Kunio Kaiho

Kunio Kaiho
Tohoku University | Tohokudai · Department of Earth Science

Doctor of Science

About

141
Publications
26,682
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,622
Citations

Publications

Publications (141)
Article
Full-text available
The end-Permian mass extinction was the most catastrophic event for life in the Phanerozoic eon because it impacted numerous organisms, from micro-sized photosynthetic organisms to large (meter-long) animals and fundamentally altered marine and terrestrial ecosystems. C33 n-alkyl cyclohexane (C33-ACH), an angstrom-size molecular fossil of phytoplan...
Article
Emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is thought to have triggered global environmental changes and the end-Triassic mass extinction (ETE). However, the mechanisms linking volcanism and environmental change are unclear. Here we provide new insight into these linkages by measuring the abundance of both sedimentary five- to six...
Article
Full-text available
The late Neoproterozoic (645–535 Ma) represents a key geological period, when a climate shift and revolutionary biological innovations occurred during the Precambrian–Cambrian transition. The Marinoan glaciation impacted the climate and chemical composition of the oceans, restraining the evolution of early life. To elucidate evolutionary processes...
Article
The Permian−Triassic mass extinction was the most severe biotic crisis of the past 540 million years, eliminating 80–90% of species in the ocean and ~ 70% of land-based vertebrate families. Researchers have debated whether terrestrial vegetation collapse occurred before or after the marine extinction, or if they were synchronous. We analyzed the ra...
Article
The Late Devonian biodiversity crisis, one of the big five Phanerozoic diversity depletions, is composed of a series of extinction events broadly coincident with the invasion of land by plants and vertebrates. These extinctions may have been triggered by volcanism, as sedimentary mercury enrichments are associated with the two main extinctions, the...
Article
Full-text available
Eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province (LIP) is thought to have triggered the Permian-Triassic biological crisis, the largest of the Phanerozoic mass extinctions. Mercury concentration enrichments have been widely used as a proxy for volcanic inputs to sediments, especially for ancient LIP eruptions. However, detailed correlations of...
Article
A terrestrial ecosystem collapse event accompanied by extensive soil erosion has been widely recorded in marine sedimentary rocks at the vicinity of the end-Permian mass extinction. However, the precise timing of this event and its impact on the marine extinction have not yet been ascertained. Here we present an organic geochemical study of non-mar...
Article
Full-text available
Biotic extinction during the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G-L) transition is actively debated, with its timing, validity, and causality all questioned. Here, we show, based on detailed sedimentary, paleoecologic, and geochemical analyses of the Penglaitan section in South China, that this intra-Permian biotic crisis began with the demise of a metazoan re...
Article
Full-text available
Sixty-six million years ago, an asteroid approximately 9 km in diameter hit the hydrocarbon- and sulfur-rich sedimentary rocks in what is now Mexico. Recent studies have shown that this impact at the Yucatan Peninsula heated the hydrocarbon and sulfur in these rocks, forming stratospheric soot and sulfate aerosols and causing extreme global cooling...
Article
The Kamura section, located in the Chichibu Belt of Kyushu Island in southern Japan, contains a succession of uppermost Permian to Upper Triassic shallow-marine atoll sediments from the mid-Panthalassic Ocean. In the present study, carbonate microfacies, conodont biostratigraphy, and carbonate carbon isotopes were analyzed, making it possible to co...
Article
Full-text available
The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME), one of the five largest Phanerozoic biodiversity depletions, occurred in two pulses associated with the expansion and contraction of ice sheets on Gondwana during the Hirnantian Age. It is widely recognized that environmental disruptions associated with changing glacial conditions contributed to the extin...
Article
Biphytanes, which are derived from glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids, are biomarkers for the presence of Archaea in geological samples. They (especially cyclic structures) are rarely reported from sediments or oils that are older than the Triassic period, where their first record may be traced back to the Late Archean. There have b...
Conference Paper
The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME) was one of the five largest Phanerozoic marine diversity depletions. The extinction event occurred in two pulses, associated with the expansion and contraction of ice sheets on Gondwana during the Hirnantian Stage. It is widely recognized that environmental changes associated with peak glacial conditions d...
