Kristian Kjellerup Kjeldsen

Kristian Kjellerup Kjeldsen
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland · Department of Glaciology and Climate

PhD

About

98
Publications
31,782
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Introduction
Working with the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet using palaeorecords and modern observations and thereby bridging long term- and contemporary changes.
Additional affiliations
August 2009 - September 2010
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Assistant teacher in Geographic Information Systems

Publications

Publications (98)
Preprint
Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) or ‘jökulhlaups’ from ice-dammed lakes are frequent in Greenland and can influence local ice dynamics, bedrock displacement, geomorphological changes and flooding hazards. Multidecadal time series of lake drainage dates, drainage volumes and flood outlets are rare but essential for understanding the impact on an...
Article
Climate warming and the resulting acceleration of freshwater discharge from the Greenland Ice Sheet are impacting Arctic marine coastal ecosystems, with implications for their biological productivity. To accurately project the future of coastal ecosystems and place recent trends into perspective, palaeo-records are essential. Here, we show runoff e...
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Rainfall at the Greenland ice sheet Summit 14 August 2021, was delivered by an atmospheric river (AR). Extreme surface ablation expanded the all‐Greenland bare ice area to near‐record‐high with snowline climbing up to 788 ± 90 m. Ice sheet wet snow extent reached 46%, a record high for the 15–31 August AMSR data since 2003. Heat‐driven firn deflati...
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We compile and analyze all available geothermal heat flow measurements collected in and around Greenland into a new database of 419 sites and generate an accompanying spatial map. This database includes 290 sites previously reported by the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC), for which we now standardize measurement and metadata quality. This...
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In the Northern Hemisphere, an insolation driven Early to Middle Holocene Thermal Maximum was followed by a Neoglacial cooling that culminated during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here, we review the glacier response to this Neoglacial cooling in Greenland. Changes in the ice margins of outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet as well as local glac...
Preprint
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Climate warming and the resulting acceleration of freshwater discharge from the Greenland Ice Sheet are impacting Arctic marine coastal ecosystems, with implications for their biological productivity. To accurately project the future of coastal ecosystems, and place recent trends into perspective, paleo-records are essential. Here, we present late...
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During the last glacial–interglacial cycle, Arctic biotas experienced substantial climatic changes, yet the nature, extent and rate of their responses are not fully understood1–8. Here we report a large-scale environmental DNA metagenomic study of ancient plant and mammal communities, analysing 535 permafrost and lake sediment samples from across t...
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The mass of the Greenland ice sheet is declining as mass gain from snow accumulation is exceeded by mass loss from surface meltwater runoff, marine-terminating glacier calving and submarine melting, and basal melting. Here we use the input–output (IO) method to estimate mass change from 1840 through next week. Surface mass balance (SMB) gains and l...
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Plain Language Summary There are 57 permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations on bedrock in Greenland. These stations provide point‐measurements of three‐dimensional crustal motion. We can model a large portion of the observed crustal uplift rates as elastic Earth response to ongoing rates of ice‐mass loss. We model the remaining...
Preprint
Full-text available
We compile, analyse and map all available geothermal heat flow measurements collected in and around Greenland into a new database of 419 sites and generate an accompanying spatial map. This database includes 290 sites previously reported by the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC), for which we now standardize measurement and metadata quality....
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The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has been measuring climate and ice sheet properties since 2007. Currently, the PROMICE automatic weather station network includes 25 instrumented sites in Greenland. Accurate measurements of the surface and near-surface atmospheric conditions in a changing climate are important for r...
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We present the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) Ice Velocity product (https://doi.org/10.22008/promice/data/sentinel1icevelocity/greenlandicesheet, Solgaard and Kusk, 2021), which is a time series of Greenland Ice Sheet ice velocity mosaics spanning September 2016 through to the present. The product is based on Sentinel...
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The Greenland ice sheet has been one of the largest sources of sea-level rise since the early 2000s. However, basal melt has not been included explicitly in assessments of ice-sheet mass loss so far. Here, we present the first estimate of the total and regional basal melt produced by the ice sheet and the recent change in basal melt through time. W...
