Krzysztof Schmidt

Krzysztof Schmidt
Polish Academy of Sciences | PAN

Professor
Research project on the effect of large carnivores on stoichiometry of ecosystems: 1 postdoc and 2 PhD available.

About

124
Publications
51,550
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4,657
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Publications

Publications (124)
Article
Full-text available
The ecology and evolution of reproductive timing and synchrony has been a topic of great interest in evolutionary ecology for decades. Originally motivated by questions related to behavioural and reproductive adaptation to environmental conditions, the topic has acquired new relevance in the face of climate change. However, there has been relativel...
Preprint
ContextBehavioral adjustments by large carnivores can be a key factor facilitating their coexistence with people in shared landscapes. Landscape composition might be a key factor determining how large carnivores can adapt to occurring alongside humans, yet broad-scale analyses investigating adjustments of habitat use across large gradients of human...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the relationship between the variability and contemporary distribution of pelage phenotypes in one of most widely distributed felid species and an array of environmental and demographic conditions. We collected 672 photographic georeferenced records of the Eurasian lynx throughout Eurasia. We assigned each lynx coat to one of five phenot...
Article
Full-text available
Deleterious mutations continuously accumulate in populations, building up a burden that can threaten their survival, particularly in small populations when inbreeding exposes recessive deleterious effects. Notwithstanding, this process also triggers genetic purging, which can reduce the deleterious burden and mitigate fitness inbreeding depression....
Article
Habitat selection is a multi-scale process driven by trade-offs between benefits, such as resource abundance, and disadvantages, such as the avoidance of risk. The latter includes human disturbances, to which large carnivores, with their large spatial requirements, are especially sensitive. We investigated the ecological processes underlying multi-...
Article
Full-text available
Reintroductions may produce populations that suffer from decreasing genetic diversity due to isolation, genetic drift and inbreeding if not assisted by careful management. To assess the genetic outcomes of reintroductions in large carnivores, we used the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as a case study, which was the subject of several reintroduction atte...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Genome‐wide genetic data can provide key input for both taxonomy and conservation, but its use in this context remains limited. In this study, we performed the first genome‐wide assessment of genetic variation in two populations of the Eurasian lynx, the Balkan population, the most threatened, and the Caucasian population, a possible glacial re...
Article
Full-text available
The north-eastern European lowland population of the lynx is commonly attributed to the “Baltic population” and believed to belong to the nominative subspecies Lynx lynx lynx. Geographically, its range extends from eastern Poland throughout the Baltic states north to Fennoscandia and east to central Asia. Within its range across north-eastern Europ...
Article
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Demographic bottlenecks generally reduce genetic diversity through more intense genetic drift, but their net effect may vary along the genome due to the random nature of genetic drift and to local effects of recombination, mutation and selection. Here, we analysed the changes in genetic diversity following a bottleneck by comparing whole‐genome div...
Article
Full-text available
All animals, including carnivores, adapt their daily activity duration and distribution to satisfy food demands, breed, or avoid mortality risk. We used the kernel density method to estimate daily movement activity levels and movement activity patterns of jaguars in Hato Piñero, in Venezuelan Western Llanos, based on 3,656 jaguar detection time rec...
Article
Full-text available
Disentangling the contribution of long‐term evolutionary processes and recent anthropogenic impacts to current genetic patterns of wildlife species is key for assessing genetic risks and designing conservation strategies. Here, we used 80 whole nuclear genomes and 96 mitogenomes from populations of the Eurasian lynx covering a range of conservation...
Article
Full-text available
Large herbivores influence ecosystem functioning via their effects on vegetation at different spatial scales. It is often overlooked that the spatial distribution of large herbivores result from their responses to interacting top-down and bottom-up ecological gradients that create landscape-scale variation in the structure of the entire community....
Article
In 2007, the current outbreak of African swine fever (ASF), which severely affects wild boar populations and pigs, reached the Caucasus region. Since then, the virus has spread into eastern Europe and some places in central and western Europe (such as Belgium) through wild boar, domestic pigs, and human activities. The virus has raised serious conc...
Article
Full-text available
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a strictly protected species of large carnivore in Poland. It inhabits forest complexes in north-eastern Poland and the Carpathian region in southern Poland. The status of the lynx within Poland requires special attention because its range decreased between 1980 and 2001 and has not yet recovered. One of the factors...
Article
Targeted capture coupled with high throughput sequencing can be used to gain information about nuclear sequence variation at hundreds to thousands of loci. Divergent reference capture makes use of molecular data of one species to enrich target loci in other (related) species. This is particularly valuable for non‐model organisms, for which often no...
Article
Full-text available
Broad scale population estimates of declining species are desired for conservation efforts. However, for many secretive species including large carnivores, such estimates are often difficult. Based on published density estimates obtained through camera trapping , presence/absence data, and globally available predictive variables derived from satell...