Article
Full-text available
The largest mass extinction of biota in the Earth’s history occurred during the Permian–Triassic transition and included two extinctions, one each at the latest Permian (first phase) and earliest Triassic (second phase). High seawater temperature in the surface water accompanied by euxinic deep-intermediate water, intrusion of the euxinic water to...
Article
Full-text available
The mass extinction of life 66 million years ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, marked by the extinctions of dinosaurs and shallow marine organisms, is important because it led to the macroevolution of mammals and appearance of humans. The current hypothesis for the extinction is that an asteroid impact in present-day Mexico formed condensed...
Article
Investigations of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages including species richness and abundance data were performed across the K–Pg boundary interval at Agost (SE Spain), between − 100 cm and + 100 cm, below and, respectively, above the boundary, at a considerable high resolution averaging 2 cm. From a total of 98 species of the Upper Maastrichtian...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the distribution of lipids in Lower Triassic sedimentary rocks (252–247 myr) from South China, including a shallow water microbialite in the uppermost section of the outcrop. Archaeal derived hydrocarbons were the major constituents of the microbialite from the latest Early Triassic. Among these, we detected (i) abundant C40 acyclic...
Article
Kaiho et al. (2013) showed that high values of organic molecule indices of combustion, soil erosion, and euxinia occurred at the Frasnian-Famennian transition at Sinsin, Belgium. Marynowski and Racki (2014) commented on the paper. Their issues mainly address (1) the low resolution of the data, (2) the reliability of the proxies, (3) weathering as a...
Article
The Meishan section, South China is the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), and also is well known for the best record demonstrating the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME) all over the world. This section has also been studied using multidisciplinary approaches to reveal the possible causes for t...
Article
The greatest mass extinction on Earth occurred 252 million years ago during the latest Permian. Complete biotic recovery, characterized by a return to pre-extinction diversity levels, took an extraordinarily long time (ca. 5 x 106 yr), probably because harsh conditions developed repeatedly during the Early Triassic. Here, we show the recurrence of...
Article
Full-text available
To improve international stratigraphic correlation of the Lower Guadalupian–Lower Lopingian (Permian), we examined the stratigraphies of conodonts and organic carbon isotopes from pelagic chert sequences in the Gujo-hachiman section, Gifu, southwest Japan. Age-diagnostic conodonts, such as Jinogondolella nankingensis and Jinogondolella shannoni wer...
Article
Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2) during the Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T) transition caused stepwise marine extinctions. Using organic compounds, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, and foraminifera from three depth-transect sections in northern Spain, this study revealed repeated anoxic/euxinic events coinciding with warming and stepwise extinctions of p...
Article
Full-text available
On Cat Ba Island in northeastern Vietnam, the Devonian to Carboniferous (D–C) transition consists mainly of ramp carbonates intercalated with black shale beds (Beds 1 to 176) in the Pho Han Formation and is one of the few records of the D–C transition of the eastern Paleotethys. The three main facies of the sequence are Facies 1 (alternations of wh...
Article
The Late Devonian mass extinction occurred in a stepwise manner and culminated close to the Frasnian–Famennian (F–F) boundary (372 million years ago). Organic-molecular indices from marine sedimentary rocks at the Sinsin section, Belgium, indicate that the sequence of combustion of land vegetation, soil erosion, and anoxia–euxinia occurred close to...
Book
Full-text available
Isotopic studies combined with geochemical, lithological, mineralogical and palaeontological investigations have been widely used in reconstructing Cretaceous marine and continental environments. Furthermore stable and radiogenic isotope trends play an important role in the interpretation of the causes and consequences of biotic turnovers at strati...
Article
Full-text available
Mesozoic accretionary complexes in Japan and New Zealand contain Panthalassic low latitude and southern mid-latitude deep-water sedimentary rock respectively. These sedimentary rocks record environmental changes in the pelagic Panthalassic Ocean during the transition associated with the severe Permian–Triassic mass extinction. This study presents s...
Article
Land–plant productivity was greatly reduced after the end-Permian mass extinction, causing a pronounced “coal gap” worldwide during the Early Triassic. Newly obtained organic geochemistry data from the Chaohu area, south China, indicated an abrupt and profound terrestrial vegetation change over the middle part of the Early Triassic Smithian–Spathia...
