Krzysztof Klobut

Krzysztof Klobut
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland | vtt

Lic.Sc. (Tech.), M.Sc. (Tech.)

About

79
Publications
11,393
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Introduction
Krzysztof Klobut currently works at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Krzysztof does research in Mechanical Engineering. Their current project is 'INDIGO: New generation of Intelligent and Efficient District Cooling Systems .'

Publications

Publications (79)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the result of the work performed to develop a virtual test-bed for development and testing of Model Predictive Controllers within the district cooling networks field. These controllers are used for its application in improving the cooling energy efficiency in the network’s building. The article explains the use of the different...
Article
Holistic approach is required to achieve energy-efficient design of buildings that are integrated to the neighbourhood energy systems. This paper presents selected phases of the design process in the form of visionary scenarios involving new technologies, numerical services and business models. Evaluation of potential impacts and the needed progres...
Article
Full-text available
An open-source planning tool for the evaluation district cooling systems is developed within project INDIGO. The tool is based on optimisation model consisting of a defined set of components in a district cooling (DC) system. The approach links up the whole energy chain from consumption to resources achieve an optimal solution. The tool will enable...
Chapter
Practical guidelines are presented for improved process for design and retrofitting of energy-efficient buildings, with an aim to integrate buildings better with the neighbourhood energy system, among others through energy matching. The chapter describes the role of energy simulations in an integrated building retrofitting process and how to select...
Article
Full-text available
Within the framework of AMBASSADOR, a collaborative project funded by European Commission under FP7, a Modelica® library for the modelling of thermal-energy transport in district heating systems has been developed. This library comprises detailed models of the distribution and consumption components commonly found in district heating systems. In th...
Article
Full-text available
Cooling demand in buildings is globally increasing, therefore developing more efficient cooling systems is important for the sustainability of European cities. Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the council on energy efficiency states: “Member States should carry out a comprehensive assessment of the potential for high-efficienc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents selected results from three EU projects: AMBASSADOR, DESIGN4ENERGY and INDIGO. In these projects ICT-based approaches are being developed aiming at energy efficient buildings and districts. The projects are in different phases and they are focused on technologically different domains. In all of these projects ICT-technology is i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses an instrumental approach to design better energy efficient buildings within the context of neighbourhood, already at an early design phase. In the EU project Design4Energy (D4E) a scenario driven approach was used to define the activities that should take place at an early design stage, as well as the actors involved and the to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Design4Energy (D4E) project aims at developing a design methodology that is able to create energy-efficient buildings within the context of their neighbourhoods. An indicator framework for managing project strategic objectives has been set up, with Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to assess buildings’ perfor-mance in use. Selected performance, eco...
Conference Paper
Within the framework of AMBASSADOR, a collaborative project funded by European Commission under FP7, a Modelica library for the modelling of thermal energy transport in district heating systems has been developed. This library is composed of detailed models of the distribution and consumption components commonly found in a district heating system....
Chapter
Full-text available
According to the EU's objective, all newly constructed buildings should be nearly zero-energy houses since the beginning of 2021. Accordingly, energy consumption and heat demand in district heating systems will decrease. The possible solutions for district heating to meet the challenges due to this trend are being explored. The requirements for nea...
Chapter
Full-text available
So far, control systems for buildings have been developed as individual systems. Fairly new Energy Usage Analysis tools provide the capability to analyse energy profiles of scattered buildings of large corporations. The energy usage analysis and planning at district level are only emerging. Energy Usage Modelling is not yet leveraged in control sch...
Article
Full-text available
In the EU’s waste strategy, the order for sustainable waste actions is: reduction, reuse and recycling. Recovery has recently been added as a fourth action, and it is applied to the waste types that cannot be reused or recycled. Thus, recovery remains the last option before final landfilling. The annual amount of municipal waste from households in...
