Krzysztof Bakuła

Krzysztof Bakuła
Warsaw University of Technology · Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography

Ph.D., Eng.
Vice-Dean for Students Affairs and International Cooperation, Researcher interested in UAV applications

About

70
Publications
28,407
Reads
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486
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
456 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
Introduction
I am employed as assistant professor in the Department of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Systems. I am interested in analysis and application of airborne and satellite, multi-sourced data (photogrammetric and LIDAR). I conduct lectures and exercises in following courses: geodesy and cartography, spatial planning, geoinformatics. I am involved in works of ISPRS, EuroSDR, Polish Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing and Association of Polish Surveyors.
Additional affiliations
October 2015 - present
Warsaw University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Photogrammetric Research Group
October 2010 - September 2015
Warsaw University of Technology
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Photogrammetric Research Group

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the results of an experiment about the vertical accuracy of generated digital terrain models were assessed. The created models were based on two techniques: LiDAR and photogrammetry. The data were acquired using an ultralight laser scanner, which was dedicated to Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms that provide very dense point c...
Article
Full-text available
Secondary succession is considered a threat to non-forest Natura 2000 habitats. Currently available data and techniques such as airborne laser scanning (ALS) data processing can be used to study this process. Thanks to these techniques, information about the spatial extent and the height of research objects—trees and shrubs—can be obtained. However...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of the topography of the sea floor are one of the main tasks of hydrographic organizations worldwide. The occurrence of any disaster in maritime traffic can contaminate the environment for many years. Therefore, increasing attention is being paid to the development of effective methods for the detection and monitoring of possible obsta...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a preface of the ISPRS/EuroSDR Workshop on the “Evaluation and Benchmarking of Sensors, Systems and Geospatial Data in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing” that was held in Warsaw University of Technology on 16-17 September 2019. The paper reviews benchmarking in photogrammetry and remote sensing found in the literature relating to geod...
Article
Full-text available
This research is related to the exploitation of multispectral imagery from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in the assessment of damage to rapeseed after winter. Such damage is one of a few cases for which reimbursement may be claimed in agricultural insurance. Since direct measurements are difficult in such a case, mainly because of large, unreach...
Article
Full-text available
The article aims to analyse the possibilities of GPR, LiDAR, and photogrammetric sensors integration in a specific application, considering the various combination of sensor and their parameters. This text also discusses the possibility of using LiDAR sensors in a low-sized mobile platform for the inventory of the road lane in a dense urban area. T...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the potential benefits of using UAV-based data to verify the accuracy of the geometry of the outlines of buildings registered in a cadastral database, and to investigate the potential use of data from UAV platforms in measuring the buildings.The authors examined whether the acquisition of data from UAVs can re...
Article
Full-text available
The succession process of trees and shrubs is considered as one of the threats to non-forest Natura 2000 habitats. Poland, as a member of the European Union, is obliged to monitor these habitats and preserve them in the best possible condition. If threats are identified, it is necessary to take action—as part of the so-called active protection—that...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents changes in the range and thickness of glaciers in Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) No. 128 on King George Island in the period 1956–2015. The research indicates an intensification of the glacial retreat process over the last two decades, with the rate depending on the type of glacier front. In the period 2001–2015, the...
Article
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Orthophotos are one of the most popular photogrammetric products and have been a leading source of up-to-date 2D data of urban areas for years. In the last few years, together with innovations in the area of Dense Image Matching, Digital Surface Models created with dense image matching start to be utilized as the height source during orthorectifica...
Article
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This article presents the results of studies related to the impact of flight altitude of UAV equipped with lidar data on geometric and radiometric information. Experiments were conducted in two test areas by performing UAV test flight missions at different UAV Laser Scanner (ULS) altitudes. The results were compared to other parameters describing t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a methodology for levee damage detection based on Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) data. In this experiment, the data were acquired from the UAS platform, which was equipped with a laser scanner and a digital RGB (Red, Green, Blue) camera. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) point clouds were used for the generation of the Digital Terrain...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows the influence of the selection of photogrammetric control points as natural, identifiable points instead of signalized, premarked control points on the results of aerial triangulation of high-resolution aerial images with GSD below 10 cm. In the experiment, different selections of controls were tested using point-type and linear-ty...
