Kurt Kratena

Kurt Kratena
Austrian Institute of Economic Research | WIFO · Energy, Environment, Agriculture

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150
Publications
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Publications

Publications (150)
Article
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The COVID pandemic has led to worldwide short-term lockdowns that mostly affected services with personal contact. In economic terms, the lockdown represents a supply shock that simultaneously leads to a demand restriction. The direct effect of the supply constraint is a change in both the structure and the level of consumption. The critical issue f...
Technical Report
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Maßnahmen für einen nachhaltigeren Ressourcenverbrauch in Österreich können auch CO2-Emissionen senken und damit zum Klimaschutz beitragen. Diese Synergiewirkung wurde anhand einer modellbasierten Analyse in den Bereichen Wohngebäude und Pkw-Verkehr bestätigt. Ressourcenmindernde Maßnahmen sollten daher gemeinsam mit Klimaschutzmaßnahmen implementi...
Article
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Erkenntnisse über die Auswirkungen von Stress und Entspannung, berufsbedingte Erfahrungen zur Burnout-Prophylaxe für Lehrer*innen und der praxisbedingte Wunsch nach Entspannungsmethoden, die unmittelbar im Unterricht anwendbar sind, führten zu dem Programm Vital4Heart. Die begleiten­den Studien wurden am BG Zehnergasse, Wiener Neustadt, durchgeführ...
Article
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Multisectoral models usually have a single representative household. However, more diversity of household types is needed to analyse the effects of multiple phenomena (i.e. ageing, gender inequality, distributional income impact, etc.). Household consumption surveys’ microdata is a rich data source for these types of analysis. However, feeding mult...
Article
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This paper applies a DYNK (Dynamic New Keynesian) model to compare the traditional environmental tax reform for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with a taxation scheme that taxes GHG emissions embodied in consumption within the framework of a unilateral policy of the EU-27. The embodied emissions of different commodities are taxed independently of th...
Article
This paper investigates the impacts of CO2 tax schemes on CO2 emissions, equity and macroeconomic indicators in Austria with the macroeconomic model DYNK[AUT]. Our scenarios focus on non-ETS CO2 emissions and comprise different tax rates and revenue recycling options (lower labor taxes, lower VAT and lump sum payments). The short-term comparative s...
Conference Paper
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We assess distributive, macroeconomic , and CO 2 emission impacts of CO 2 tax schemes in Austria by applying the macroeconomic Input-Output model DYNK[AUT]. The tax schemes analyzed focus primarily on CO 2 emissions not covered by the European Emission Trading System (ETS), applying different CO 2 tax rates as well as tax compensation schemes. We p...
Conference Paper
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Overview In Austria GHG emissions that are not covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) may have to be cut by 36% until 2030 compared to 2005 levels, and by 80% until 2050. CO 2 taxes could provide economic incentives to decrease consumption of fossil fuels. However, increasing attention is put to negative side effects of CO 2 taxes such as...
Research
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The CATs project focused on carbon taxes as a policy instrument for achieving emission reductions particularly in sectors not covered by the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Based on a systematic review of carbon taxes in EU member countries and a qualitative assessment of the implementation barriers and success factors in frontrunner countries...
Research
Full-text available
The CATs project focused on carbon taxes as a policy instrument for achieving emission reductions particularly in sectors not covered by the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Based on a systematic review of carbon taxes in EU member countries and a qualitative assessment of the implementation barriers and success factors in frontrunner countries...
Research
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Die vorliegende Studie übersetzt zwei Energieeffizienzszenarien in die Modellsprache des Modells WIFO.DYNK und analysiert die mittel- und langfristigen Auswirkungen (2030/2050) von Energiepreisentwicklung, Potentialen zur Steigerung der technologischen Effizienz sowie Struktur- und Verhaltensänderungen auf die Wirtschaftsleistung, den Endenergiever...
Article
This paper calculates the carbon footprint of private consumption in the EU27 by five groups of household income, using a fully fledged macroeconomic input-output model covering 59 industries and five groups of household income for the EU27. Due to macroeconomic feedback mechanisms, this methodology – besides induced intermediate demand – also quan...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss some, in our view, fruitful future directions for econometric input-output (IO) modeling. In particular, we bring to the attention of practitioners of this line of research the important recent developments, both theoretical and empirical, in other fields of economics, in particular, in macroeconomics, agricultural econom...
Chapter
Full-text available
Regional modelers have spent a great deal of time and energy worrying about the level of sectoral aggregation but relatively little time considering the implications of aggregation of households into a representative household. In the US, households account for 70% of GDP on the expenditure side and increasing concerns about rising income inequalit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report explores the theoretical foundations of the latest version of the model, FIDELIO 2 (which has being developed between 2014 and 2016), and contains a description of its main features. More information in https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/fidelio-2-overview-and-theoretical-foundations-second-version-fully-interregional-dynamic and a...
