Kshama Gupta

Kshama Gupta
R. B. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL · Kayachikitsa

MD, Ph D, PGDYN
Ayurvedic Psychiatrist

About

104
Publications
253,851
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374
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2008 - December 2010
Institute of Post Graduate Teaching & Research In Ayurveda
Position
  • PhD Student
March 2005 - March 2008
VPSV Ayurveda college, Kottakkal
Position
  • MD Scholar

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
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A unique condition called "Mada" or "Madonmada" is available in Bhela samhita. Mada is considered as a prodromal phase of Unamada, or it can occur as an independent disease condition also. Mada/Madonmada is caused by various traumatic events or extreme stressors, and it is characterized by various features such as pradhyayati (immersed in thoughts/...
Article
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Bhela samhita is an ancient Indian textbook of medicine composed by Maharshi Bhela. Indriya sthana is one among the eight sections of Bhela samhita, and it consists of 12 chapters deals with prognostic aspects. Pushpeeyam adhyaya is the 11 chapter of Bhela indriya sthana which consists of 20 verses. Previous works have explored the prognostic poten...
Article
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Sushruta Samhita is an ancient Ayurvedic text deals mainly with surgical knowledge. Sushruta has documented Arishta Vignaana (prognostic knowledge) in the chapters 28 to 33 of Sutra Sthana. Avaaraneeya Adhyaya is the 33rd chapter of Sushruta Sutra Sthana. The term Avaraneeya denotes various untreatable conditions. Avaaraneeya Adhyaya consists of 26...
Article
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Maharshi Bhela has composed an Ayurvedic treatise called Bhela Samhita. Swastyayanam Indriyam is the second chapter of Bhela Indriya Sthana. The present work is aimed to explore the contents of Swastyayanam Indriyam of Bhela Indriya Sthana. Swastyayanam Indriyam deals with the assessment of general health based on some characteristic physical param...
Article
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Avaakchitiyam is the twelfth chapter of Indriya Sthana of Bhela Samhita. The word ‘Avaakchitiyam’ refers to an inverted shadow (upside down) which is considered as a bad prognostic sign. Avaakchitiyam Adhyaya contains 17 verses dealing with various fatal conditions having poor prognosis. Previous research has established the prognostic potential of...
Article
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Background: Kashyapa Samhita (KS) is a very well known ancient Ayurvedic manuscript considered as the hand book of Kaumarabhritya (paediatrics). KS consists of 120 chapters divided among 8 Sthanas’ (sections) with one additional part known as Khila Sthana which consists of 80 chapters. Kashyapa Samhita Indriya Sthana (KSIS) consists of 12 chapters...
Article
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Ayurveda is an ancient Indian traditional system of medicine has been in practice since thousands of years. Maharshi Bhela was one among the six disciples of Acharya Punarvasu Atreya (great preceptor of Ayurveda) and colleague to Maharshi Agnivesha (author of Charaka Samhita). Maharshi Bhela has composed Bhela Samhita which contains 8 sections (Sth...
Article
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Bhutavidya (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one among the eight specialties of Ayurveda (an ancient Indian system of medicine). Bhutavidya deals with the diseases (psychiatric or neuropsychiatric) caused by “bhuta” or “graha” (idiopathic factors) and their management. Unmada (broad term which includes various psychiatric conditions) is a disease character...
Article
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Maharshi Bhela’ is one among the six disciples of ‘Acharya Punarvasu Atreya’ and he has composed a treatise known as ‘Bhela samhita’. Bhela samhita is having 8 sections and 120 chapters. Indriya sthana is one among the 8 sections of ‘Bhela samhita’ deals with prognostic aspects. Among 12 chapters of ‘Bhela indriya sthana’, ‘Gomaya churneeyam’ is th...