Article
Understanding the long-term difference in the response times of ice sheets, peripheral ice caps and glaciers may provide information about their respective sensitivities to climate change. However, there are only a few places where the history of local glaciers, ice caps (GICs) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have been recorded in the same area....
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Cosmogenic exposure dating is one of the most widely used methods to constrain the deglaciation history of former glaciated areas. In Greenland, more than 1000 cosmogenic ¹⁰Be exposure ages (¹⁰Be ages) have been published within the last two decades. However, a recurring problem is that many of these studies have reported variable amounts of nuclid...
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Full-text available
The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has been measuring climate and ice sheetproperties since 2007. Currently the PROMICE automatic weather station network includes 25 instrumented sites in Greenland.Accurate measurements of the surface and near-surface atmospheric conditions in a changing climate is important for relia...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) ice velocity product (https://doi.org/10.22008/promice/data/sentinel1icevelocity/greenlandicesheet) (Solgaard and Kusk, 2021)) which is a September 2016 through present time series of Greenland Ice Sheet ice-velocity mosaics. The product is based on Sentinel-1 synthetic ap...
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We present a new approach to account for the influence of subglacial topography on geothermal heat flux beneath the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. We first establish a simple empirical proportionality between local geothermal flux and topographic relief within a given radius, based on a synthesis of existing observations of these properties el...
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To put recent Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice loss into a longer-term context, we must understand its behavior during late-glacial and Early Holocene warming. Previous results seem to suggest that there is a large contrast in the timing of deglaciation between South and Southeast Greenland. However, because of lack of available data, in particular i...
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Each summer, surface melting of the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet exposes a distinctive visible stratigraphy that is related to past variability in subaerial dust deposition across the accumulation zone and subsequent ice flow toward the margin. Here we map this surface stratigraphy along the northern margin of the ice sheet using mosaicked Sen...
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The Greenland ice sheet is one of the largest sources of sea-level rise since the early 2000s. Basal melt has not been included explicitly in assessments of ice-sheet mass loss so far. Here, we present the first full-coverage estimate of the ice-sheet wide basal melt in Greenland and its recent change through time. We find that presently basal melt...
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Heat transport via ocean currents can affect the melting of marine‐terminating glaciers in Greenland. Studying past changes of marine‐terminating glaciers allows assessing the regional sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to ocean temperature changes in the context of a warming ocean. Here, we present a high‐resolution multiproxy marine sediment...
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In recent decades, the Greenland Ice Sheet has been a major contributor to global sea-level rise1,2, and it is expected to be so in the future³. Although increases in glacier flow4–6 and surface melting7–9 have been driven by oceanic10–12 and atmospheric13,14 warming, the degree and trajectory of today’s imbalance remain uncertain. Here we compare...
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Plain Language Summary In the past two decades, multiple Greenlandic glaciers retreated because their floating part (=“ice tongue”) melted and broke off. While it is believed that such events are the result of a warming climate, not much is known about how often or when such events have occurred in the past. In this study, we compiled multiple hist...
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The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) has measured ice-sheet elevation and thickness via repeat airborne surveys circumscribing the ice sheet at an average elevation of 1708 ± 5 m (Sørensen et al. 2018). We refer to this 5415 km survey as the ‘PROMICE perimeter’. Here, we assess ice-sheet mass balance following the input...
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Between 1850 and 2006 global mean sea level rose by 24 ± 18 cm. It is projected to rise a further 52 ± 21 cm under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario, which approximates the carbon emissions reductions of the ‘Paris Agreement’ climate pathway. It is projected to rise 74 ± 28 cm under the RCP8.5 scenario, which represents a...
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The Greenland ice sheet has been losing mass in response to increased surface melting (Khan et al. 2015; van den Broeke et al. 2017) as well as discharge of ice from marine terminating outlet glaciers (van den Broeke et al. 2009; Box et al. 2018). Marine terminating outlet glaciers flow to the ocean where they lose mass by e.g. iceberg calving. Cur...
