Kristoffer Hylander

Kristoffer Hylander
Stockholm University | SU · Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences

PhD, Professor

About

176
Publications
77,921
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Introduction
Kristoffer Hylander currently works at the Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University. Kristoffer does research in Ecology. Two current projects are "Microrefugia and stepping stones - the role of microclimate in climate-driven range shifts" and "Managing coffee to increase farmers' livelihood and biodiversity in Ethiopia".

Publications

Publications (176)
Article
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Disturbances alter biodiversity via their specific characteristics, including severity and extent in the landscape, which act at different temporal and spatial scales. Biodiversity response to disturbance also depends on the community characteristics and habitat requirements of species. Untangling the mechanistic interplay of these factors has guid...
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The multifunctional role of shade trees for conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in natural forests and agroforests is well documented, yet we lack insights into the impact of shade tree species identity on pest and disease dynamics on agroforestry crops such as coffee and cacao, and its implications for management. We conducted two...
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Green coffee bean quality and biochemistry are influenced by environmental variables. The present study was designed to study the influence of soil temperatures and soil chemistry on bean physical attributes, bean quality (assessed by three internationally trained, experienced, and certified Q-grade cuppers licensed by the Specialty Coffee Associat...
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Context Both climatic extremes and land-use change constitute severe threats to biodiversity, but their interactive effects remain poorly understood. In forest ecosystems, the effects of climatic extremes can be exacerbated at forest edges. Objectives We explored the hypothesis that an extreme summer drought reduced the richness and coverage of ol...
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Conventional wisdom states that genetic variation reduces disease levels in plant populations. Nevertheless, crop species have been subject to a gradual loss of genetic variation through selection for specific traits during breeding, thereby increasing their vulnerability to biotic stresses such as pathogens. We explored how genetic variation in Ar...
Article
The effectiveness of hedgerows as functional corridors in the face of climate warming has been little researched. Here we investigated the effects of warming temperatures on plant performance and population growth of Geum urbanum in forests versus hedgerows in two European temperate regions. Adult individuals were transplanted in three forest–hedge...
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Context Human disturbances can have large impacts on forest structure and biodiversity, and thereby result in forest degradation, a property difficult to detect by remote sensing. Objectives To investigate spatial variation in anthropogenic disturbances and their effects on forest structure and biodiversity. Methods In 144 plots of 20 × 20 m dist...
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1. Tropical agroforestry systems provide farmers with resources for their livelihoods, but are also well recognized as refuges for biodiversity. However, the relationship between yield and biodiversity might be negative in these systems, reflecting a potential trade‐off between managing for increased yield or biodiversity. The potential for synergi...
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Context Human disturbances can have large impacts on forest structure and biodiversity, and thereby result in forest degradation, a property difficult to detect by remote sensing. Objectives To investigate spatial variation in anthro-pogenic disturbances and their effects on forest structure and biodiversity. Methods In 144 plots of 20 9 20 m distr...
Article
Coffee is an important crop in the global south. However, ongoing changes in the climate system reinforce the need to quantify coffee plants' ecological and eco-physiological traits to assure coffee production in the future. One way to assess how environmental changes affect coffee performance is via leaf traits, most notably leaf carbon and nitrog...
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Global forest cover is heavily fragmented. Due to high edge-to-surface ratios in small forest patches, a large proportion of forests is affected by edge influences involving steep microclimatic gradients. Although forest edges are important ecotones and account for 20% of the global forested area, it remains unclear how biotic and abiotic drivers a...
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The local climate in forest understories can deviate substantially from ambient conditions. Moreover, forest microclimates are often characterized by cyclic changes driven by management activities such as clear‐cutting and subsequent planting. To understand how and why understory plant communities change, both ambient climate change and temporal va...
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While sustainable agriculture relies on natural pest control, we lack insights into the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down factors on pest levels, especially along broad environmental and management gradients. To this aim, we focused on bottom-up and top-down control of herbivore damage in sixty sites in the centre of origin of Arabica c...
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Forest canopies buffer macroclimatic temperature fluctuations. However, we do not know if and how the capacity of canopies to buffer understorey temperature will change with accelerating climate change. Here we map the difference (offset) between temperatures inside and outside forests in the recent past and project these into the future in boreal,...
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To understand colonization processes, it is critical to fully assess the role of dispersal in shaping biogeographical patterns at the gene, individual, population, and community levels. We test two alternative hypotheses (H I and H II) for the colonization of disturbed sites by clonal plants, by analyzing intraspecific genetic variation in one and...
Article
Ecological research heavily relies on coarse-­gridded climate data based on standardized temperature measurements recorded at 2 m height in open landscapes. However, many organisms experience environmental conditions that differ substantially from those captured by these macroclimatic (i.e. free air) temperature grids. In forests, the tree canopy f...
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As the world becomes more and more urbanized, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of urban landscapes on biodiversity. Urbanization can change local habitat factors and decrease connectivity among local habitats, with major impacts on the structure of natural food webs. However, most studies have focused on single species, or com...