Article
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Similar to “Agnivesha tantra” (popularly known as “Charaka samhita”), “Maharshi Bhela” has composed an Ayurvedic treatise known as “Bhela samhita.” Bhela samhita consists of 8 sections (sthana) and 120 chapters (adhyaya). “Indriya sthana” is one of the eight sections of “Bhela samhita” and it comprises 12 chapters. “Bhela Indriya sthana” deals with...
Article
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‘Maharshi Bhela’ belongs to samhita period (100 BC - 400 BC) and he has composed an Ayurvedic treatise known as ‘Bhela samhita’. Bhela samhita is divided in to 8 sections and 120 chapters. Indriya sthana is one among the 8 sections of ‘Bhela samhita’ and it comprised of 12 chapters. Like ‘Indriya sthanas’ of other ancient Ayurvedic texts, ‘Bhela in...
Article
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Maharshi Bhela was a direct disciple of ‘Acharya Punarvasu Atreya’ and he has composed a compendium, known as ‘Bhela samhita’. Bhela Samhita is one of the prominent texts of the samhita period of Ayurveda (100 BC-400 BC) and it consists of 120 chapters divided among 8 sections. ‘Indriya sthana’ (which deals with prognostic aspects) is one among the...
Article
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Charaka Samhita is the oldest and most authentic treatise on Ayurveda (an ancient Indian system of medicine). Indriya sthana (prognostic medicine) is one among the eight sections of Charaka samhita and it deals with prognostic aspects. Arishta lakshanas are the signs and symptoms which indicates imminent death. Various psychiatric and neuropsychiat...
Article
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Bhela samhita is an Ayurvedic (Indian system of medicine) treatise written by ‘Maharshi Bhela’ (belongs to 1000-2000 BC). Maharshi Bhela was the student of popular preceptor ‘Acharya Punarvasu Atreya’ and colleague of ‘Agnivesha’ (author of the popular Ayurvedic text ‘Charaka samhita’). Bhela samhita consists of 8 sections and 120 chapters. ‘Indriy...
Article
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“Bhuta vidya” (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda (an Indian system of medicine) and it deals with the management of various psychiatric disorders. Unmada (a psychiatric disorder) is characterized by deranged mental functions and it is classified into five types (vataja, pittaja, kaphaja, sannipataja, and agantuja)....
Article
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Unmada (a broad term which includes different psychiatric conditions under one umbrella) is characterized by the derangement of manas (mind), buddhi (cognitive functions), samgna gnana (orientation), smriti (memory), bhakti (interests), sheela (character/personality), cheshtha (psychomotor activity/behavior), and achara (conduct). Unmada is classif...
Article
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Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine and ‘Charaka samhita’ has been the most popular referral treatise for Ayurvedic academicians, clinicians and researchers all over the world. ‘Indriya sthana’ is one among the 8 sections of ‘Charaka samhita’ and it comprises of 12 chapters which deals with prognostication of life expectancy based o...
Research
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Special issue on 'Charaka Indriya Sthana'
Article
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Ayurveda is considered as the science of life. The ultimate aim of Ayurveda is to guide every human being to maintain and promote health, and prevent ailments, which is the main hindrance to achieve dharma. The Ayurveda have the special branch which deals with the preparation of formulations. One among them is Shivagutika popularly used in the mana...
Article
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Harita" was a sage of great antiquity, and he was contemporary of "Agnivesha." "Harita" has composed a treatise named "Harita samhita" based on the teachings of his preceptor "Punarvasu Atreya." "Bhoota vidya" (demonology/psychiatry) is explained in 55 th chapter of the third sthana (section) of "Harita samhita." The etiology, number of graha's (de...
Article
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Bhela Samhita is one of the prominent treatises of Ayurveda. Indriya Sthana is one among the eight sections of Bhela Samhita and it comprises 12 chapters. Ayurlakshanam Indriyam (ALI) is the first chapter of B Indriya Sthana. Though it consists of various unique concepts, it is modestly explored or unexplored till date. Previous works have explored...
