Kun Wang

Kun Wang
University of International Business and Economics · School of International Trade and Economics

Doctor of Transportation & Logistics

About

63
Publications
6,866
Reads
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1,266
Citations

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
This paper models subsidy policies on transport facility's adaptation to climate change-related disasters under the government's incompleteness and ambiguity of disaster information. We consider a transport facility (an airport or a seaport) that is in a vertical structure with an upstream facility operator and a few downstream carriers. The exact...
Article
The rapid development of high-speed rail (HSR) has posed substantial competition to air transport. In this paper, we build an analytical model to investigate the impacts of HSR competition on profit-maximizing and welfare-maximizing levels of on-time performance (OTP) improvement efforts by the aviation sector (both airports and airlines), as well...
Article
Full-text available
Balancing supply and demand for a dockless bike-sharing system is difficult as users are allowed to pick up and return bikes anywhere within a large service area. One strategy to help manage the amount of dockless bikes scattered within a service area is to offer monetary rewards for users who would be willing to pick up bikes scattered around some...
Article
Many countries, industries, companies and end consumers have actively switched from fuel cars to electric vehicles (EV) to combat global warming via emission control. However, given cost and research and development uncertainties, refrigerated truck manufacturers (RTMs) and cold-chain logistics enterprises (CCLEs) are hesitant to update and employ...
Article
This study empirically measures Beijing's international air connectivity through descriptive statistics and various connectivity indexes. In particular, we comprehensively benchmark Beijing's international air connectivity with other major international exchange centers and gateway airports around the world. It is found that, although Beijing has d...
Article
This paper analytically examines a seaport's capacity and adaptation investments when faced with disaster risk. A landlord port is studied, which is consisted of an upstream public port authority and a downstream terminal operator (public or private). Compared to public sectors (i.e., the public port authority and public terminal operator), the pri...
Article
COVID-19 caused the vast majority of passenger flights to be grounded, but the crisis raised the importance of the network of dedicated cargo flights and, therefore, interest in its development. This paper aims to evaluate the Chinese scheduled freighter network (CSFN) via its topological properties and to explore its changes following the COVID-19...
Article
This paper investigates the impact of separating the affiliated businesses from rail operations and the associated efficiency gain on firms' exporting decisions by rail. First, an economic model was built to analytically show that an efficiency improvement in rail operations would increase the firm's product variety but decreases the skewness of ex...
Article
The greenhouse effects of the transportation sector are quite significant as the sector essentially consumes a lot of fossil fuels. To reduce this sector's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and achieve carbon neutrality, developing smart transportation has emerged as a promising approach. Accordingly, by employing spatial econometric models, we study...
Article
Many seaports around the world face serious threat of natural disasters related to climate change. They have been investing in adaptation measures to mitigate potential disaster damages. This paper proposes an economic model to examine the inter-port competition in adaptation investments when ports face asymmetric disaster losses. Specifically, we...
Article
China was the first airline market in the world to be hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. It has been gradually recovering as the pandemic is largely contained domestically. However, with the global pandemic spread and great uncertainty, there has been a remarkable change in airline passengers’ travel behavior. This paper collected air passenger-lev...
Article
This paper models two commonly adopted regulatory polices (the minimum requirement regulation vs. subsidy) on port adaptation investment to mitigate the damage caused by climate change-related disasters. The ambiguity of the disaster occurrence probability and the decision makers’ attitudes towards risk are explicitly modelled. It is found, under t...
Article
With international air travels largely banned around the world amid the global COVID-19 pandemic, many gateway and hub airports have more ideal slots available for reallocation. Airport traffic recovery replaces airport congestion to become the primary challenge of major airports around the world. With the pandemic well controlled domestically in C...
Article
This paper discusses the dual role of the transport sector in the Covid-19 pandemic: spreading the virus around the world and being most negatively impacted by the pandemic. This paper describes and analyzes the following: (a) actions taken by the governments and international community in order to control the spreading and to alleviate negative ec...
Article
Delay propagation is the flight departure delay caused by the arrival delay of pre-segment flight. Chinese airline market has suffered very poor on-time performance (OTP) in recent years. It is, however, unclear whether delay propagation prevails as one major source for such problem. This study first aims to empirically quantify delay propagation i...
Article
This paper sets up an integrated economic model to analyze an optimal public-private partnership (PPP) in financing a high-speed rail (HSR) project. The model considers the HSR’s spillover onto the regional economy, which is uncertain in terms of both the direction (i.e., benefiting or harming the regional economy) and magnitude. The optimal privat...
Article
This study proposes a series of statistical and regression approaches to investigate city-cluster transport connectivity patterns. Three major city clusters in China are selected for this study, namely, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) economic zones. Our analyses examine three aspects...
