Kurt Dubowski

Kurt Dubowski
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | ouhsc · College of Medicine

Ph.D., LL.D. (h.c.)

About

72
Publications
48,507
Reads
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1,721
Citations
Citations since 2016
2 Research Items
282 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study compared beta-blockers reported by pilots with the medications found by postmortem toxicology analysis of specimens received from fatal aviation accidents between 1999 and 2015. Several studies have compared drugs using the standard approach: Compare the drug found by toxicology analysis with the drug reported by the pilot...
Article
Introduction: Pilots who use an impairing medication to treat a medical condition are required to wait an appropriate amount of time after completing the treatment before returning to duty. However, toxicology findings from fatal aviation accidents indicate not all pilots wait a sufficient period of time. Methods used today do not take into consid...
Article
On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommended lowering the legal blood-alcohol limit to 0.05 g/dL for motor vehicle operators in the United States, in an effort to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths caused by a driver's alcohol impairment (NTSB/SR-13/01). This recommendation has prompted other organizations and ag...
Article
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aerospace Medicine sets medical standards needed to protect the public and pilots from death or injury due to incapacitation of the pilot. As a part of this process, toxicology testing is performed by the FAA on almost every pilot who is fatally injured in an aviation accident to determine the med...
Article
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) reported a 1.5-fold increase in the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of street cannabis seizures from 1997 to 2001 versus 2002 to 2006. This study was conducted to compare the changes, over those years, in blood and urine cannabinoid concent...
Article
Full-text available
o-Toluidine, 6% (v/v) in glacial acetic acid, is used to determine glucose in biologic material after deproteinization with 3% (w/v) trichloracetic acid. A stable green color develops after heating at 1000 for 10 mm., and the absorbance is determined at 630 or 635 mp. The reagent is stable for many months at room temperature, and the reaction follo...
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For the past 50 years, the Indiana University Robert F. Borkenstein Course on Alcohol and Highway Safety, founded by Professor Robert F. Borkenstein in 1958, has made a unique and lasting contribution to that subject by providing expert-level short-course instruction to more than 5,000 registrants from North America and many international locations...
Article
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This paper intends to provide investigators with information useful in determining the presence of postmortem ethanol in fatal accidents and a case history of an accident that involved postmortem alcohol formation is presented. An ethanol-positive fatal case initially reported as being from ingestion was ultimately determined to be from postmortem...
Article
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An ethanol positive fatal case reported as being from ingestion was ultimately determined to be from postmortem ethanol production using the ratio of two serotonin metabolites found in urine. This case involved a transportation accident that could have resulted in additional hardships for the victim's family through loss of compensation and reputat...
Article
It is important in aviation accident investigations to determine if a fire occurred during flight or after the crash and to establish the source(s) of the toxic gases. Bio-specimens from aviation accident fatalities are submitted to CAMI for analyses. In blood, CO is analyzed as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and hydrogen cyanide as cyanide (CN-). Analyt...
Article
Specimens from fatal aviation accident victims are submitted to the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. During toxicological evaluations, ethanol analysis is performed on all cases. Care must be taken when interpreting a positive ethanol result due to the potential for postmortem ethanol formation. Several indicators o...
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Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are combustion products of organic material, but their production depends on material constituents and environmental conditions. Non-nitrogenous organic materials generate CO, whereas nitrogenous organic materials also produce HCN. For fire-involved aviation accidents, it is important to determine if...
Article
Full-text available
Specimens from fatal aviation accident victims are submitted to the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. During toxicological evaluations, ethanol analysis is performed on all cases. Care must be taken when interpreting a positive ethanol result due to the potential for postmortem ethanol formation. Several indicators o...
Article
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We conducted a one-year stability study on aqueous alcohol simulator solution, stored in sealed polyethylene bottles at 4 degrees C and at room temperature. Thirty-nine aliquots of simulator solution with a VAC target value of 0.079 +/- 0.010 g/210 L were stored and analyzed independently monthly at two locations: The University of Oklahoma HSC Tox...
Article