Conference Paper
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Role of Satata Adhyayana as Medhya Rasayana
Article
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Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is one of the three most common autoimmune systemic diseases. The pathogenesis of SS is still unknown. SS often has an insidious onset, a variable course, and a wide variety of clinical manifestations, making the diagnosis difficult or delayed. SS can present either alone (Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome - pSS) or in association...
Article
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Uraga/Sarpa/Bhujaga grahonmada (UG) is one among the 18 types of bhootonmada. Bhootonmada denotes a category of psychiatric/neuropsychiatric conditions assumed to be caused by affliction of evil spirits (bhuta/graha). Till date, no studies have been conducted on UG and it is unexplored. The present study is focused on the better understanding of UG...
Article
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Asura grahonmada (AG) is one among 18 types of bhootonmada. Deva shatru and daitya grahonmada are used synonymously for AG. Bhootonmada is a broad category which comprises of various psychiatric or neuropsychiatric problems and they are assumed to be caused by affliction of evil spirits. Till date, no studies have been conducted on AG, and it is an...
Article
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Yaksha grahonmada (YG) is one among 18 types of grahonmada/bhootonmada. Bhootonmada is a broad category which includes various psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions, and they are assumed to be caused by the affliction of evil spirits. Till date, no studies have been conducted on YG, and the concept, as well as clinical applicability of YG, is...
Article
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Deva grahonmada (DG) is a type of grahonmada (psychiatric disorders with unknown etiopathology). DG is one among the 18 types (deva, asura, rishi, guru, vruddha, siddha, pitru, gandharva, yaksha, rakshasa, sarpa, brahma rakshasa, pishacha, kushmanda, nishada, preta, maukirana, and vetala) of grahonmada. Grahonmada is caused by affliction of evil sp...
Article
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Brahma rakshasa grahonmada (BRG) is one among 18 types of bhootonmada (psychiatric problems caused by the affl iction of evil spirits or super natural powers or extraterrestrial forces or idiopathic). Acharya Charaka and Vagbhata have described this condition. The present study aims at better understanding of BRG and its clinical signifi cance. BRG...
Article
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“Bhuta vidya”/“Graha chikitsa” is one among the eight specialties of Ayurveda. This specialty deals with the mode of affl iction by evil spirits and making offerings to various grahas (supernatural powers/extraterrestrial forces/evil spirits) such as deva, pishacha, gandharva, yaksha, rakshasa, etc., for cure of diseases originating from their malig...
Article
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Cerebral palsy (CP) is defined as a non-progressive neuromotor disorder of cerebral origin. Motor disorders of CP are accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication and behavior. In Ayurveda, there is no single condition / disease which exactly show similarity with CP. Most of the authors considered CP as vata vyadhi...
Article
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Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative condition characterized by deterioration in cognition and memory, progressive impairment in the ability to carry out activities of daily living, and a number of neuropsychiatric symptoms. In traditional practices of medicines, numerous plants have been used to treat cogn...
Article
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Nishaada grahonmada (NG) is one among 18 types of bhootonmada / grahonmada (psychiatric problems caused by the possession JNBS of evil spirits or super natural powers or extra terrestrial forces). Description of NG is found in ‘Ashtanga samgraha’ and ‘Ashtanga hridaya’ (Ayurvedic classical texts written by Vriddha Vagbhata and Vagbhata). In ‘Astht...
Article
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Bhuta vidya (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one of the eight specialties of Ayurveda. It deals with various psychiatric conditions caused by the affliction of evil spirits. Unmada (a broad term which consists various psychiatric problems) is a major psychiatric condition described in Ayurvedic and it is characterized by deranged mental functions. “Bhuton...
Article
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Unmada (a broad clinical entity which includes various psychiatric problems) is a major psychiatric condition described in Ayurvedic classics, and it is characterized by deranged mental functions. Unmaada is classified into two groups, doshajaunmaada (occurs due to vitiation of humors inside the body) and bhutonmaada or grahonmaada (not related to...