Article
Ether lipids such as non-isoprenoid mono and dialkyl glycerol ethers (MAGEs and DAGEs) and archaeol have been found in carbonate rocks and mud rocks deposited during the Early and Middle Triassic (250–240 Ma). The oldest previous discovery of ether lipids is from Cretaceous black shale deposited during the Albian (112 Ma). Paleoenvironmental recons...
Article
The impact of an extraterrestrial body 65.5 Ma caused the so-called Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) event that resulted in a mass extinction and rapid changes in the surface environment on Earth. Here we report changes in land vegetation and oceanic redox across the K/Pg boundary at Caravaca, southeastern Spain, using biomarkers. The results reveal tha...
Article
Detailed fluorescent microscopic observations and organic geochemical analyses for insoluble sedimentary organic matter (kerogens) are conducted on the end-Permian to earliest Triassic sediments in the Meishan section A of South China. The main objectives of the present study are to reconstruct variations of marine and terrestrial environments, and...
Article
Changes in redox conditions during the Changhsingian to Griesbachian spanning the end-Permian mass extinction were recently reported based on analyses of organic molecules. We provide more precise organic-molecular data, that detail redox conditions spanning the end-Permian mass extinction at different palaeowater depths in the neritic Palaeotethys...
Article
Detailed geochemical analyses (δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, δ34Ssulfide, and abundance of sulfide, carbonate and organic carbon) were performed on samples from the Wangjiawan (Riverside) section, close to the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the Hirnantian stage of the Ordovician. New data show two increases in carbonate content coincident with...
Article
Full-text available
[Huang et al. (2011)][1] have produced a valuable astro-chronological framework across the Permian-Triassic boundary in China and Austria. However, in doing so they define a mass extinction interval (MEI) and prolonged extinction lasting in all cases ∼700 k.y. The MEI in their study ranges from
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes fourteen brachiopod species in eleven genera from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian Coal Series (Lungtan Formation) of South China. Of these, the shell bed fauna from the basal Lungtan Formation is interpreted to rep− resent the onset of the recovery of shelly faunas in the aftermath of the Guadalupian/Lopingian (G/L) mass extinct...
Article
Oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE2), which occurred during the Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) transition and lasted 1 m.y., is characterized by a positive global carbon isotopic excursion and stepwise extinctions in marine biota. To examine temporal variations in the dissolved oxygen content of the water column, shallow-marine C-T sediments from northern Spai...
Article
Full-text available
Guadalupian–Lopingian sedimentary rocks are widely distributed in accretionary complexes in Japan, but the Guadalupian–Lopingian boundary (G–LB) is not well documented from these pelagic sediments. To identify the G–LB and to better correlate an extinction event that occurred around the Guadalupian–Lopingian boundary, we examined the conodont biost...
Article
Full-text available
The end-Permian mass extinction is associated with a global perturbation in the carbon isotopic composition of carbonates and organic matter, but such changes are not well documented from pelagic deep-sea sediments. One of the most continuous pelagic deep-sea Permian/Triassic boundary (PTB) sections, the Am-2 section, is exposed in the accretionary...
Article
Full-text available
A 2–4% negative shift of d 13 C has been reported from many Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary sections around the world. Our carbon isotopic measurements of bulk carbonate and organic matter from the Meishan section, South China show that a –3% shift of d 13 C spanned *30 ka over the end-Permian mass extinction. Carbon isotopic excursions (d 13 C ca...
Article
Full-text available
Fossil data show that the recovery of life after the end-Permian mass extinction occurred in the Anisian (early Middle Triassic). The process by which oceanic environments recovered from anoxia after the end-Permian event is uncertain. To determine the timing of known recovery stages, the nature of oceanic redox conditions and the health of cyanoba...
Article
The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at g...
Conference Paper
Impact tests were held to clarify the relationship between the composition of ejecta and these of the projectile and the target plate under different impact kinetic energy and impact velocity. Two sets of impact experiments were held, one using high carbon chromium bearing steel (SUJ-2) projectile and Al2017-T4 plate (Fe/Al impact), and the other u...
Article
Full-text available
The greatest mass extinction occurred at the end of the Permian. Most records of the mass extinction are not from pelagic sediments, but from shallow-marine and terrestrial sediments. Although several pelagic sections that span the end-Permian mass extinction have been found, these sections contain few index fossils and are often discontinuous beca...
