Kristine Kern

Kristine Kern
Leibniz-Institut für Raumbezogene Sozialforschung

BA, MA, PhD
Head of Research Group on Urban Sustainability Transformations

About

111
Publications
33,140
Reads
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3,438
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2012 - present
Leibniz Institute for Regional Development (IRS) and University of Potsdam
Position
  • Professor (Full)
March 2012 - July 2015
Universität Potsdam
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 2008 - March 2012
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Full-text available
Based on the results of both existing research and recent developments in OECD countries, this study focuses on two issues: the local and the multi-level dimensions of urban climate governance. Starting from the distinction between different modes of climate governance (self-governing, governing through enabling, governing by provision and governin...
Article
The German mid-sized city of Remscheid, located in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, can be characterised as an unlikely climate pioneer. Remscheid is a least likely candidate for pioneering climate policies. Previous research suggests that climate pioneers are typically characterised by a growing population, favourable economic condition...
Article
Full-text available
We illustrate how the two mid-sized post-socialist eastern German cities Potsdam and Rostock have managed to become climate pioneers, despite being located in regions that have been reluctant with regard to climate action. Drawing on municipal documentation and fieldwork interviews, we show how favorable and interrelated conditions concerning a cit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Aufgrund der hohen Konzentration von Bevölkerung, ökonomischen Werten und Infrastrukturen können Städte stark von extremen Wetterereignissen getroffen werden. Insbesondere Hitzewellen und Überflutungen in Folge von Starkregen verursachen in Städten immense gesundheitliche und finanzielle Schäden. Um Schäden zu verringern oder gar zu vermeiden, ist...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dieser Forschungsbericht bietet vertiefte klimapolitische Pfadanalysen von 17 Groß- und Mittelstädten in den Bundesländern Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Brandenburg und Nordrhein-Westfalen. Die Pfadanalysen basieren auf umfangreichen Analysen zahlreicher Policy-Dokumente und Interviews mit Vertreter:innen aus Stadtverwaltungen, Kommunalpolitik und Ziv...
Chapter
Full-text available
One way to tackle climate change locally is to adopt successful approaches pioneered elsewhere. However, because most research has focused on large forerunner cities, smaller municipalities with a lower profile may not be aware of initiatives that are directly relevant to them. We need more research into ‘ordinary’ cities that are located “off the...
Article
Full-text available
Developing sustainable, carbon-neutral, and climate-resilient districts seems to be particularly challenging with respect to historic city centers. However, barriers posed by legal requirements for historical buildings are counterbalanced by opportunities because historic cities have not undergone urban modernization and did not embrace the concept...
Article
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In den letzten Jahren sind Reallabore zu einem wichtigen Bestandteil der anwendungsbezogenen Nachhaltigkeitsfor- schung in Deutschland und Europa geworden. Derzeit verla- gert sich die internationale wissenschaftliche Debatte mehr und mehr auf die Untersuchung von lokalen Experimenten. Vor diesem Hintergrund dient dieser Beitrag vor allem dem Zweck...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report sets out how multi-level nature structures within the German state provide the framework within which cities develop and implement their climate policies. It explains how the energy priorities and requirements of individual federal states (Länder) have led to regional governments adopting different climate strategies, and how the variou...
Article
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Climate mitigation and climate adaptation are crucial tasks for urban areas and can involve synergies as well as trade-offs. However, few studies have examined how mitigation and adaptation efforts relate to each other in a large number of differently sized cities, and therefore we know little about whether forerunners in mitigation are also leadin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Kaupungit ovat tärkeitä ilmastopolitiikan tekijöitä. Neljän edelläkävijän vertailussa Turun ilmastopolitiikan vahvuuksia ovat kunnianhimoiset tavoitteet, vahva poliittinen tuki, kaupungin itsenäinen taloudellinen asema ja mahdollisuus vaikuttaa energian tuotanto­tapoihin. Sen sijaan ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutumi­sessa ja kaupunkilaisten osallistumis...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cities are important climate policy actors. In a comparative assessment of four forerunner cities, Turku’s climate policy strengths include ambitious policy targets, strong political support, financial autonomy, and the capacity to steer the transformation of energy production. The areas where Turku can learn from others include climate adaptation...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Matching Forerunner Cities research project provides an assessment of Turku’s climate policy and compares its performance with three other forerunner cities with similar characteristics. Turku, Malmö, Rostock, and Gron-ingen are mid-sized cities of roughly the same size located in advanced democracies in Northern and Continental Europe. They ar...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht befasst sich mit dem Transfer von Klima-Policies (z.B. Strategien zur Dekarbonisierung oder Ansätze zur Klimawandelanpassung) zwischen Städten und fokussiert sich hierbei auf Literaturbeiträge aus den Politik- und Verwaltungswissenschaften sowie der Humangeographie. Policies werden hierbei als übergreifender Begrif...