Article
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Some foods are known to cause toxic effects and adverse reactions in some individuals. The list of foods implicated in anaphylactic reactions is unlimited and any food protein is capable of causing an anaphylactic reactions. Food anaphylaxis is an allergic syndrome manifested by an abrupt onset of symptoms within minutes to hours after ingesting a...
Article
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Premature Ejaculation (PE) is defined as ejaculation before the completion of satisfactory sexual activity for both partners. ‘Shukragatavata’ is a pathological entity of Ayurveda similar to premature ejaculation. The present article is aimed to find out various formulations or practices available in ancient Indian erotic literature, Ayurveda and i...
Article
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease which affects primarily sacro-iliac joints and spine. AS is a gradually progressive condition over several years until structural damage manifests clinically as sacroiliitis, loss of spinal mobility, extra-articular symptoms, peripheral arthritis and reduced quality of life. V...
Article
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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the third most common vascular disease, after ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke and it is a silent killer. It affects approximately 0.1% of persons per year. Various treatment modalities and drugs of western medicine such as surgical interventions, urokinase, streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activators to diss...
Article
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Rutu is the period of ovulation in a female and ‘Rutu kala’ denotes the peak fertility period in women. ‘Rutumati’ is the woman who is in peak fertility period (from the 4th day of the menstrual cycle to 15th day of the menstrual cycle in healthy women). According to ‘Sushruta samhita’, peena vadana (fat / fleshy / round face), prasanna vadana (bri...
Article
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Jwara (fever) is considered as ‘lord’ among all diseases according to Ayurveda because of its power to afflict the body, mind and senses. Jwara may be a symptom of some other disease or can occur as an independent disease. Many types of jwara have been described in Ayurvedic classical texts. There are 13 types of sannipataja jwara (fever caused by...
Article
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Background: Khalitya is a sign of early aging process of degeneration.Still there is enough scope to work out on its aetiopathological and management aspect of Khalitya. Aims and objectives: The present study was carried out to evacuate combined effect of Pratimarsha Nasya with Shiro-Abhyanga and Pratimarsha Nasya alone by Yashtimadhukadya taila. M...
Article
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Stroke is the leading cause of disability and more than half of the stroke survivors will end up severely impaired. The prevalence of stroke in India ranges from 40 to 270 per 100 000 population. Like any other surgical procedure, decompressive craniectomy is not without risk and cranioplasty also carries its own risks. Some of the complications ar...
Article
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Jwara (fever) is considered as most important among all diseases in Ayurveda as it afflicts the shareera (body), indriya (sense organs) and manas (mind). Shukra dhatugata jwara is characterized by ‘Stabdha shepha’ (rigidity of penis/erections/ priapism), ‘Shukra moksha’ (excessive discharge of semen/spontaneous ejaculation) and ‘Maranam prapnuyanti...
Article
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Background: “Bhuta vidya” (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda. The person affl icted with bhuta/graha gets grahonmaada/ bhutonmaada and he will exhibit superhuman abilities or qualities without any nown/visible etiopathology. Among the 18 types of bhutonamaada’s explained by Vagbhata, “Guru, Vriddha, Rishi and Siddha grah...
Article
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Unmada (a broad term which denotes various psychiatric problems under one umbrella) is a major psychiatric illness described in all Ayurvedic classics which is characterized by deranged mental functions. The etymological meaning of Unmada is “a state of disturbed mental functions.” Kaphaja Unmada is one among the five types of Unmada, which is caus...
Article
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Urustambha is a grave condition, in which the patient’s thighs become painful, numb and immobile. Urustambha is a disease which is not amenable to panchakarma (five evacuative procedures) treatment. Till date, there is no clear understanding of the concept of Urustambha and its clinical application. This article is aimed to understand the concept o...
Article
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Gas gangrene is a rapid spreading infective type of gangrene of the muscles characterized by collection of gas in the muscles and subcutaneous tissue. Gas gangrene is caused by clostridial infection (Clostridium perfringens/Clostridium welchii) due to the fact that it is also called as “clostridial myonecrosis.” Sushruta samhita is one of the three...