Article
Full-text available
The Archives of Photogrammetry, Cartography and Remote Sensing is a journal which, in the era of technological development of photogrammetry and remote sensing and changes related to cartography in the field of common digitization of sources and processing of spatial information in GIS environment, has been one of the most popular places for publis...
Article
Full-text available
One of the threats that has a significant impact on the conservation status and on the preservation of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, is secondary succession, which is currently analyzed using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. However, learning about the dynamics of this phenomenon in the past is only possible by using archival aerial photograp...
Article
Full-text available
Modern full-waveform laser bathymetric scanners offer the possibility of a practical application of airborne laser bathymetry (ALB) data algorithms as a valuable source of information in the study of the aquatic environment. The reliability of the obtained results and the efficiency of the classification depend on the applied features. The input da...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are willingly used in photogrammetry and remote sensing, especially for image acquisition, and are characterised by high spatial resolution. UAVs can be used for the fast and, if necessary, frequent acquisition of spatial data, especially for small areas. In recent years, new trends in the development of UAVs have em...
Poster
Full-text available
The secondary succession is currently an often observed process taking place on agricultural areas. Even though this phenomenon can have a highly positive impact on environment e.g. climate, carbon storage or biodiversity, it can also be perceived as a threat when present on Natura 2000 habitats. The process of succession taking place on the protec...
Poster
The secondary succession is currently an often observed process taking place on agricultural areas. Even though this phenomenon can have a highly positive impact on environment e.g. climate, carbon storage or biodiversity, it can also be perceived as a threat when present on Natura 2000 habitats. The process of succession taking place on the protec...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to show the possibility of generating digital surface models on the basis of satellite stereo-pair. Test area of experiment was the central part of Warsaw. The results were compared with a DSM based on the airborne laser scanning (LIDAR). The stereo-pair was collected with very high resolution satellite system Pleiades and...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a mobile mapping system mounted on the UAV is presented and evaluated. The NEO3 UAV platform is an 11kg fixed-wing designed by the MSP company. The UAV is equipped with a Riegl miniVUX-1UAV laser scanner, which is integrated with the GNSS/INS system of Applanix APX-15 UAV and two Sony Alfa 6000 cameras collecting images in the follow...
Article
Full-text available
This publication presents the analysis of tree stands’ changes for the area of Wilanów district in Warsaw, based on photogrammetric data. Using different photogrammetric techniques, such as image matching techniques and archival airborne laser scanning, a multitemporal analysis of vegetation changes was carried out. It enabled receiving information...
Article
Full-text available
Creating 3D building models in large scale is becoming more popular and finds many applications. Nowadays, a wide term “3D building models” can be applied to several types of products: well-known CityGML solid models (available on few Levels of Detail), which are mainly generated from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data, as well as 3D mesh models th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the following study, the authors present the development of a created levee monitoring system-a supplement to the existing programs of flood protection providing flood hazard and risk maps in Poland. The system integrates multi-source information about levees, acquiring and analysing various types of remote sensing data, such as the photogrammet...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the proposed SAFEDAM system, aerial and satellite-based information is used for the monitoring of river bodies, flood monitoring during the event, and for post-disaster damage assessment. UAV constitute a valuable source of information about the current situation in the field during the operation of emergency services. Time is crucial, and the b...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents the example of an adoption of 2D cadastral data to 3D data from inventory measurements and airborne laser scanning data in order to integrate them in a common spatial reference frame and propose the solution for the implementation of the 3D cadastre. The example is related to the subway in Warsaw. The paper introduces the idea of...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides description of new achievements in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing related to laser scanning technology. Platforms equipped with laser scanners are becoming a growing trend in UAV mapping. Two perspectives of development, which use laser sensors, as payload are described in thi...