Article
Full-text available
Our paper explores the climate pathways of the three mid-sized cities German of Potsdam, Remscheid and Würzburg. Particular emphasis was put on key events (e.g. disruptive events) and key actors (e.g. local decision-makers) that significantly influenced the development of local climate policy. The path analyses are based on the analysis of several...
Technical Report
Full-text available
http://hdl.handle.net/10419/214661
Article
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Recent years have seen a considerable broadening of the ambitions in urban sustainability policy-making. With its Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)11 "Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable", the 2030 Agenda stresses the critical role of cities in achieving sustainable development. In the context of SDG17 on...
Article
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Energy transitions cannot be fully grasped without appreciating their spatial implications. This paper takes up the idea of conceptualizing the socio-spatial dimensions of energy transitions and examines the respective value of the Territory, Place, Scale, and Network (TPSN) framework. The fundamental contribution of this framework is to move the f...
Article
The success of local climate governance in Europe depends not only on leading cities but also on the dynamics between leaders, followers, and laggards. Upscaling local experiments helps to close the gap between these actors. This process is driven by the increasing embeddedness of cities and their networks in EU multilevel governance. Embedded upsc...
Article
The ecosystem approach to management (EAM) is a policy principle and management tool of increasing importance in European environmental governance. In the Baltic Sea region (BSR), this approach has developed in line with a progressive environmental management agenda, reaching from hot spot solutions to new holistic agendas. This paper examines the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cities are responsible for around 70 % of the global greenhouse gas emissions and are hence important for climate mitigation; consequently they are a crucial target group of climate policies. At the same time, cities are also severely affected by potential impacts of climate change: extreme weather events such as heat waves or heavy precipitation (...
Chapter
Energiepolitische Interaktionen zwischen Bund, Ländern und Kommunen besitzen im vertikal intensiv verflochtenen deutschen Mehrebenensystem eine hohe Erklärungskraft für die Ausgestaltung und das Tempo der Klima- und Energiewendepolitik. Dieses Kapitel führt eine konzeptionelle Heuristik ein, mittels derer es möglich ist, diese Interaktionen zu syst...
Article
Urban sustainability rankings may be useful for urban planning. How urban sustainability is defined influences the results of urban sustainability rankings. Various efforts have been made to define the concept and to operationalize it into specific components (e.g. air quality, inequality, employment). Consequently, numerous different components ar...
Article
The past two decades have witnessed widespread scholarly interest in the role of cities in climate policy-making. This research has considerably improved our understanding of the local level in the global response to climate change. The present article synthesizes the literature on local climate policies with respect to the 1.5 °C target. While mos...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on the use of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Based on selected criteria for EAM, the article traces and compares the impact of EAM on HELCOM's Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Maritime S...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management a...
Book
Macro-regional strategies seek to improve the interplay of the EU with existing regimes and institutions, and foster coherence of transnational policies. Drawing on macro-regional governance and Europeanization, this edited volume provides an overview of processes of macro-regionalization in Europe displaying evidence of their significant impact.
Chapter
With the adoption of its first ‘macro-regional’ strategy in 2009 — the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR) — the European Union has started to charter new territory in transnational cooperation and cohesion policy. Subsequently, other ‘macro-regions’ have begun to self-identify — such as the Danube (2011), the Adriatic-Ionian basin (2014...
Chapter
The EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR), which was presented by the European Commission in June 2009, is the first macro-regional strategy of the EU. In the words of the EU Commissioner for Regional Policy, Johannes Hahn, it was designed to serve as a ‘new model for co-operation’ and ‘to inspire other regions’ (Hahn, 2010, 2) in Europe....
Article
Full-text available
Although Dutch cities were among the forerunners in local climate policy, a systematic overview on climate mitigation and adaptation policy is still missing. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing 25 Dutch cities using indicators for the level of anchoring in policy, organisation and practical implementation as well as multi-level relations....
Article
City rankings that aim to measure the environmental sustainability of European cities may contribute to the evaluation and development of environmental policy of European cities. The objective of this study is to identify and evaluate the methodological characteristics of these city rankings. First, a methodology was developed to systematically ide...
Article
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The complexities and uncertainties inherent to climate change place ecosystems and governance systems under pressure, in particular at the local level, where the causes and consequences of climate change play out. To address this complexity, local authorities have to be flexible, with an emphasis on learning and experimentation to lower greenhouse...