Article
Dermatographism is a type of urticaria which literally means writing on the skin. Dermatographism can also be called as ‘Skin writing’ or ‘Dermographism’ or ‘Dermatographic urticaria’. Dermatographism is seen in 4-5% of the general population. It is more common in young adults but it can appear at any age. Dermatographism is characterized by sympto...
Article
Tinea infections are fungal infections of the skin which are the most common skin conditions worldwide. ‘Tinea cruris’ otherwise known as ‘Jock itch’ is an infection in the groin, perineal and peri-anal area. It can present unilaterally or bilaterally with a red, raised and active border. Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum are the mos...
Article
Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders. It is first diagnosed in childhood and its symptoms often last in to adulthood. A person with ADD often avoids, dislikes, or does not want to do things that take plenty of mental effort for a long period of time. Till date there is no clear understanding about eti...
Article
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Schizophrenia is characterized by disturbances in thought, verbal behavior, perception, affect, motor behavior and relationship to the external world. A good number of patients opts Ayurvedic treatment to get rid of the side effects of anti psychotic medication and also for better quality of life. The present study deals with two cases of Schizophr...
Article
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Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is defined as the occurrence of daily or almost daily, wheals and itching for at least 6 weeks, with no obvious cause. It is a major affliction causing severe disability. The present report deals with a case of CIU diagnosed as ‘udarda’ according to Ayurveda. Efficacy of treatment was calculated by using ‘The chro...
Article
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Palmo -plantar psoriasis (PPP) accounts for 3-4% of all psoriasis cases, produces significant functional and social disability. It is the second most common type of psoriasis followed by chronic plaque type psoriasis. PPP is a variant of psoriasis which is resistant to many forms of treatment. The present report deals with a case of PPP with diabet...
Article
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Atopic eczema (AE) is an inflammatory, pruritic, chronic, relapsing skin disease and it is one of the most common skin disease which affects up to 1-3% of adults in most countries of the world. The Ayurvedic equivalent of AE is 'Vicharchika'. The present case report deals with the two cases of AE came for Ayurvedic treatment. Both the patients have...
Article
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Joint injuries are becoming increasingly common in younger adults. The cascades of events that follow these joint injuries have been shown to increase the risk of post – traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) by 20-50%. Unfortunately, current treatments for joint injuries all too often fail to prevent the development of PTOA. Works on Ayurvedic management...
Article
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult motor neuron disease and it is characterized by selective death of upper and lower motor neurons causing muscle atrophy, weakness and spasticity. The present report deals with a case of ALS diagnosed as kapha avrita praana, udaana and vyaana vata according to Ayurveda. Efficacy of treatme...
Article
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Breast feeding is the safest and best method for nurturing and optimising infant growth and health. The risks of drinking alcohol while breast feeding, however are not well defined. Alcohol consumed by a lactating mother enters the breast milk and shows detrimental effects like deficit in motor development, reduced lactation performance and disrupt...
Article
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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by joint swelling, joint tenderness, and destruction of synovial joints and leads to severe disability and premature mortality . The hip joint involvement in RA patients may develop rapidly and leads to joint destruction and joint replacement . Here we are reporting a case of...
Article
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Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the cervical spine which impairs patient’s functionality and induces suffering with pain . Symptoms often develop insidiously and are characterized by neck stiffness, arm pain, numbness and weakness of the hands and legs . Here we are reporting two cases of CSM...
Article
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immunologically driven long term condition and characterized by persistent joint inflammation. Spinal Tuberculosis (TB) or Pott’s spine is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation of TB, in which lower thorasic and lumbar vertebrae are the most common sites. Here we are reporting a chronic case of rheumatoid arthr...
Article
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Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) is a unilateral disorder characterized by brief electric shock-like pains, abrupt in onset and termination, limited to the distribution of one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. The present article deals with a case of TN resistant to pharmacotherapy and came for Ayurvedic treatment to avoid surgery. The Ayurvedic...