Article
Full-text available
Building modeling for big areas (city and country modeling) is becoming more popular. Building models are generated among all from airborne laser scanning data and aerial images. Additionally, more attention is devoted to analysis of the accuracy of the 3D building models, especially concerning the accuracy of roof planes segmentation and their ver...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Actually In Poland the cadastral system is a 2D based system. The system uses 2D parcels in order to register rights to the land, but according to the cadastral law 3 types of cadastral objects exist in the Polish cadastral system: land parcels, buildings and premises. Geometrical data concerning parcels and buildings are shown on cadastral maps. N...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents survey measurements carried out during the 39th Polish Antarctic Expedition to the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station in March 2015. The measurements were used to create a map on a 1:500 scale and for 3D modelling of the station buildings and vicinity. The paper also presents the geodetic control network established aroun...
Article
This article presents the preliminary results of the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) for three-dimensional (3D) data collection for levees. The UAS is equipped with an ultra-light laser scanner and digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic coverage. Sensors have been mounted on the multi-rotor. Using such a platfor...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the trends in non-invasive monitoring of flood levees using a variety of photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies. Referring to those solutions of the SAFEDAM project is introduced in this article. The aim of the SAFEDAM project is the creation of system for levees monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles (equipped with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing have found small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be a valuable source of data in various branches of science and industry (e.g., agriculture, cultural heritage). Recently, the growing role of laser scanning in the application of UAVs has also been observed. Laser scanners dedicated to UAVs consist of four...
Article
Full-text available
Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning provides a new opportunity for airborne data collection. It provides high-density topographic surveying and is also a useful tool for land cover mapping. Use of a minimum of three intensity images from a multiwavelength laser scanner and 3D information included in the digital surface model has the potential for...
Article
Full-text available
Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVs) in agriculture, forestry, or other environmental contexts has recently become common. However, in the case of spatial planning, the role of UAVs still seems to be underestimated. At present, sections of municipal development use UAVs mainly for promotional purposes (films, folders, brochures, etc.). The...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system for evaluation of the condition of levees. The unmanned aerial system is equipped with two types of sensor. One is an ultra-light laser scanner, integrated with a GNSS receiver and an INS system; the other sensor is a digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic covera...
Article
Full-text available
Updating the cadastre requires much work carried out by surveying companies in countries that have still not solved the problem of updating the cadastral data. In terms of the required precision, these works are among the most accurate. This raises the question: to what extent may modern digital photogrammetric methods be useful in this process? Th...
Article
Full-text available
Updating the cadastre requires much work carried out by surveying companies in countries that have still not solved the problem of updating the cadastral data. In terms of the required precision, these works are among the most accurate. This raises the question: to what extent may modern digital photogrammetric methods be useful in this process? Th...
Article
Full-text available
Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAVs) in agriculture, forestry, or other environmental contexts has recently become common. However, in the case of spatial planning, the role of UAVs still seems to be underestimated. At present, sections of municipal development use UAVs mainly for promotional purposes (films, folders, brochures, etc.). The...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the source of various elevation data on hydraulic modelling in open channels. In the research, digital terrain models from different datasets were evaluated and used in two-dimensional hydraulic models. The following aerial and satellite elevation data were used to create the representation of te...
Article
Full-text available
Many papers on both theoretical aspects of bundle adjustment of oblique images and new operators for detecting tie points on oblique images have been written. However, only a few achievements presented in the literature were practically implemented in commercial software. In consequence often aerial triangulation is performed either for nadir image...
Article
Full-text available
Many papers on both theoretical aspects of bundle adjustment of oblique images and new operators for detecting tie points on oblique images have been written. However, only a few achievements presented in the literature were practically implemented in commercial software. In consequence often aerial triangulation is performed either for nadir image...
Article
Full-text available
Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is the one of the most accurate remote sensing techniques for data acquisition where the terrain and its coverage is concerned. Modern scanners have been able to scan in two or more channels (frequencies of the laser) recently. This gives the rise to the possibility of obtaining diverse information about an area with t...
Article
Full-text available
In this study the planimetric accuracy of lidar data was verified by registration of laser reflection images, point cloud modelling results and true orthophoto. The presented research is the basis for improving the accuracy of the lidar processing products, which is particularly important in issues related to surveying measurements. In the experime...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper approaches of historical, archeological objects detection from airborne laser scanning data was shown. Surrounding of the castle in Iłża with immovable monuments, identified as the industrial heritage was test study of this research. Presented approach of automatic extraction of charcoal pile was the analysis of the selected processin...