Conference Paper
The building energy simulation software IDA ICE was used in this study to combine the detailed building simulation model with a detailed district heating substation model, including solar heating. By combining the building and system models it is possible to simulate the performance of the combined solar and district heating system, taking into acc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to the EU's objective, all newly constructed buildings should be nearly zero-energy houses since the beginning of 2021. The requirements for zero-energy solutions implicate an on-site renewable energy generation and storage, often including solar. A new model of district heating (DH) substation including solar heating panels and a storage...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy consumption and heat demand in district heating systems will decrease in the future as low energy houses become more common and energy efficiency measures are implemented. The solutions for district heating to meet the challenges due to this trend are being studied. Simulation of three variations of a residential area with realistic load pro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
EU:n tavoitteen mukaisesti kaikkien uusien rakennusten tulisi olla lähes nollaenergiataloja vuodesta 2021 alkaen. Tässä projektissa tavoiteltiin energiatehokkaiden pientaloalueiden kaukolämmitysratkaisuja. Valittuja ratkaisuja mallinnettiin ja simuloitiin käyttäen pohjana Hyvinkään asuntomessualueen toteutumisvaiheessa olevaa passiivitason rakennus...
Article
The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking i...
Article
In this paper, we describe the application of two experimental methods on the determination of the heat release rate during the combustion of wood in stoves. The experimental methods are the oxygen consumption method and the carbon dioxide generation method and are adopted from the field of fire safety science. After outlining the basic ideas, we s...
Article
Full-text available
Energy Labelling Directive (ELD) has recently been adopted in European Union to improve the energy efficiency of appliances sold on the market. Energy labels are aimed to assist consumers in choosing products which save energy. Energy labelling was first addressed on a more general level in REHVA Journal – March 2013 issue. In this article the new...
Article
Full-text available
Ecodesign of Energy Using Products Directive (ED) and Energy Labelling Directive (ELD) are recent legal instruments in European Union aiming to improve the energy efficiency of appliances. While energy labels assist consumers in choosing products which save energy, and thus money, ecodesign is aimed to eliminate the least efficient appliances from...
Article
In this study the barriers to energy savings and the policy measures set up to overcome these barriers were mapped by interviewing stakeholders in ten European Union member states (MS). In addition, an estimate of energy savings potential was calculated. It seems that in most countries cost-effective energy savings of about 10% can be achieved by 2...
Technical Report
In this report different μ-CHP technologies were reviewed. Typical features of μ-CHP units based on internal combustion engine are: low costs, high efficiency, wide power range and ability to run on different fuels. Internal combustion engine power plants are modular, i.e. standardised units can easily be combined. Their weak points include noise,...
Chapter
Improving energy effi ciency is regarded by the European Commission as a key element in energy policy. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) stipulates that residential buildings must have an Energy Performance Certifi cate (EPC) when they are sold, rented out or constructed. The EPC includes a label rating of the energy effi ciency...
Chapter
Full-text available
A number of prospective district heating solutions were investigated for the first time in the context of application to buildings needing 75% less energy compared with standard solutions. The analysis conducted suggests that district heating with traditional room radiators and current billing tariff structure may not be cost-effective due to high...
Chapter
Full-text available
Improving energy effi ciency is regarded by the European Commission as a key element in energy policy. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) stipulates that residential buildings must have an Energy Performance Certifi cate (EPC) when they are sold, rented out or constructed. The EPC includes a label rating of the energy effi ciency...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The European research project AmI-MoSES is focused on developing energy enhancement service solutions for SME manufacturing companies. The planned service concept is based on Energy Key Performance Indicators in the form of Energy Use Parameters (EUP). EUP indicators are based on monitored energy consumption data (ECD), other measured data and rela...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The European research project AmI-MoSES is focused on developing energy efficiency enhancement service solutions for SME manufacturing companies. The planned service concept is based on Industrial Ambient Intelligence (AmI) Reference Architecture and Energy Key Performance Indicators in the form of Energy Use Parameters (EUP). EUP indicators are ba...
Article
Full-text available
The challenge of finding dedicated and sufficiently informative indicators for energy efficiency of buildings was explored in a literature study and a simulated case. A set of indicators of energy efficiency was developed. The proposed indicators were tested with simulation and the results suggest that the indicators are applicable for practical us...