Conference Paper
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We analyze the economic and environmental impacts of different CO2 tax (uniform or progressive) and rebate (reduction of VAT, social contributions or lump-sum payments) schemes with focus on private consumption (i.e. heating and mobility) as well as distributional impacts on different household income quintiles in Austria. We use the econometric in...
Chapter
The supply-use system of production is extended to a social accounting matrix by and enriched with alternative model specifications in the blocks of final demand, production, and factor markets. Domestic, import and export prices are accommodated and different composite prices face industries, households, government and the Rest of the World, accou...
Book
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This document explores the potential for the use of a market-based instrument to contribute to reducing the emissions of particulate matter of less than 10 micrometres from household heating appliances in the framework of the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. The study is focused on the assessment of the economic and environmental i...
Research
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This paper is concerned with measuring and influencing the direction of technological change. First, it provides a comprehensive assessment of the factor bias of technological change using panel data from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) for 25 EU countries from 1995 to 2009. We measure the bias with respect to the inputs capital, energy, non...
Article
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The overwhelming attention to disaggregation of the interindustry components of the regional economy has neglected the problems generated by the adoption of the representative household in the modeling of economic impacts and forecasting in many regional economic models. Drawing on a recently modified regional econometric input–output model (REIM)...
Article
In Austria a considerable number of measures have been implemented to reduce final energy use for residential heating since the 1990s. The aim of this analysis is to investigate, why - despite these implemented measures - final energy use for heating has not decreased in the expected way. The impact of eight factors on final energy use for heating...
Article
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With this article, WIFO presents an update of its key indicators of the development of greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and economic performance, employing the latest available emissions data of 2010. Indicators thus mirror the development of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after the economic downturn of 2008-09. Following a dec...
Article
The aim of this paper is a sensitivity analysis with the core-periphery model of ‘new economic geography’ put forward in Grazi et al. (Environ Resour Econ 38:135–153, 2007). This model comprises interregional trade, agglomeration advantages and resource (land) use or environmental externalities. Grazi et al. (2007, GBR) compare a social welfare (SW...
Article
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The aim of this paper is the econometric analysis of embodied and induced technological change that reduces energy input and CO2 emissions in production. For this purpose, a model of unit costs and factor demand for 35 industries in 23 EU countries has been set up, based on the World Input-Output Database (WIOD). The deterministic trend usually app...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the impact of international outsourcing on the demand for skills in three small and open EU economies. A model of variable costs and factor demand functions for different skill levels and imported as well as domestic materials are constructed. International outsourcing is treated directly as a substitution process between labour...
Article
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This study quantifies the CO2 emissions embodied in Austrian exports and imports, using a two region-input output approach (Austria and the rest of the world). The approach considers differences in production technologies between Austria and the rest of the world, concerning the CO2 coefficients (per unit of output) and the input-output structure (...
Article
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For the third time in a row, WIFO presents a series of key indicators designed to provide transparent and easily accessible information on issues of climate change, energy use and economic performance in Austria. In doing so, WIFO emphasises the need to decarbonise the energy system in order to mitigate climate change. This edition is extended by i...
Article
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This paper gives an outline of options and strategies for closing input-output (IO) models by stepwise endogenisation of variables and embedding the input-output core into a general macroeconomic model. The accounting framework is a modified linear static IO model built around Supply and Use tables as provided by EUROSTAT. The modifications take in...
Article
For a long time economic literature focused on the negative environmental effects from production processes. Countering this is the focus of this investigation, namely research into the demand by private households for climate relevant energy. In order to be fair to the complexity of the energy demands of private households, time series data as wel...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to compare a social welfare (SW) indicator for sustainability with the ecological footprint (EF) indicator for measuring spatial sustainability. The framework applied follows the line of a core-periphery model of "new economic geography" as put forward in Grazi, van den Bergh and Rietveld, EnvironResourceEcon, 2007, (38) wi...
Article
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This paper deals with integrating technology as well as lifestyles as driving forces of energy demand into a model of total private consumption. Private consumption is determined by economic variables like income and prices as well as these other factors. Technology is represented by variables measuring the efficiency of households' capital stocks...
Article
For the second time in a row, WIFO presents a series of key indicators designed to provide transparent and easily accessible information on climate change, energy supply and economic performance in Austria. In doing so, WIFO emphasises the urgent need to reverse the rising trend of greenhouse gas emissions, i.e. to decarbonise the energy system in...