Data
Pearson correlation matrix for jaguar density estimates (dependent variable) and a set of predictive variables. (DOCX)
Data
Spatial distribution of the posterior standard deviations of adjusted jaguar density estimates. (DOCX)
Data
Estimates of jaguar populations within protected areas by current range countries. (DOCX)
Data
Spatial distribution of the posterior standard deviations of estimated probabilities of jaguar occurrence. (DOCX)
Data
Density estimates and other relevant data used for the analysis of spatial variation in jaguar population densities. (DOCX)
Data
Candidate predictive variables used in the spatial analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Pearson correlation matrix for the jaguar occurrence (dependent variable) and a set of predictive variables. (DOCX)
Data
Estimates of jaguar population across historical range. (DOCX)
Data
Discussion of possible effect of increased pixel size of covariate layers on the precision of population size estimates. (DOCX)
Data
Simulation to validate hierarchical model; methods and associated R code. (DOC)
Data
Spatial distribution of the posterior standard deviations of jaguar potential density estimates. (DOCX)
Data
Excel database containing presence—absence data used for modelling probability of jaguar occurrence. (RAR)
Article
Full-text available
Predation is a major selective pressure for prey; however, the stress response to predation risk and the relative importance of natural versus anthropogenic stress factors in wild populations of animals have rarely been studied. We investigated the level of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) in 6 populations of red deer and roe deer exposed to...
Article
Full-text available
Background Demographic bottlenecks erode genetic diversity and may increase endangered species’ extinction risk via decreased fitness and adaptive potential. The genetic status of species is generally assessed using neutral markers, whose dynamic can differ from that of functional variation due to selection. The MHC is a multigene family described...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hybridization capture coupled with high-throughput sequencing can be used to gain information about nuclear sequence variation at hundreds to thousands of loci. A cross-species approach makes use of molecular data of one species to enrich target loci in other (related) species. This is particularly valuable for non-model organisms, for which often...
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife management systems face growing challenges to cope with increasingly complex interactions between wildlife populations, the environment and human activities. In this position statement, we address the most important issues characterising current ungulate conservation and management in Europe. We present some key points arising from ecologi...
Article
Retaliatory killing of large carnivores in response to their attacks on cattle is recognised as one of the most important factors causing worldwide declines of large carnivores. Conversely, hunting is believed to have been largely eliminated due to national and international protection measures. We studied the prevalence of human-jaguar conflict an...
Article
Full-text available
Density is crucial for understanding large carnivore ecology and conservation, but estimating it has proven methodologically difficult. We conducted 1 year of camera trapping to estimate jaguar (Panthera onca) density and population structure in the Los Llanos region of Venezuela on the Hato Piñero ranch, where hunting is prohibited and livestock a...
Article
Over the past ~40 years, several attempts were made to reintroduce Eurasian lynx to suitable habitat within their former distribution range in Western Europe. In general, limited numbers of individuals have been released to establish new populations. To evaluate the effects of reintroductions on the genetic status of lynx populations we used 12 mic...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past ~40 years, several attempts were made to reintroduce Eurasian lynx to suitable habitat within their former distribution range in Western Europe. In general, limited numbers of individuals have been released to establish new populations. To evaluate the effects of reintroductions on the genetic status of lynx populations we used 12 mic...
Article
Full-text available
Social organization in wild carnivores is mostly determined by patterns of family bonds, which may shape the degree of relatedness among individuals in the population. We studied kinship in a small and isolated population of a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to evaluate its effect on spatial distribution of individuals. We investi...
Article
Full-text available
A crucial element in the “the landscape of fear” concept is that prey animals are aware of varying levels of predation risk at a spatial scale. This often leads to a negative spatial relationship between prey and predator in which prey avoid the most risky sites in the landscape. In this paper we argue that our understanding of large carnivore-ungu...
Article
Ambush predators provide more persistent cues of predation risk compared to coursing predators and are predicted to exert stronger effects on behaviour of their prey. We studied anti-predator responses of ungulates by means of camera traps to an olfactory cue (fresh scat) of an ambush predator, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Roe deer (Capreolus cap...
Article
Full-text available
Eurasian lynx is one of most widely distributed felid species. However, populations in central Europe are strongly fragmented and limited to forest areas, which may influence their sustainability and gene flow. We studied the edge effect on mortality of a highly isolated population of Eurasian lynx in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (NE Poland) duri...
Article
Full-text available
Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the ge...
Article
Full-text available
The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other fa...
Article
Full-text available
Killing behavior and consumption rate are important components which determine 16 final predation rate. We studied predatory behavior of a female jaguar with one offspring in 17 Hato Piñero in Venezuelan Los Llanos. Seven carcasses of freshly killed calves were found 18 over a period of 9 days. Automatic video recording was used to document jaguar...