Article
SIY Raportti 29 Sisäilmastoseminaari 2011. Dipoli, Espoo 16.3.2011 ISBN 978-952-5236-39-2, 207-212
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy efficiency improvement refers to using less energy for producing the equivalent amount of services or useful output. The first step towards reduction of energy consumption is to track it along operational processes and production areas and to show data to production managers. The question is how much energy was used (input) and what was the...
Article
SB10, "Sustainable Community - buildingSMART", 22-24 September 2010 Espoo, Finland ISBN 978-951-758-506-4
Conference Paper
Full-text available
7th CIRP International Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering, Capri (Gulf of Naples), Italy, 23 - 25 June 2010 Motivated by the global responsibility for ecologic sustainability as well as the economic pressure introduced by the increasing competition for energy resources, it has become a high-priority target to optimiz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New distributed simulation environment has been used to simulate the energy flows in a simple case community consisting of four buildings, power plant and a district heating network. Distributing computing task on different computers accelerates the simulation, but simultaneously some time is spent on communication. The tests indicated that a one y...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proceedings CLIMA 2010 Congress CD, CLIMA 2010, 10th REHVA World Congress "Sustainable Energy Use in Buildings", 9-12 May 2010 Antalya, Turkey, ISBN 978-975-6907-14-6 Energy efficiency of buildings may be improved using information provided by smart meters. They enable new services aiming at making the end-user aware of its energy consumption. Our...
Conference Paper
Proceedings CLIMA 2010 Congress CD. CLIMA 2010, 10th REHVA World Congress "Sustainable Energy Use in Buildings", 9-12 May 2010 Antalya, Turkey, ISBN 978-975-6907-14-6 A number of prospective district heating solutions were investigated for the first time in the context of application to buildings needing 75 % less energy than standard today. Conduc...
Article
GREEMBED 2010, First Workshop on Green and Smart Embedded System Technology: Infrastructures, Methods and Tools. 12 April 2010 Stockholm, Sweden
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proceedings CLIMA 2010 Congress CD, CLIMA 2010, 10th REHVA World Congress "Sustainable Energy Use in Buildings" 9-12 May 2010 Antalya, Turkey, ISBN: 978-975-6907-14-6 The success of energy certification in European Union (imposed by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive) depends to a large extent on the conditions in Member States. Energy c...
Article
Full-text available
CISBAT International Scientific Conference "Renewables in changing climate. From nano to urban scale", Lausanne, Switzerland, 2-3 September 2009, cd-ROM The distributed energy generation concept, where energy is produced close to where it is being used, has been thoroughly investigated in the case of electricity networks. However, until now limited...
Technical Report
Full-text available
VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes 2513 Viimeisen 35 vuoden aikana kaukolämmitettyjen rakennusten ominaislämmönkulutus on lähes puolittunut. Niin sanotuissa matalaenergiataloissa on muun energiankulutuksen ohella pienennetty rakennusten lämmitykseen tarvittavan energian osuutta merkittävästi, nykyisillä ratkaisuilla jopa noin 70 % tämänhetkisestä nor...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The implementation of EPBD was complete or close to completion in all the countries. The most commonly reported public policy measures in use were ones relating to information dissemination and subsidies for energy efficiency retrofits. Regulations, ecological taxation, subsidies for renewables and Research and Development (R & D) activities were a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The SofcPower 2007-2011 project aims to advance the development of the whole SOFC system towards demonstration in situ and, eventually, commercialisation. This publication is aimed at supporting the installation and exploitation of 50 kW SOFC in an office building in southern Finland. Other demonstration cases are also planned. In this context, the...
Article
According to the statistics, specific energy consumption of buildings heated by district heating decreased by 50 % in Finland during the last 35 years. Energy consumption in low-energy houses, and consequently the heat demand, is even more reduced, for example by 70 % compared to standard level in current regulations. It is envisaged that in new co...
Article
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology Vol.4 Nr.4, 511 - 515 Due to constantly increasing electricity consumption, networks are becoming overloaded and unstable. Decentralization of power generation using small-scale local cogeneration plants becomes an interesting option to improve economy and energy reliability of buildings in terms of both...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fuel cells offer an environmentally sound, distributed energy source for individual buildings. Many governments believe that security and sustainability of energy supply can be improved with this technology. Therefore large public support programmes are under way to facilitate the commercialization of residential fuel cell systems. VTT is actively...