Article
This paper deals with integrating technology as well as lifestyles variables as driving forces of energy demand in a model of total private consumption for Austria. Private consumption is determined by economic variables such as income and prices. Technology is represented by variables measuring the efficiency of households' capital stocks such as...
Article
Full-text available
This paper sets up a model of private consumption for selected EU countries with special emphasis on the impact of energy efficiency on energy demand. Starting point for the analysis is the idea that consumers' demand is a combination of a demand for "services" with a technological component. Demand for services is derived from utility maximisation...
Article
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This paper takes as a starting point a combination of an input–output model with a national Ecological Footprint account for Germany in the spirit of Wiedmann et al. [Wiedmann, T., Minx, J., Barrett, J., Wackernagel, M., 2006. Allocating ecological footprints to final consumption categories with input–output analysis. Ecological Economics. 56, 28–4...
Article
Recently, several scientific investigations have been carried out in Austria on the potential of biomass as a renewable resource for the energy sector. Most of these studies look at this domestic biomass potential from a natural-science and technological perspective. In contrast to these, the WIFO study focuses on analysing the macroeconomic effect...
Article
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El presente art�culo se centra en la modelizaci�n econ�mica y el an�lisis emp�rico de estructuras sostenibles del consumo privado, tratando de extender los modelos econ�micos convencionales de consumo. El punto de partida para el an�lisis de consumo sontenible de energ�a para el transporte es el concepto de funciones de producci�n de los hogares. E...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with energy saving technical change in U.S. households' energy demand. The framework applied represents a model of demand for non-durables taking into account the durable stock and 'services' (heating/lighting and transport) that result from energy use. Embodied technical change is implemented by the average energy efficiency of th...
Article
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This paper analyses the role of different components of technical change on energy intensity by applying a Translog variable cost function setting with (short- run) fixed capital to the new EU KLEMS dataset for five selected EU countries (Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, UK and Spain). The framework applied represents an accounting of technical change...
Article
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Between 1990 and 2004, the average annual growth of total real value added amounted to about 2.38 percent, with +1.33 percentage points contributed by capital output growth, +0.46 percentage point by labour output growth, and +0.85 percentage point by multi-factor productivity growth (as well as minor re-allocation effects). Thus, the contribution...
Article
In order to achieve the Kyoto target, i.e., reducing CO2 emission by 13 percent against the reference year of 1990 as an average of 2008-2012, it is necessary to substantially improve energy efficiency in industry, transport and private households. In the period spanning 1990-2005, improvements in energy efficiency did not suffice to compensate for...
Article
Full-text available
This paper attempts to quantify the impact of outsourcing on production patterns and the labour market in a two-sector specific-factors model with skilled labour (specific factor) and unskilled labour (mobile factor). Outsourcing can be compared to the case, where trade liberalisation leads to trade in final goods and a change in relative prices. I...
Article
The paper focuses on economic modelling and empirical analysis of sustainable structures in private consumption and strives to extend conventional economic consumption models. The model analysis of sustainable consumption in the areas heating and transport for Austria attempts to depart from traditional measurement of consumption in national accoun...
Article
Full-text available
WIFO proceeds to put forward a series of key indicators on the development of greenhouse gas emissions, energy use und energy consumption employing the latest available data of 2009. Thus, indicators reflect the impact of the 2008-09 international economic and financial crisis. Thereafter, in 2009 greenhouse gas emissions decreased by a remarkable...
Article
WIFO has developed a novel disaggregated macroeconomic model of the Austrian economy ("PROMETEUS" – Projecting and Modelling the Economy, Transport and Energy Use for Sustainability) that generates specific simulations of the economic effects of changes and shocks affecting the energy system (such as crude oil price shocks). Through the model's int...
Article
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This paper combines factor demand functions (for intermediate input and labour) and price equations (derived from a Generalized Leontief cost function) with the traditional input-output price model. The cost functions determine factor demands for materials and labour as well as output prices at given input prices. At the second level of aggregation...
Article
This paper gives an overview of economic theories and models in the tradition of sectoral analysis and introduces the articles in this special issue. Some actual questions in the debate are highlighted and the attempt is made to give some legitimacy for the sectoral perspective. As one general conclusion one might state that the sectoral perspectiv...
Article
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En el presente artículo se realiza una revisión de las principales teorías y modelos recogidos en la literatura del análisis sectorial y se realiza una presentación de los distintos originales recogidos en la sección monográfica. Se han intentado recoger los aspectos más significativos del moderno análisis sectorial tratando de justificar el interé...
Article
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This paper sets up a model of private consumption for selected EU countries with special emphasis on sustainable development. Sustainable consumption,patterns require a ’decoupling’of energy or materials use from satisfaction of consumers’needs and demands. Starting point for the analysis is the observation that the ultimate goal of consumption is...