Article
Full-text available
We have detected a family of benzohopanes cyclised at C-20 and two families of diaromatic 8(14)-secohopanoids, in carbonates from the Late Permian Meishan (China) and Bulla (Italy) sections. Furthermore, we have identified a C 33 8(14)-secohopanoid possessing a fluorene moiety. The relative distribution of 8(14)-secohopanoids with a fluorene moiety...
Article
The mass extinction at the K/P (Cretaceous–Paleogene) boundary was caused by an extraterrestrial impact and the following abrupt climate/environment change. In this study, numerical simulations of asteroid/comet impact on the oceanic crust of the earth are carried out by using the hydrocode AUTODYN-2D (ANSYS, Inc.). The objective of this work is to...
Article
Palaeontological data from the Permian-Triassic Bulla section, northern Italy, demonstrate a rapid extinction at this site. This occurs after a negative carbonate carbon-isotope (δ13Ccarb) shift, consistent with two other northern Italian sites (Val Badia and Tesero). However, conclusion goes against recent reporting that the extinction occurs befo...
Article
In order to elucidate early Aptian marine paleotemperature evolution across the period of enhanced organic carbon (Corg)-burial [Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a], stable isotope analyses were performed on pelagic limestones at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 463, central Pacific Ocean. The δ18O data exhibit a distinct anomaly by ~ − 2‰ spanning the OA...
Article
The effects of sulfate aerosols produced as a result of an asteroid impact on the ultra-violet (UV) radiation are investigated by radiative transfer calculations. After an impact, a reduction in the solar incident radiation and ozone depletion are expected to occur, each of which, in turn, are counteract their on effects on the UV radiation. We est...
Article
Detailed (cm-scale) %S, %TOC (total organic carbon), δ34Ssulfide, and pyrite morphological analysis of the Permian–Triassic boundary beds at the Bulla section, northern Italy, suggests that marine waters at this site saw the influx of two dysoxic–euxinic intervals that mark the end-Permian extinction event. This suggests reduced oxygen conditions,...
Article
Correlation of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) δ34S-analysed Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) sections via conodont biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy shows distinct phases in the oceanic δ34Ssulfate evolution during the period ∼1 million years (m.y.) either side of the P-Tr boundary. A δ34Ssulfate rise in the Changhsingian, prior to the end-Permi...
Article
Paleontological, sedimentary and geochemical data obtained from the Lower Triassic strata of the Meishan section, South China, suggest that onset of biotic recovery coincided with amelioration of paleoceanographic conditions and an increase in ocean productivity. The Griesbachian Meishanorhynchia association from Meishan indicates biotic recovery b...
Article
Although it is well known that the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) coincided with a major benthic foraminiferal extinction event, the detailed pattern of the faunal turnover has not yet been clarified. Our high-resolution benthic foraminiferal and carbon isotope analyses at the low latitude Pacific Ocean Shatsky Rise have revealed the follo...
Article
In order to evaluate the possible influence of oceanic crust production on climatic changes during the past 100Myr variations in total oceanic crust for this period including production at mid-ocean ridges, oceanic plateaus, and back-arc basins were calculated using the most recent and accurate time-scales. The rates presented here differ from thos...
Data
Although it is well known that the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) coincided with a major benthic foraminiferal extinction event, the detailed pattern of the faunal turnover has not yet been clarified. Our high-resolution benthic foraminiferal and carbon isotope analyses at the low latitude Pacific Ocean Shatsky Rise have revealed the follo...
Article
In this study, numerical simulations of asteroid/comet impact on the earth were carried out by using the hydrocode AUTODYN-2D (Century Dynamics Inc.). The ejected mass into the atmosphere originated from different sources was recorded at different altitudes as a function of time. It is claimed that the mass extinction at the Permian–Triassic (P/T)...
Article
A hypothesis of light sulfur injection to the ocean-atmosphere system at the end of the Permian was presented by Kaiho et al. [Kaiho, K., Kajiwara, Y.,Nakano, T., Miura, Y., Kawahata, H., Tazaki, K., Ueshima, M., Chen, Z.Q., Shi, G.R., 2001. End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle. Geolog...
Article
The Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary beds of the Meishan section, South China, have been re-studied in detail based on complete samples across the P/Tr transition. Under the microscope, the end-Permian mass extinction horizon is calibrated to a 12-mm stratal interval, the top being 19 mm below the top of Bed 24e of the Changhsing Formation. This ab...