Article
With COVID-19 spreading around the world, many countries are exposed to the imported case risk from inbound international flights. Several governments issued restrictions on inbound flights to mitigate such risk. But with the pandemic controlled in many countries, some decide to reopen the economy by relaxing the international air travel bans. As t...
Article
With a dramatic growth in the low-cost carrier (LCC) traffic around the world, many airports have built budget terminals to accommodate the LCC flights with cheaper airport charge to the airlines but inferior shopping environment and service quality to the passengers. This study aims to answer the following research questions: i). Whether the LCC p...
Article
Congestion and delay have become a critical challenge to the aviation industry, particularly in markets with sustained traffic growth. Despite significant investments in aviation infrastructures, congestion and delay in China has placed mounting pressure on the industry and its regulator to sustain good on-time performance. In 2017, CAAC introduced...
Article
This paper examines the socially optimal lockdown and travel (social activity) restriction policies for communicable virus including COVID-19. In our simple model, we exploit the remarkable similarity in the structure of external costs causing market failure between the socially optimal choices of the COVID-19 pandemic case and the socially optimal...
Article
This study empirically examines the route entry decision of Jetstar NZ, a low-cost carrier (LCC), in New Zealand's duopolistic domestic aviation market between 2010 and 2016. The estimation controls for route characteristics, airline spatial network, and airline competition variables in both New Zealand's domestic market and the adjacent trans-Tasm...
Article
Despite rich literature on high-speed rail (HSR) and air transport interactions, the HSR's impact on the conventional (low-speed) rail service surprisingly has yet well studied. This paper fills in this research gap by providing empirical evidence in the Chinese intercity travel markets, where large-scale HSR expansion has been conducted since 2008...
Article
This study analyzes aviation markets in the five countries in Central Asia. Panel data spanning from 2007 to 2015 are used to estimate airline service patterns in origin-destination markets. Econometric estimates for domestic and international markets are subsequently benchmarked, and route groups are paired by alternative matching algorithms. Coun...
Article
Despite facing the rapid expansion of high-speed rail (HSR) services, China's airline industry has experienced substantial growth in the last decade. Using panel data from 2007 to 2016, this paper assesses the welfare changes for both economy- and business-class air passengers in China due to the HSR entry. We found that the demand for air travel i...
Article
With the prevalence of global terminal operators in port operation, the market structure of terminal operator companies (TOCs) becomes more important in shaping intra- and inter-port competition and cooperation (i.e., coopetition). The port adaptation investment to climate change-related disaster might also be affected by such TOC intra- and inter-...
Article
Using a dynamic network DEA approach, this research examines the efficiency performance of major Chinese and Indian air carriers with a consideration of the airline's internal processes and links as well as the carry-over items that connect consecutive time periods. It is found that two low-cost carriers (LCCs), namely, China's Spring and India's S...
Article
This paper investigates the factors affecting air passengers’ transfer airport choice in the market between Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and North America (NA). By estimating demand parameters, the study sheds lights on an airport operator’s business strategies, including identifying effective routes to compete for transfer passengers. Specifically, a...
Article
China centralized the rail dispatch office from branch bureaus to rail bureaus in 2005. This provides a rare natural experiment to investigate how the rail dispatch office operational efficiency can affect import by rail. Using China's rail operational data and import trade data for the 2004–2006 period, we employed the difference-in-differences (D...
Article
This study measures the degree of market power of China’s railway operator and analyzes its determining factors. A newly-developed stochastic frontier method is used to estimate the Lerner indexes of the operator’s 18 regional railway bureaus from 1995 to 2014. Regressions are then conducted on these indexes to identify the determining factors of m...
Chapter
This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers (LCCs) and HSR, HSR speed effect on airlines, and airline–HSR integration. Studies on these three aspects of airline–HSR interactions have yet been well reviewed, and our chapter aims...
Chapter
The five countries in Central Asia, namely Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan, are landlocked and therefore rely critically on aviation for passenger travel and express cargo logistics. However, despite substantial growth in the past decade, the aviation market in the region is still not realizing its full potential. T...
Article
The rapid development of high-speed rail (HSR) in the past decade has greatly promoted regional connectivity by linking airports that are previously independent of each other, thus facilitating the formation of a multi-airport system (MAS). As a result, air-HSR complementarity may serve as a way to efficiently re-allocate traffic within the newly g...
Article
In this paper, we measure the effects of Open Skies Air Services Agreement (OSA) on bilateral passenger flow and service export and import trades for a country. Our service trade data includes ‘commercial’ ‘transportation’ ‘travel’ and ‘government’ services. Using the Canadian data, a reduced-form gravity-type difference-in-differences (DID) regres...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the joint impacts of downstream airline market structure, airport ownership structure, concession services, and low-cost carrier (LCC) presence on airport market power and profit margin. Lerner indexes for a sample of 61 major airports around the world were calculated for the period 2008–2014. Then, regression analysis was c...