Article
Full-text available
Although Dutch cities were among the forerunners in local climate policy, a systematic overview on climate mitigation and adaptation policy is still missing. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing 25 Dutch cities using indicators for the level of anchoring in policy, organisation and practical implementation as well as multi-level relations....
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report draws lessons from experience in the European Union, Australia and Germany and uses them to provide recommendations for how Canadian federal and provincial governments can put in place co-ordinated, effective climate-change policy.
Article
This article focuses on the emergence of a decentralized institutional complex, interplay management, and the institutional interplay between the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the EU in the issue area of environmental shipping policies. It shows that the synergistic relationship between both institutions has been driven primarily by...
Article
Full-text available
In 2009, the European Union launched its first macro-regional strategy, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR). By providing a reference framework for functional cooperation in areas such as the environment, economic development and transport infrastructure, macro-regional strategies seek to support both the treaty-based principle of te...
Article
Full-text available
With the adoption of the EU Strategies for the Baltic Sea Region in 2009 and the Danube Region in 2011, the European Union (EU) set out to forge a new ‘macro regional’ approach focussing on functional and territorial cooperation in areas such as transport and environmental policy. Drawing on the multi-level governance approach, this paper argues th...
Article
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This article explores the background to and the recent development of the Energiewende in Germany. Specifically, it examines the on-going politics of this commitment to phase-out nuclear power, reduce fossil fuel use and ensure continued economic growth. Distinctions between the German Energiewende and energy transitions in other countries are draw...
Chapter
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Article
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Since the early 1990s, several European countries (and Japan) have in turn introduced new long-term care schemes. Our analysis starts with the assumption that the policy design of the long-term care schemes can be explained by the interplay of factors originating within and beyond nation states. Policy changes are determined by internal and externa...
Article
This article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance. We find that TMNs are networks of pioneers for pi...
Chapter
Since the 1990s, demographic and social changes in a situation of welfare state constraints have challenged prevalent elder care approaches in many Western countries and resulted not only in the restructuring of existing elder care systems but also in the creation of new systems. In Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries the fundamental shift...
Article
Full-text available
After the end of the Cold War, the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) developed into a highly dynamic area of cross-border cooperation and transnational networking. Four types of governance beyond the nation-state are discussed here: (1) international regimes, such as the Helsinki Convention for the Protection of the Baltic Sea; (2) transnational policy netwo...
Article
The diffusion of Local Agenda 21 (LA21) appears to have run its course, even in Germany. Starting from Germany's changing international position from laggard to latecomer, this article focuses on a comparison of the German federal states (Lnder) because the percentage of local authorities with LA21 resolutions varies considerably from state to stat...
Article
Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical...
Article
This paper argues that, in order to address the challenges of climate change, attention needs to be focused not only at the international level but also on how climate protection policy is taking shape locally. It provides a comparative analysis of local climate change policy in Germany and the UK. By moving the focus from an analysis of the formal...
Article
After the end of the Cold War, the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) developed into a highly dynamic area of cross-border cooperation and transnational networking. Three forms of governance beyond the nation state and appropriate case studies are presented here: (1) the Helsinki Convention as an international regime; (2) Baltic 21, the world's first regional...
Article
Full-text available
More than ten years after the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, which marked the institutionalization of Agenda 21 and the beginning of Local Agenda 21 processes all over the world, it is time to summarize and evaluate the situation with respect to Local Agenda 21 in Germany. Even in Germany, which can be considered as a latecomer regarding the implementat...
Chapter
Zivilgesellschaft und Sozialkapital werden als zentral für die soziale und politische Integration moderner Gesellschaften betrachtet. Neue soziale Ungleichheiten und wachsende kulturelle Unterschiede führen zu Integrations-problemen, die durch zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement und die Bildung von Sozialkapital gelöst werden sollen. Doch hat Zivilg...
Chapter
In den letzten Jahren hat die Diskussion über soziales Kapital, die sich zuvor vor allem auf die USA konzentrierte, in Europa stark an Bedeutung gewonnen. Ausgelöst wurde die kontroverse Debatte durch Robert Putnam (1995a, 1995b, 2000) und seine provokante These von der Erosion des Sozialkapitals in den USA und den daraus resultierenden Folgen für...
Chapter
Environmental policy is considered a cornerstone of Red–Green politics in Germany because it is integral for party identity and a measure of performance for the Greens (Bündnis ’90/Die Grünen). In 2002, after four years in office and at the beginning of the new legislative term, it appears that environmental policy may be one of this government’s f...