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Activities aiming at conserving biodiversity in managed forest landscapes need to be complemented with a new set of tools given the emergent threat from rapid climate change. Most frameworks for adaptation of biodiversity conservation to climate change include two major strategies that focus on: 1) actions to increase the capacity of species and co...
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We studied food security and biodiversity conservation from a social-ecological perspective in southwestern Ethiopia. Specialist tree, bird, and mammal species required large, undisturbed forest, supporting the notion of ‘land sparing’ for conservation. However, our findings also suggest that forest areas should be embedded within a multifunctional...
Article
Species at their warm range margin are potentially threatened by higher temperatures, but may persist in microrefugia. Whether such microsites occur due to more suitable microclimate or due to lower biotic pressure from e.g. competitive species, is still not fully resolved. We examined whether boreal bryophytes and lichens show signs of direct clim...
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With the current deforestation rates in tropical ecosystems, optimizing biodiversity in managed systems has become fundamental for conservation. Agroforestry has been suggested to conserve biodiversity and buffer deforestation rates, while also sustaining local livelihoods. While many studies have focused on the relation between local management in...
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Agroforestry systems can provide habitats for a rich biodiversity including multitrophic interactions, which presents opportunities to develop natural pest control. Shade coffee systems in several coffee growing areas of the world host such unique habitats where pests and their natural enemies interact. One of the major global challenges for coffee...
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While top‐down control plays an important role in shaping both natural and agricultural food webs, we lack insights into how top‐down control effects vary across spatial scales. We used a multi‐scale survey of top‐down control of coffee pests and diseases by arboreal ants to examine if colony location creates a small‐scale mosaic in top‐down contro...
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Questions In some fire‐prone ecosystems, bryophytes play a crucial role by providing the surface fuel that controls the fire return interval. Afroalpine heathlands are such an ecosystem, yet almost nothing is known about the bryophytes in this system. We do not know the level of species richness, or if there is a successive accumulation of species...
Article
Ecosystem services are essential to human well-being. Different mechanisms modify people’s access to the benefits from ecosystem services, but who benefits from which services, and the underlying factors that shape such variability, often remain unclear. To address this, we surveyed current and past ecosystem service flows from forest and farmland...
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Projections of human population growth for 2050 indicate that Africa is expected to steadily increase its rural population, raising questions on how to best accommodate people while minimizing impacts on biodiversity. We explored the outcomes of scenarios of rural population growth mediated by housing development. We designed our scenarios based on...
Preprint
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Research in environmental science relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature at around 2 meter above ground1-3. These climatic grids however fail to reflect conditions near and below the soil surface, where critical ecosystem functions such as soil carbon storage are controlled and most biodiversity resides4-8...
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Forest microclimates contrast strongly with the climate outside forests. To fully understand and better predict how forests' biodiversity and functions relate to climate and climate change, microclimates need to be integrated into ecological research. Despite the potentially broad impact of microclimates on the response of forest ecosystems to glob...
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Context Human-dominated landscapes in the tropics need to be managed for biodiversity and the maintenance of ecosystem services (ES). Nevertheless, integrating both biodiversity conservation and ES management remains a challenge. Objectives This study aimed to quantify woody plant species diversity and associated ES in farmland and forests, and in...
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To understand how the environment drives spatial variation in population dynamics, we need to assess the effects of a large number of potential drivers on vital rates (survival, growth, and reproduction) and explore these relationships over large geographical areas and broad environmental gradients. In this study, we examined the effects of a wide...
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Current analyses and predictions of spatially‐explicit patterns and processes in ecology most often rely on climate data interpolated from standardized weather stations. This interpolated climate data represents long‐term average thermal conditions at coarse spatial resolutions only. Hence, many climate‐forcing factors that operate at fine spatiote...
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and I. Dorresteijn. 2020. Reconciling food security and biodiversity conservation: participatory scenario planning in southwestern Ethiopia. Ecology and Society 25(3):24. ABSTRACT. Social-ecological systems are complex and involve uncertainties emerging from interactions between biophysical and social system components. In the face of growing compl...
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We investigated the spatial relations of ecological and social processes to point at how state policies, population density, migration dynamics, topography, and socio-economic values of ‘forest coffee’ together shaped forest cover changes since 1958 in southwest Ethiopia. We used data from aerial photos, Landsat images, digital elevation models, pa...
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Ethiopia aims to restore 15 million ha degraded forests and woodlands, but effects on the potentially contrasting goals of long-term carbon storage, biodiversity and sustainable livelihoods are unknown. To quantify the effects of grazing exclusion on vegetation and fire behaviour, we established six 30 × 30 m fenced exclosures with grazed controls,...
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Insect pollinators are declining, which often is related to intensified agriculture. Less focus has been on the effect of forestry. In many boreal forests, clear-cutting has replaced fire as the main disturbance agent, which has been negative for many species. Therefore, prescribed burning is performed, often on clear-cuts. Knowledge on the effect...
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Plants, including those managed by humans, are often attacked by multiple diseases. Yet, most studies focus on single diseases, even if the disease dynamics of multiple species is more interesting from a farmers’ perspective. Moreover, most studies are from single management systems, although it is valuable to understand how diseases are distribute...
Article
Full-text available