Article
As two of the fastest-growing economies, China and India share many similarities. However, the air transport sector of the two countries exhibits substantial differences 30 years after deregulation. Private and low-cost airlines have become dominant players in the Indian airline market while the state-owned airlines still enjoy a dominant status in...
Article
The identification of possible efficiency gains is a core issue in the analysis of mergers. However, empirical studies are generally subject to bias caused by merger endogeneity. In the early 2000s, the Chinese government pursued a strategy of merging small firms in key industries to create large enterprise groups. Mergers created by this policy pr...
Article
This study measures the degree of market power of China's railway operator and analyzes its determining factors. A newly-developed stochastic frontier method is used to estimate the Lerner indexes of the operator's 18 regional railway bureaus from 1995 to 2014. Regressions are then conducted on these indexes to identify the determining factors of m...
Article
This paper investigates the factors affecting air passengers’ transfer airport choice in the market between Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and North America (NA). By estimating demand parameters, the study sheds lights on an airport operator's business strategies, including identifying effective routes to compete for transfer passengers. Specifically, a...
Article
This paper models shipping lines' operational costs and CO2 emissions under alternative geographic network configurations when an emission charge is imposed on operations from Asia to Europe. Our modeling results suggest that shipping firms' network configuration is influenced by emission charge, fuel price, port loading and unloading cost, and dem...
Article
This paper examines China’s large-scale high-speed rail (HSR) expansion, announced in July 2016, and the associated benefits assessment of the expansion program from the perspective of HSR-LCC (low-cost carriers) interactions. Our analysis suggests that in the highly populated and developed corridors the HSR expansion is likely to leave LCCs with l...
Article
This study calculates the connectivity of 69 Chinese airports and identifies the underlying drivers of the variation in airport connectivity over a period 2005–2016. Our connectivity model incorporates multiple discount factors including capacity and velocity penalties to correct for the quality of a connection. We find that Chinese airports experi...
Article
In this study, we investigate the development of the aviation market at Australia’s top 50 regional airports during the 2005–2013 period. Our demand estimation results suggest that a higher commodity price increases the traffic volume in markets where the local economy is heavily reliant on mineral resources and that appreciation of the Australian...
Article
This study identifies the key drivers for China's international trade delivered by air with an augmented gravity model, and investigates the country's air freight network using complex network analysis. Gravity model estimation suggests that income elasticity for airborne trade at country level is 1.1, whereas the values for the three major economi...
Article
This study aims to provide a better understanding of Asia's low-cost carriers (LCCs) by empirically analysing their route entry patterns in Hong Kong. Two alternative models have been tested, namely a standard probit model and a generalized least squares estimation. Consistent findings from the two models suggest that LCCs in Asia have a preference...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the key results obtained in previous studies of airline mergers. It is found that the effect of mergers on airfares is dependent on the network configurations of merging airlines. Fare increases are frequently observed on overlapped routes. However, if the networks of two merging airlines are complementary, the expanded network...
Article
This paper examines the impact of China’s large-scale high-speed rail (HSR) expansion, announced in June 2016, on low-cost carriers (LCCs) and the associated benefits assessment of the expansion program. Our analysis suggests that HSR imposes a greater threat to LCCs than to full service carriers, and the HSR expansion that is intended to reach a g...
Article
Various market-based measures have been proposed to reduce CO2 emissions from international shipping. One promising mechanism under consideration is the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). This study analyzes and benchmarks the economic implications of two alternative ETS mechanisms, namely, an open ETS compared to a Maritime only ETS (METS). The analyt...
Article
Although China lags behind other liberalized aviation markets in low cost carrier (LCC) development, its largest LCC, Spring Airlines, has achieved rapid growth in traffic volume and revenue, as well as consistent profitability, since its inauguration in 2005. Our empirical study on the Chinese domestic market suggests that Spring adopts a “cream s...
Article
In the past decade, the Chinese airline industry experienced extraordinary growth in size and profitability. However, no quantitative study has investigated the performance of Chinese airlines in terms of productivity and cost competitiveness. This study investigates the leading Chinese airlines' productivity, yield, cost competitiveness and input...
Article
Despite the explosive growth of the Chinese aviation sector and the major industry reforms undertaken in recent decades, the Chinese domestic market remains highly concentrated with a significant element of regulation and governmental control in areas such as market entry and airline fleet planning. In this study, we investigate the frequency strat...
Article
Hong Kong is an international port heavily influenced by the ‘active non-interventionist’ policy and, until very recently, segregated from China's national/regional planning due to its special political and economic status. However, the port is now facing considerable challenges, notably increased trade between China and overseas markets, challenge...

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