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Recent federal rules and traffic law changes impose breath-alcohol thresholds of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L upon some classes of motor vehicle operators, such as juveniles and commercial vehicle operators. In federally regulated alcohol testing in the workplace, removal of covered workers from safety-sensitive duties, and other adverse actions, also occ...
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Sterile whole human blood control materials were commercially prepared in batches containing anticoagulants and preservatives and approximately 90, 150, and 230 mg/dL ethanol with and without 0.3% (w/v) sodium azide. Aliquots in sealed vials were stored by the manufacturer at 2–8°C until shipped monthly to three academic toxicology laboratories tha...
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Commercial compressed vapor-alcohol mixtures ("dry gas") were evaluated to ascertain their suitability for control tests in breath-alcohol analysis. Dry gas control tests were conducted at nominal vapor-alcohol concentrations (VACs) of 0.045, 0.085, and 0.105 g/210 L (n = 50 at each VAC) with Alcotest 7110 MK III and Intoxilyzer 1400 evidential bre...
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Evidential breath-alcohol testing requires an adequate quality assurance (QA) program to safeguard the testing process and validate its results. A comprehensive QA program covers (a) test subject preparation and participation; (b) the analysis process; (c) test result reporting and records; (d) proficiency testing, inspections, and evaluations; and...
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The between-run accuracy and reproducibility of vapor-alcohol control tests associated with quantitative evidential breath-alcohol testing in the field were evaluated. Control samples were generated at six separate sites with 34°C TOXITEST™ II breath-alcohol simulators and analyzed by infrared spectrometry with Model 5000-D intoxilyzers in the reci...
Article
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Exemplars of current commercial breath-alcohol simulators were studied to ascertain their suitability for control tests and as calibrators in breath-alcohol analysis. Temperature, effluent volumes and pressures, effluent-alcohol concentration, and alcohol depletion were measured for simulators coupled with various current alcohol analyzers. Effluen...
Article
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Key aspects of the pharmacokinetics of alcohol are highly relevant to highway safety. Of particular pertinence are the partition of alcohol between various body tissues and fluids and the resulting alcohol concentration ratios for blood: breath and other body fluids, as well as the irregularity and short-term fluctuations of the blood and breath al...
Article
The importance of Dr. Sidney Kaye's contributions in the field of forensic science cannot be over-emphasized. He can be called a pioneer in the field of forensic science and forensic toxicology because of the many contributions he has made to analysis, the literature and poison control, as well as activities in alcohol and drug analysis. He has bee...
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Seven quantitative evidential breath-alcohol analyzers in three categories of analytical principle were tested for response to dynamically generated vapor acetone concentrations of 3, 100, 150, 350, and 600 µg/L and to alcohol-acetone vapor mixtures of 0.10 g alcohol/210 L and 350 or 600 µg acetone/L. No significant interference by acetone at any o...
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Quantitative evidential breath-alcohol analyzers and screening testers in each of the five current categories of analytical principle were examined for response to dynamically-generated acetone vapor concentrations of 3, 100, 150, 350, and 600 µg/210 Liters. Nine of the 13 instruments tested were unaffected by acetone at any of these concentrations...
Article
In a carefully controlled drinking situation there was great individual variation in peak blood alcohol concentrations (BACS) for given doses of alcohol. Alcohol nomograms and tables based on average results from such studies could be misleading since they could frequently result in serious underestimates or overestimates of peak BACS.
Article
To the Editor.— Testing urine for cannabinoids, the drug components of marijuana, has become common because relatively simple testing methods are now available. The presence of cannabinoids in urine indicates marijuana use, and a great deal of weight is often placed on positive findings. It is implied that performance is impaired while driving, fl...
Article
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A new method was developed to apply the advantages of automated gas chromatographic headspace analysis to delayed measurement of alcohol in whole breath (W-B). End-expiratory breath and vapor-alcohol samples were collected in sealed, heated 22-mL glass vials, stored for 0–15 days, and thereafter analyzed for alcohol by automated GC with aqueous cal...
Article
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Four methods for blood-alcohol analysis--gas chromatography, enzymatic oxidation with alcohol dehydrogenase, chemical oxidation with acid dichromate, and osmometry--are briefly reviewed from the point of view of the clinical laboratory. Advantages and limitations of these methods are discussed, and their key features are tabulated. The correlation...
Article
Full-text available