Article
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Incontinence of urine is clear ly a very common occurrence in women and it is troublesome. The prevalence of incontinence among women with prevalence varying from 5% to 25% for women aged 15 -64 years and 12% to 38% for women over 60 years. Hysterectomy is one of the causative factors for the development of urinary incontinence in women. The prese...
Article
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ibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome occurs more commonly in women. Its prevalence is estimated around 2% in the general population. Various pharmacological or psychological interventions are of little efficacy and the global prognosis of FM is poor. There was no clarity regarding the concept and management of FM according to Ayurveda. The p...
Article
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O bsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous and multi dimensional disorder. Prevalence of OCD in general population is 2-3%. The main features of OCD are obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are unwanted, intrusive, unavoidable, ego dystonic, frightening or violent thoughts and often impair qua lity of life. Compulsions are repetitiv...
Article
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by a pattern of frequent, persistent worry and anxiety that is out of proportion to the impact of the event or circumstance that is the focus of the worry. The present study was based on the ancillary findings of the main study (which was based on scoring of Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale- HAM-A)...
Article
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Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common cause of childhood disability. It is defined as ‘a group of non progressive but often changing motor impairment syndromes which are secondary to anomalies or lesions of brain arising in early stages of its development’. The prevalence of CP varies from 1.5 to 2.5 per 1000 live births. There was no clarity regarding t...
Article
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Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Sixty percent of survivors have disabilities in arm or leg use and up to one third of stroke survivors need placement in a nursing home or assisted living environment. The prevalence of stroke in India ranges from 40 to 270 per 100 000 population. The present article deals with a diagnosed case of he...
Article
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Lumbar Spondylosis (LS) is defined as degenerative condition affecting the discs, vertebral bodies and associated joints of the lumbar spine. Low back pain affects approximately 60 – 85 % of adults and LS is responsible for about 10 % of all the back pain conditions. The present article deals with a case diagnosed lumbar spondylosis with spondyloli...
Article
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Bipolar Affective Disorder (BPAD) is one of the world’s ten most disabling conditions taking away years of healthy functioning from individuals who have the illness. The prevalence rate is approximately 1 % across all populations. The present article deals with a diagnosed case of BPAD with psychotic features came for Ayurvedic treatment. The Ayurv...
Article
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Background: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterised by a pattern of frequent, persistent worry and anxiety, which is out of proportion to the impact of the event or circumstance that is the focus of the worry. GAD is associated with muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky and muscle aches or soreness. Many individuals with G...
Article
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Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants in Indian Medicine for varied range of physical and psychological ailments. It is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. Ashwagandha roots are a constituent of over 200 formulations in Ayurveda...
Article
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Saraswata choorna is an Ayurvedic medicine used in the treatment of psychosis, depression, low intelligence level, loss of memory etc; conditions. Saraswata choorna is mentioned in Bhaishajya ratnavali text in ‘Unmada chikitsa’. Regular consumption of Saraswata choorna improves buddhi (higher mental functions), medha (intellect), dhriti (control ov...
Article
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The prevalence of stroke in India ranges from 40 - 270 per 100 000 population. Stroke patients who receive stroke unit care are more likely to get better relief than conventional care. Stroke unit care doesn’t include Ayurvedic treatment in their protocol but it is common for stroke patient to seek help of alternative medicine especially Ayurvedic...
Article
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Motor neuron disease (MND) is a progressive condition characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The term Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is used synonymously with MND. As there was no clarity regarding Ayurvedic aspect of MND / ALS, a major diagnostic and management dilemma exists while approaching the case of MND. The pre...
Article
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Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) has been known for its capability to improve endurance against stress, general resistance against infections, to slow down the ageing process, improvement of male sexual health and useful in disorders such as psychogenic impotence and unexplained infertility. The roots of which have been used as anti-stress...