Article
Full-text available
The presented research concerns methods related to reduction of elevation data contained in digital terrain model (DTM) from airborne laser scanning (ALS) in hydraulic modelling. The reduction is necessary in the preparation of large datasets of geospatial data describing terrain relief. Its course should not be associated with regular data filteri...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents aspects of ALS data usage in two-dimensional hydraulic modelling including generation of high-precision digital terrain models, their effective processing which is a compromise between the resolution and the accuracy of the processed data, as well as information about the roughness of the land cover providing information that co...
Thesis
Full-text available
THE ROLE OF THE REDUCTION OF ELEVATION DATA OBTAINED FROM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING IN THE PROCESS OF FLOOD HAZARD MAP CREATION As a result of climate change and human influence on the environment an increase of flood hazard can be noticed. The problem has become so serious that the European Union obliged Member States to assess such threats and prep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Land covered with vegetation, in particular woodland, is poorly recognised but contains a significant number of archaeological features and sites, including a number of objects associated with the production of charcoal in the past, such as charcoal piles or kilns. An example of such objects, analysed in this text, are remains of charcoal piles, wh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this article, the essential role of ALS data application is presented in example of the Eagles' Nests, which are group of medieval castles - historical fortification systems in Poland. A key issue in this research is to expose the impact of various transformations of elevation models, which allows for a more comprehensive analysis of mentioned h...
Article
Full-text available
The presented paper shows the diversity of photogrammetric approaches by introducing a problem of camera interior orientation, data georeferencing, data integration and the issue of automatic object surface modelling. The authors discuss the abovementioned issues on the example of the work carried out at the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Wars...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper focuses on assessing capabilities of a smartphone for performing a specific close-range photogrammetry task: creating a georeferenced 3D model. One of the subjects discussed in this paper was the application of non-metric camera and location sensors’ usefulness in photogrammetric data processing. The calibration of the camera was carried...
Article
Full-text available
In this study results of planimetric accuracy of LIDAR data were verified with application of intensity of laser beam reflection and point cloud modelling results. Presented research was the basis for improving the accuracy of the products from the processing of LIDAR data, what is particularly important in issues related to surveying measurements....
Article
Full-text available
THE SELECTION OF ELEVATION DATA FOR THE PRESENTATION OF TERRAIN RELIEF IN NEW TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS IN POLAND. Niniejszy artykuł dotyczy oceny fotogrametrycznych danych wysokościowych znajdujących sie państwowym zasobie geodezyjnym i kartograficznych pod kątem ich dokładności wysokościowej, aktualności oraz przydatności do tworzenia prezentacji rzeźby...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper approaches of historical, archaeological objects detection from airborne lasers canning data were shown. Surrounding of the castle in Iłża with immovable monuments, identified as the industrial heritage, were the test study of this research. Presented approach of automatic extraction of charcoal pile was the analysis of the selected p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents different kinds of data used in hydraulic modelling, flood hazard and risk maps creation from the surveyor’s point of view. The possibilities of multi-source data application were presented considering the issues of the decision related to appropriate acquisition source, data integration and the problem of the voluminous datase...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents the applicable approaches to automatic generation of structural lines. The research involved separate extraction of drainage and ridge lines with the use of hydrological tools (D8 algorithm) implemented in ArcGIS environment. The results of extraction in a vector form were used to create hybrid-structured digital terrain models t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper analyzes the selection of main parameters of LiDAR system having an impact on acquisition of digital elevation models described by the assumed and exorbitant qualitative characteristics on the basis of airborne laser scanning project organized as a part of recommendations included in the Floods Directive in Poland. Such an analysis was th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Due to considerable development of the non-invasion measurement technologies, taking advantages from the distance measurement, the possibility of data acquisition increased and at the same time the measurement period has been reduced. This, by combination of close range laser scanning data and images, enabled the wider expansion of photogrammetric...