Chapter
Full-text available
The basic idea of a distributed simulation environment has been presented and elaborated in a new context, in which building energy simulators and district heating network simulator are hydraulically and thermally linked from the power plant via the district heating network to the internal room conditions in buildings. The models and software emplo...
Article
This study examined the decentralisation of energy production with possibilities of trading not only electricity but also heat. This was carried out with a limited population of buildings connected to the district heating network in a small town in Finland.The study examined whether a buildings community could be self sufficient with respect to hea...
Article
A simplified method to describe the dynamical heat output from heat storing stoves for small houses with a single or several successive firing batches is presented. Both measurements in a stove and theoretical and experimental studies of the combustion of single wood logs can be applied to study the heat input from the batch firing to the furnace w...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Liberated heat market works mainly like a liberated electric market in Nordic countries with the exception that heat market works within a local district heating network. There are producers, customers, a network operator and a system operator as there exist in the electric market. Physical actors are the traditional large scale producers that sell...
Article
The aim of the European SSHORT (Sustainable Social Housing Refurbishment Technologies) project is to increase and promote rational and efficient use of energy in the retrofitting of social housing buildings. In this scope, one step was to evaluate with simulation studies the technical and economical interest of selected sustainable technologies on...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the European SSHORT (Sustainable Social Housing Refurbishment Technologies) project is to increase and promote rational and efficient use of energy in the retrofitting of social housing buildings. In this scope, one step was to develop a specific multi- criteria decision-making tool to support decision- makers in choosing the most adequa...
Article
Fuel-cell-based energy conversion devices are being developed for distributed electricity production. For residential purposes the electrical power level of these devices, which are capable of producing both heat and electricity, is in the range of 1 to 10 kW. This report includes a study of the state-of-the-art technology of polymer membrane fuel-...
Technical Report
Hajautettua energiantuotantoa varten on kehitteillä polttokennoon perustuvia sähköteholtaan 1 - 10 kW:n laitteita, jotka voidaan kytkeä pientalossa tuottamaan sähköä ja lämpöä. Tämä raportti on tilannekatsaus polymeerimembraanipolttokennoon perustuvien mikro-CHP laitteiden (PEM-mikro-CHP) ja sen pääkomponenttien (reformeri, kennostack, invertteri)...
Article
The present state of oil fired heating technology for small houses in Finland and western Europe (mainly Germany) as well as general trends within research in the area are evaluated based on published written material. The objective of this evaluation is to point out fields where efforts of the Finnish oil fired heating industry could (should?) be...
Article
Conventional oil fired boiler is over-dimensioned when applied as such to serve the reduced heating needs of a small sized low energy house. Solutions based on a low output heat source (LOHS) are needed for this purpose. This is a final report of the project that has been a first step towards developing a new generation of LOHS devices in Finland....
Technical Report
Full-text available
Nykyiset laitteet matalaenergiapientalon lämmitysenergiantarpeen tuottamiseen ovat ylimitoitettuja. Julkaisu on loppuraportti hankkeesta, joka on ensimmäinen askel uuden laitesukupolven kehittämisessä Suomessa. Projektissa selvitettiin olemassa olevan, öljyn höyrystykseen perustuvan laitekannan tekninen suoritustaso. Tämän perusteella valittiin sov...
Technical Report
Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin kiinteistökokoluokan öljylämmitysteknologian nykytila kotimaassa ja Keski-Euroopassa (erityisesti Saksassa). Julkaisussa esitetään muutamia tunnistettuja öljylämmitysteknologian kehitykselle ominaisia trendejä, joiden arvioidaan jatkuvan lähitulevaisuudessakin, sekä havainnollistetaan kehityssuuntien tausta, sisältöä ja n...
Article
Laboratory experiments were carried out to explore, for the first time, the influence of several parameters on combined forced and density-driven air flows through large openings in a horizontal partition. Such flows may occur, for example, in a stairwell connecting two floors of a detached house. The two-way flows in the opening were monitored usi...