Commercial breath-alcohol simulators were studied to determine their suitability as calibrating devices and for providing control spocimens in breath-alcohol analysis. The best-fit exponential equation for the air/water partition of ethanol was found to by y = 0.0145e0.06583x, where x = temperature °C and y = Ka/w×103. Temperature, volume, pressure...
Article
With the emergence of breath alcohol analysis as the leading law enforcement technique, attempts were made also to retain specimens of breath for later analysis for their alcohol content, for evidentiary safeguard purposes, or for research applications. The principal obstacles encountered to satisfactory retention of whole breath specimens were the...
Article
Information processing was tested in 12 male subjects after smoking marihuana containing 0, 10, or 20 mg. of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in three consecutive experimental sessions according to a Latin square protocol. Successful dose control was indicated both by the dose-related linear increase observed in heart rate and by preliminary assa...
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I describe a new method for quantitative alcohol determination in equilibrated headspace gas of biological liquids by means of a solid-state metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) detector. After equilibration of the NaCl-saturated specimen at 40 degrees C or other convenient temperature in a closed vessel, a Taguchi MOS sensor is momentarily exposed to t...
Article
Breath analysis for ethanol, especially in respect to the forensic aspects, has been reviewed. Included are matters dealing with instrumentation, physiological factors involved in the elimination of ethanol via the breath, and, especially, the uncertainties in the calculation of a whole blood concentration of ethanol from the quantity found in brea...
Article
Various biological factors affecting breath-alcohol analysis were studied experimentally. End-expiratory temperatures in 55 healthy subjects were found to range from 32.41 to 35.69 degrees C with a mean of 34.53 degrees C. Forced vital capacity in the same subjects ranged from 1825 to 6550 ml with a mean of 4038 ml, and maximum exhalation after nor...
Article
Various biological factors affecting breath-alcohol analysis were studied experimentally. End-expiratory temperatures in 55 healthy subjects were found to range from 32.41 to 35.69° C with a mean of 34.53° C. Forced vital capacity in the same subjects ranged from 1825 to 6550 ml with a mean of 4038 ml, and maximum exhalation after normal inhalation...
Article
Full-text available
Breath possesses unique advantages as a specimen for clinical chemical analyses, including the continuous equilibrium of gases and volatile substances between expired alveolar air and the pulmonary blood circulation. Substances amenable to analysis in breath include O2, CO2, CO, and other gases, volatile organic compounds, and many drugs with suffi...
Article
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We studied several relevant biological aspects of breath-alcohol analysis in 55 healthy men and women, after alcohol ingestion and during breath-alcohol analysis with a typical 4th-generation instrument. We measured breath volumes, delivery pressures, and end-expiratory temperatures, with the following findings: End-expiratory temperature, 32.41-35...
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We give a résumé of "chemical testing" for alcohol in the United States in connection with traffic-law enforcement. Recent procedural and instrumental developments are briefly reviewed. Various factors involved in discrepancies between the results of analyses of near-simultaneous venous blood and breath specimens from the same subject are examined....
Article
In a series of 6 separate controlled clinical trials of antipsychotic agents in chronic schizophrenic patients, it was shown repeatedly that chlorpromazine (CPZ) exhibited hypercholesterolemic activity. In the analysis of covariance, the adjusted final mean difference in serum cholesterol concentrations between the placebo and CPZ groups ranged fro...
Article
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We give a r#{233}sum#{233} of "chemical testing" for alcohol in the United States in connection with traffic-law enforcement. Recent procedural and instrumental developments are briefly reviewed. Various factors involved in discrepancies between the results of analyses of near-simultaneous venous blood and breath specimens from the same subject are...
Article
Full-text available
Since publication of the above paper, we have found that a procedure similar to the one described for determination of aldosaccharides in body fluids using o-toluidine in glacial acetic acid solution was described by Eric Hultman in Nature183, 108 (1959). A modification of Hultman's procedure has recently been described by A. Hyvärinen and E. A. Ni...
Article
A simple, practical, rapid,andeffective routine system for recoveryand analysis of abdominalperspirationsamplesis described.The resultsof its applicationto control subjects andpatients with cysticfibrosis of thepancreas arereported and compared with those of otherinvestigators. Csric FIBROSIS of the pancreas is now acknowledged to be one of the mos...
Article
Chemical analysis of the blood, urine, saliva, or breath gives the following information: first, it establishes the presence or absence of alcohol in the body; second, it determines the concentration in body fluids and tissues; third, it permits calculation of the approximate total quantity of alcohol in the body; and, finally, it furnishes the bas...

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