Book
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Der Band bietet theoretische Zugänge und empirische Befunde zur Rolle von Zivilgesellschaften und sozialem Kapital bei der Sicherung politischer und sozialer Integration. Außerdem analysiert der Band Integrations- und Segregationseffekte ethnischer Gemeinschaften. Die Rolle der Zivilgesellschaft bei der Sicherung politischer und sozialer Integratio...
Article
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The nature of environmental governance within Europe is increasingly considered to be multilevel – involving actors and institutions at local, national and international levels, and from public, private and civil society spheres. One interesting feature of the development of multilevel governance is the emergence of transnational municipal networks...
Article
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Die Umweltpolitik gilt als wichtiger Eckpfeiler rot-grüner Politik in Deutschland. Um deren Erfolg beurteilen zu können, müssen nationale Pfadabhängigkeiten wie auch globale Politikkonvergenzen berücksichtigt werden. Deshalb wird eine Konzeption gewählt, die zwei Dimensionen umfasst: das Ausmaß des Politikwandels, der entweder radikal oder lediglic...
Article
This article focuses on forms of governance. Such as state, market and self-organisation, and provides an assessment of their effects on an innovative environmental and resource policy. The need to combine different coordination mechanisms is outlined. These institutional innovations are of major importance insofar as they broaden the scope of acti...
Article
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Umweltzeichen genießen in vielen Ländern ein hohes Ansehen. Diese umweltpolitische Innovation findet sich mittlerweile nicht nur in vielen Industrieländern, sondern auch in zahlreichen Schwellenländern. Umweltzeichen sind zwar eher als Ergänzung denn als Ersatz für die traditionellen Formen der Regulierung anzusehen (Harrison 1999: 110), doch ist z...
Chapter
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Kommunale Entwicklungen werden heute nicht nur durch die nationale Ebene, sondern immer stärker durch globale Veränderungen sowie durch supra- und internationale Entscheidungen beeinflusst. Umgekehrt avancieren die Kommunen aber auch zu „global players“. Neben der Präsenz der Kommunen in internationalen und europäischen Politikarenen zeigt sich ein...
Article
Thema dieses Beitrags ist die Diffusion umweltpolitischer Innovationen zwischen Nationalstaaten in ihrer Bedeutung für die globale Entwicklung von Umweltpolitik. Dabei geht es um die empirische Beobachtung, daß nationale Umweltinitiativen vielfach mit hoher Geschwindigkeit in anderen Ländern übernommen werden und sich auf diese Weise international...
Chapter
Die Forderung nach der stärkeren Beteiligung der gesellschaftlichen Gruppen sowie der Bürger an kommunalen Entscheidungen ist keineswegs neu. Im Zusammenhang mit den Diskussionen über eine nachhaltige Entwicklung und die Umsetzung der in Rio beschlossenen Lokalen Agenda 21 gelangte sie jedoch in vielen Ländern erneut auf die politische Tagesordnung...
Chapter
Während die Diffusion von Politikinnovationen in der vergleichenden Politikanalyse ein recht neues Thema ist, hat die Diffusionsforschung eine lange Tradition. Die ersten Ansätze entstanden bereits zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in Frankreich, wo sich Gabriel Tarde die Frage stellte, warum bestimmte Innovationen imitiert wurden, andere jedoch binne...
Chapter
Über die Leistungsfähigkeit von (föderalistischen) Mehrebenensystemen besteht keineswegs Einigkeit: Einerseits können Entscheidungsprozesse in Mehrebenensystemen, so wird argumentiert, zu Handlungsblockaden führen (Scharpf 1985; Benz 1991; Benz 1995). Andererseits behauptet Renate Mayntz (1995: 134), daß Föderalstaaten aufgrund der Existenz von zwe...
Chapter
Mit dem nun folgenden Schlußkapitel werden zwei Zielsetzungen verfolgt: Zum einen sollen die Resultate der vorangegangenen Kapitel zusammengefaßt und einige Schlußfolgerungen gezogen werden. Zum anderen geht es darum, die auf der Struktur und Funktionsweise des amerikanischen Systems basierenden Ergebnisse auf andere Mehrebenensysteme zu übertragen...
Chapter
Der Wandel der Kompetenzverteilung und die daraus resultierenden Folgen sind zwar ein zentrales Problem aller Mehrebenensysteme, gerade für Föderalstaaten sind sie jedoch von besonderer Relevanz. Anders als in Europa werden Fragen der Interdependenz und Integration mehrerer Politik- und Verwaltungsebenen in den USA schon seit über 200 Jahren diskut...