Article
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This paper presents a static CGE model of in tra-industry trade differentiating between final and intermediate goods. It makes use of the detailed information about the distribution of imports among demand categories available in input - output tables. Final goods trade and trade in intermediate goods are shown to have different economic impacts. I...
Article
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This paper deals with the regularity problem in the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) in terms of the boundedness of the budget shares within the [0,1] interval. The violation of 'cointegration accounting' can be seen just as another consequence of irregularity. The discussion of modifications in the PIGLOG cost functions leads to the proposition o...
Article
This paper sets up an input–output system of the relevant ecosystem flows that determine the carbon cycle in the global ecosystem. Introducing energy as the value added component in the ecosystem allows to calculate ecosystem prices expressed in ‘energy values’. Linking the ecosystem with the economy in an integrated input–output model then allows...
Article
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This paper deals with the issue of updating input-output (I-O) coefficients within a large-scale disaggregated econometric macro-model of the Austrian economy. Capturing the changes in input coefficients over time is an important issue in I-O modelling due to a lack of recent benchmark I-O tables in most countries. Different approaches for updating...
Article
The steps taken in 1999-2003 to liberalise the electricity and gas market produced perceptible price reductions, not least due to a change in the pricing behaviour of providers. At the same time, new regulations (introducing of surcharges to the electricity price in order to promote small-scale hydropower, renewable power and combined heat and powe...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes interfuel substitution for coal, oil, gas and electricity at a level of 12 activities. We use cross section data in each activity for appliance technologies (heating/cooling, steam generation, industrial processes, motors and lighting/computing) to estimate fuel input demand equations by appliance technology in a panel estimati...
Article
This paper assesses the relationship between EU manufacturing imports from the southern EU and the CEEC. First we set up an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) for imports of 12 EU countries from EU-South and CEEC at the disaggregated NACE level, differentiating between final and intermediate goods. Then we analyze the correlation between the sign of...
Article
Full-text available
El presente artículo se centra en la modelización económica y el análisis empírico de estructuras sostenibles del consumo privado, tratando de extender los modelos económicos convencionales de consumo. El punto de partida para el análisis de consumo sontenible de energía para el transporte es el concepto de funciones de producción de los hogares. E...
Article
The paper assesses the economic impact of a toll imposed on heavy-goods vehicles proportional to distance driven. The macroeconomic impact of the toll is estimated by using the disaggregated econometric model MULTIMAC of the Austrian economy. The assumption is that all toll revenues will be invested in the network of motorways. The toll is implemen...
Article
Changes in consumption processes have been recognised as important steps towards sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of research on sustainable consumption and to sketch new approaches in economic modelling ofsustainable consumption. A special focus is given to the relationship between stocks and flows as well as c...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the E3 (economy-energy-environment) impacts of a ,domestic emissions,trading regime ,in Austria ,for 8 manufacturing ,industries and ,the electricity generation sector by 2010. The trading regime leads to compliance,with the Austrian Kyoto target of minus 13% until 2010 for these sectors. Due to inter-fuel substitution, fossil e...
Article
The toll to be imposed on heavy-goods vehicles will drive up the cost of using motorways with the distance driven. As a consequence, it will provide an incentive to improve the utilisation of cargo space. Transports for hire or reward are better positioned to exploit streamlining options than transports on own account. The toll will cover part of t...
Article
Over the past decades, environmental policy discussions tended to focus on the negative impact of production processes on the environment. Sustainable development as a subject and holistic approach became a scientific and political issue only at the Rio Earth Summit of 1992. Since then, consumer behaviour and lifestyles have been increasingly recog...
Article
The economic analysis of sustainable consumption structures concentrates on the extent to which it is possible and recommendable to foster substitution of flows by stocks (improving the thermal quality of buildings, more energy-efficient transport systems). Also of relevance is the role that technological progress plays in such restructuring proces...
Article
On the basis of its model of energy demand and conversion in Austria (DAEDALUS III), WIFO simulated three scenarios to establish a long-term forecast of the development of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The baseline scenario assumes a continuation of current developments, while the Kyoto scenario reflects the effects of the Austrian strategy...
Article
Oil market speculation, the market power of OPEC, and the reaction patterns of non-OPEC suppliers can be identified as the essential factors affecting the development of oil prices. Acting in the manner of a monopolist, OPEC is trying to implement a revenue-maximising strategy, with due consideration given to the policy of its competitors. With a v...
Article
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In order to generate an exemplary simulation of an "import price shock" consequent to integrating the accession candidates into the EU, the model assumed that import of the 12 products defined would be cheaper by 10 percent; this assumption was based on Baldwin – Francois – Portes (1997), who expect the real trade costs to decrease by 10 percent as...