Technical Report
In recent years, a computer simulation has gained considerable attention as a tool for predicting the air flows and an evolution of contaminant concentrations in buildings. Several computer programs, different in degree of sophistication and capabilities, have been developed for this purpose. However, what they all have in common is the lack of sui...
Chapter
The computer programs published so far enabled the computation of airflows assuming constant temperatures or the calculation of air temperatures assuming constant airflows. Recently, a new microcomputer program was developed in which thermal conditions were considered when predicting the spread of contaminants in buildings. The program enabled simu...
Conference Paper
The measuring stand was constructed in the lab-hall. The stand consisted of two vertically stacked zones separated by a horizontal partition with a large opening. Air flows in the large opening between the zones were monitored by means of tracer gas technique. Variable parameters in the measurements were: direction and rate of net flow, temperature...
Technical Report
Kirjallisuuskatsauksen muodossa on tutkittu tunnettuja ilmaverhojen ratkaisuja, ilmavirtauksen aukossa aiheuttavat tekijät ja ilmaverhojen mitoitusmenetelmiä. Tutkittiin myös ilmaverhojen toiminnasta aiheutunutta vaikutusta sisätiloissa työskentelevien viihtyisyyteen. Katsauksen kohteena on myös ollut ilmaverhoja täydentäviä ja korvaavia ratkaisuja...
Technical Report
Raportti on katsaus kirjallisuudessa esitettyihin erilaisiin laskentamenetelmiin koskien ilmasuihkujen ominaisuuksia sekä ulkopuolisten häiriötekijöiden vaikutusta niihin. Aineisto perustuu kokeelliseen tutkimukseen pääasiassa Keski-Euroopassa ja Skandinaviassa. (In Finnish) The report is a literature review on calculation methods of air jets inclu...
Conference Paper
The computer programs published so far have enabled the calculation of airflows at constant temperatures or of air temperatures at constant airflows. The first version of a new microcomputer program has now been developed in which the airflows and temperatures are calculated simultaneously. The time-dependency of temperatures, airflows and contamin...
Technical Report
The computer program was developed for simultaneous dynamic simulation of contaminant concentrations, pressure distribution, airflows and temperatures in multizone buildings. Physical coupling existing between thermal behavior of building structure and interzonal air movements has an impact on the distribution of contaminants in building. Considera...
Thesis
The computer program was developed for simultaneous dynamic simulation of contaminant concentrations, pressure distribution, airflows and temperatures in multizone buildings. Physical coupling existing between thermal behaviour of building structure and interzonal air movements has an impact on the distribution of contaminants in building. Consider...
Conference Paper
The computer program for calculating the spread of contaminants in the multi-zone buildings is addressed. The theoretical foundation for the calculating method is presented. Air temperatures in the building zones, interzonal airflows and contaminant concentrations are all interdependent and change dynamically with time. The values of these function...
Conference Paper
The mixing air flow pattern was studied. Three air flows were tested in a laboratory test room. The indices of air exchange efficiency were calculated, namely: overall air exchange efficiency and room air mean age for the whole room; local ventilation indices and local mean ages of air at 10 points distributed throughout the room. The tracer gas te...
Article
The report provides a summary of the laboratory tests. The mixing air flow pattern was studied. Three air flows were tested in a laboratory test room. The tracer gas technique and decay method were used. The indices of air exchange efficiency were calculated, namely: overall air exchange efficiency and room air mean age for the whole room; local ve...
Technical Report
The primary goal for ventilation is to create and maintain required microclimate within conditioned space. From a viewpoint of energy conservation, the ventilation air rate has to be minimized and maintaining required conditions in the enclosure should proceed in the most effective way. Consideration of the latter one when designing the plant is im...

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Projects (5)
Project
A new generation of Energy Performance Certificate for buildings is needed; more reliable, user-friendly and cost-effective. The ePANACEA project works towards this aim in order to inspire trust in the market and stimulate investments in energy efficient buildings https://epanacea.eu
Project
Sustainable energy Positive & zero cARbon CommunitieS demonstrates and validates technically and socio-economically viable and replicable, innovative solutions for rolling out smart, integrated positive energy systems for the transition to a citizen centred zero carbon & resource efficient economy. https://www.sparcs.info/