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We present a 1986 through 2017 estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet ice discharge. Our data include all discharging ice that flows faster than 100 m yr−1 and are generated through an automatic and adaptable method, as opposed to conventional hand-picked gates. We position gates near the present-year termini and estimate problematic bed topography (ice t...
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We present a new 18-year (2000 to 2018) estimate of Greenland Ice Sheet ice discharge. Our data include all ice that flows faster than 100 m yr−1 and are generated through an automatic and adaptable method, as opposed to conventional hand-picked gates. We position gates near the present-year termini and estimate problematic bed topography (ice thic...
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We report the discovery of a large impact crater beneath Hiawatha Glacier in northwest Greenland. From airborne radar surveys, we identify a 31-kilometer-wide, circular bedrock depression beneath up to a kilometer of ice. This depression has an elevated rim that cross-cuts tributary subglacial channels and a subdued central uplift that appears to b...
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Helheim Glacier ranks among the fastest flowing and most ice discharging outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). After undergoing rapid speed-up in the early 2000s, understanding its long-term mass balance and dynamic has become increasingly important. Here, we present the first record of direct Holocene ice-marginal changes of the Helheim Glaci...
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The Antarctic Ice Sheet is an important indicator of climate change and driver of sea-level rise. Here we combine satellite observations of its changing volume, flow and gravitational attraction with modelling of its surface mass balance to show that it lost 2,720 ± 1,390 billion tonnes of ice between 1992 and 2017, which corresponds to an increase...
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Glaciers and ice caps peripheral to the main Greenland Ice Sheet contribute markedly to sea-level rise1–3. Their changes and variability, however, have been difficult to quantify on multi-decadal timescales due to an absence of long-term data⁴. Here, using historical aerial surveys, expedition photographs, spy satellite imagery and new remote-sensi...
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Greenland's bed topography is a primary control on ice flow, grounding line migration, calving dynamics, and subglacial drainage. Moreover, fjord bathymetry regulates the penetration of warm Atlantic water (AW) that rapidly melts and undercuts Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers. Here we present a new compilation of Greenland bed topography tha...
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We present bathymetry and hydrological observations collected in the summer of 2014 from two fjord systems in southeastern Greenland with a multibeam sonar system. Our results provide a detailed bathymetric map of the fjord complex around the island of Skjoldungen in Skjoldungen Fjord and the outer part of Timmiarmiut Fjord and show far greater dep...
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Tidewater glacier velocity and mass balance are known to be highly responsive to terminus position change. Yet it remains challenging for ice flow models to reproduce observed ice margin changes. Here, using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM; Larour et al. 2012), we simulate the ice velocity and thickness changes of Upernavik Isstrøm (north-western...
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Rising temperatures in the Arctic cause accelerated mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and reduced sea ice cover. Tidewater outlet glaciers represent direct connections between glaciers and the ocean where melt rates at the ice-ocean interface are influenced by ocean temperature and circulation. However, few measurements exist near outlet glaci...
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Ice-dammed lakes drain frequently in Greenland, but the impacts of these events differ between sites. Here, we study the quasi-cyclic behavior of the ~40 km2 Lake Tininnilik in west Greenland and its impact on ice flow and crustal deformation. Data reveal rapid drainage of 1.83 ± 0.17 km3 of water in less than 7 days in 2010, leading to a speedup o...
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We present bathymetry and hydrological observations collected in the summer of 2014 from two fjord systems in Southeast Greenland, using SS Activ with a multibeam system temporally installed over the side of the ship. Our results provide a detailed bathymetric map of the fjord complex around Skjoldungen Island and the outer part of Timmiarmiut Fjor...
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We assess ice loss and velocity changes between 1985 and 2014 of three tidewater and five-land terminating glaciers in Godthåbsfjord (Nuup Kangerlua), Greenland. Glacier thinning accounted for 43.8 ± 0.2 km3 of ice loss, equivalent to 0.10 mm eustatic sea-level rise. An additional 3.5 ± 0.3 km3 was lost to the calving retreats of Kangiata Nunaata S...
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During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr bp), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear whe...
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Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) play a prominent role in glaciological studies for the mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets. By providing a time snapshot of glacier geometry, DEMs are crucial for most glacier evolution modelling studies, but are also important for cryospheric modelling in general. We present a historical medium-resolution DEM an...