Current analyses and predictions of spatially‐explicit patterns and processes in ecology most often rely on climate data interpolated from standardized weather stations. This interpolated climate data represents long‐term average thermal conditions at coarse spatial resolutions only. Hence, many climate‐forcing factors that operate at fine spatiote...
Preprint
Full-text available
To understand how the environment drives spatial variation in population dynamics, we need to assess the effects of a large number of potential drivers on the vital rates (survival, growth and reproduction), and explore these relationships over large geographical areas and long environmental gradients. In this study, we examined the effects of a br...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the environmental drivers of population dynamics is crucial to predict changes in species abundances and distributions under climate change. Populations of the same species might differ in their responses as a result of intraspecific variation, yet the importance of such differences remains largely unexplored. We examined the responses...
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The role of climate in determining range margins is often studied using species distribution models (SDMs), which are easily applied but have well‐known limitations, e.g. due to their correlative nature and colonization and extinction time lags. Transplant experiments can give more direct information on environmental effects, but often cover small...
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In flammable shrublands fire size often depends on local management. Policy and land use change can drastically alter fire regimes, affecting livelihoods, biodiversity, and carbon storage. In Ethiopia, burning of vegetation is banned, but the burn ban is more strongly enforced inside the Bale Mountains National Park. We investigated if and how poli...
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Climate warming is likely to shift the range margins of species poleward, but fine‐scale temperature differences near the ground (microclimates) may modify these range shifts. For example, cold‐adapted species may survive in microrefugia when the climate gets warmer. However, it is still largely unknown to what extent cold microclimates govern the...
Article
Identifying the factors determining the abundance and distribution of species is a fundamental question in ecology. One key issue is how similar the factors determining species’ distributions across spatial scales are (here we focus especially on spatial extents). If the factors are similar across extents, then the large scale distribution pattern...
Book
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This Red List is a summary of the conservation status of the European species of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, collectively known as bryophytes, evaluated according to IUCN’s Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Level. It provides the first comprehensive, region-wide assessment of bryophytes and it identifies those s...
Book
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The European Red List is a review of the status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This publication is a summary of the conservation status of...
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Macroclimate warming is often assumed to occur within forests despite the potential for tree cover to modify microclimates. Here, using paired measurements, we compared the temperatures under the canopy versus in the open at 98 sites across 5 continents. We show that forests function as a thermal insulator, cooling the understory when ambient tempe...
Article
Tropical forest ecosystems harbor high biodiversity, but they have suffered from ongoing human-induced degradation. We investigated the conservation value of moist evergreen Afromontane forest sites across gradients of site-level disturbance, landscape context and forest history in southwestern Ethiopia. We surveyed woody plants at 108 randomly sel...
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Many people in less developed countries depend on woody plants, but sustainable management of woody plants often remains a challenge. We assessed people’s use, perceived property rights and management of woody plants in farmland and forests in a landscape of southwestern Ethiopia. We interviewed 180 households and surveyed woody plants in 192 plots...
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Dispersal is a fundamental biological process that can be divided into three phases: release, transportation, and deposition. Determining the mechanisms of diaspore release is of prime importance to understand under which climatic conditions and at which frequency diaspores are released and transported. In mosses, wherein spore dispersal takes plac...
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Question Many species‐rich communities are associated with a foundation species. While we often have detailed information about the foundation species, we know less about its associated species. We explore such a situation, comparing the responses of lichen species associated with different tree taxa, which differ in successional strategy, to the e...
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Tree retention on clear-cuts is a relatively new measure in forestry aimed at ‘lifeboating’ forest species during young seral periods. However, the effectiveness of tree retention for maintaining biodiversity for more than a few years is still poorly known. We investigated lichen persistence in retained buffer strips along small streams after clear...
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The majority of microclimate studies have been done in topographically complex landscapes to quantify and predict how near-ground temperatures vary as a function of terrain properties. However, in forests understory temperatures can be strongly influenced also by vegetation. We quantified the relative influence of vegetation features and physiograp...
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Aim Past land use legacy effects—extinction debts and immigration credits—might be particularly pronounced in regions characterized by complex and dynamic landscape change. The aim of this study was to evaluate how current woody plant species distribution, composition and richness related to historical and present land uses. Location A smallholder...
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Species are often controlled by biotic factors such as competition at the warm edge of their distribution range. Disturbances at the treeline, disrupting competitive dominance, may thus enable alpine species to utilize lower altitudes. We searched for evidence for range expansion in grazed, fire‐managed Ethiopian subalpine Erica heathlands across a...
Article
Dispersal range is a key factor for understanding species' persistence in dynamic landscapes. However, dispersal, especially over long distances, is inherently difficult to study. Making use of a unique system of anthropogenically disturbed, geographically isolated mires, we assessed dispersal ranges for a group of plants restricted to wet calcareo...
Article
Functional traits mechanistically capture plant responses to environmental gradients as well as plant effects on ecosystem functioning. Yet most trait-based theory stems from terrestrial systems and extension to other habitats can provide new insights. Wetlands differ from terrestrial systems in conditions (e.g. soil water saturation, anoxia, pH ex...