the deterministic method in HAZUS. The attenuation relation proposed...
Article
Full-text available
Recently the market price of valuable metals are rapidly increased due to the high demand and limited resources. Therefore, manganese (Mn)-nodules (Polymetallic nodules) in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone have stimulated economic interest. Nickel, copper, cobalt and manganese are the economically most interesting metals of Mn-nodules. In order...
Article
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Normal Pn waves are commonly observed in Taiwan from shallow regional earthquakes at epicentral distances larger than 120 km, similar to the observations in many other continental regions. However, the critical distances to observe Pn waves for shallow eastern Taiwan earthquakes vary with azimuth corresponding to a significant variation of crustal...
Article
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Strong motion attenuation relationship represents a comprehensive trend of ground shakings at sites with distances from the source, geology, local soil conditions, and others. It is necessary to develop an attenuation relationship with careful considerations of characteristics of the target area for reliable seismic hazard/risk assessments. In the...
Article
Tectonic structures associated with the active collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates in eastern Taiwan can be manifested by metamorphic deformation, crustal thickening and uplifting observed on two NNE-SSW trending mountain ranges, the Central Range and the Coastal Range, separated by a 160 km long collision suture, the Longitudi...
Article
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The active collision between the Eurasia and Philippine Sea plates in eastern Taiwan has been explored from the recently determined 3D velocity images and relocated hypocenters. A north-northeast–south-southwest-trending high-velocity zone corresponding to the oceanic upper mantle is narrowly defined under-neath the collision suture from Hualien to...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional local-earthquake location using a horizontally layered ho- mogeneous velocity model is limited in its resolution and reliability due to the ex- istence of frequently overlooked 3D complexity of the real Earth. During traditional 3D seismic tomography, simultaneous earthquake relocation using the resultant 3D velocity model has produced...
Article
Full-text available
The Tatun volcano group is located adjacent to the Taipei metropoli-tan area in northern Taiwan and was a result of episodic volcanisms be-tween 2.8 and 0.2 Ma. Earthquake data collected over the last 30 years are analyzed to explore seismicity patterns and their associated mechanisms of faulting in the area. Using a Joint Hypocenter Determination...
Article
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Four subsets of earthquakes recorded by an island-wide seismic network from 1991 to 2002 in the Taiwan area are relocated using the joint hypocenter determination (JHD) technique. Relatively large horizontal and vertical shifts are observed during the relocation, which indicates there may be systematic earthquake miss-locations in the Taiwan earthq...
Article
3-D VP and VS models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Taiwan area have been determined using selected high-resolution earthquake data from an island-wide seismic network and two local seismic arrays. Lateral structural variations in the upper crust, as also evident from surface geology, are responsible for the observed large traveltime re...
Article
Deep-sea surface sediments, acquired by multiple corer from 69 stations in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone of the northeast equatorial Pacific, were analyzed for shear strength properties to understand their sedimentological process. The pelagic red clay from northern part of study area shows low average shear strength (4.4 kPa), while the sil...
Article
The recent growth in the production rate of digital side scan sonar images, coupled with the rapid expansion of systematic seafloor exploration programs, has created a need for fast and quantitative means of processing seafloor imagery. A number of numerical techniques used to enhance and classify imagery produced by long range side scan sonar (MR1...
Article
Tatun volcano group is located adjacent to the Taipei metropolitan area in northern Taiwan and was a result of episodic volcanisms between 2.8 and 0.2 Ma. Earthquake data collected over the last 30 years in different periods are analyzed to explore seismicity pattern in the area. Using JHD method, a few sequences of relocated earthquake hypocenters...
Article
Selected teleseismic data observed at temporary and permanent broad-band stations have been analysed using the receiver function method in order to investigate the very complex crustal structure in Taiwan region. Very significant azimuthal variations of radial and transverse receiver function responses from broad-band stations could be attributed t...
Article
Three-dimensional velocity structure and relocated earthquake hypocenters have been studied to understand the active tectonic process in and around the island of Taiwan using data collected by an island-wide seismic network and two temporary seismic arrays. Important observations from the resultant 3-D velocity model and relocated earthquake hypoce...
Article
Three-dimensional crust and upper mantle P and S wave velocity models have been constructed around Taiwan region using a selected subset of P- and S-arrival time data from a modern instrumental earthquake catalog of more than 30 years available from Central Weather Bureau (CWB) of Taiwan. The revised nonlinear travel time tomography method of Benz...
Article
Critically refracted seismic waves can be utilized in elucidation of physical properties of a high-impedance acoustic basement where reflection methods are not effective in general. Quality factor Q was estimated for the high-impedance acoustic basement in the continental shelf of the East Sea Korea. Various pre-processing steps for the estimation...
Article
Full-text available
High resolution 3-D P- and S-wave velocity models for Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake source area and its vicinity have been constructed. Inverted velocity models show large lateral and vertical variations. The most salient feature is the sudden increase of velocity anomaly and seismicity across the Shangtung fault and the Shuilikeng fault. The...
Article
Traditional local earthquake location using a horizontally layered homogeneous velocity model is always limited in its resolution and reliability due to the existence of frequently overlooked 3- dimensional complexity of the real earth. Simultaneous earthquake relocation during a traditional 3-D seismic tomography has only applied to a limited set...
Article
Typescript (photocopy). Thesis (M.S.)--University of Memphis, 1999. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 65-68).