Kristian M Forbes

Kristian M Forbes
University of Arkansas | U of A · Department of Biological Sciences

PhD

About

55
Publications
19,948
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
947
Citations
Introduction
I'm a disease ecologist. Research in my group investigates how zoonotic pathogens are maintained and transmitted within and among wildlife populations, especially the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications on these processes. We combine field, laboratory and statistical methods, and primarily focus on rodent and bat host systems. For more information see - https://www.diseaseecology.org/

Publications

Publications (55)
Preprint
Biodiversity is necessary for healthy ecosystem functioning. As anthropogenic factors continue to degrade natural areas, habitat management is needed to restore and maintain biodiversity. However, the impacts of different habitat management regimes on ecosystems have largely focused on vegetation analyses, with limited evaluation of downstream effe...
Article
1. Identifying reservoir host species is crucial for understanding the ecology of multi‐host pathogens and predicting risks of pathogen spillover from wildlife to people. 2. Predictive models are increasingly used for identifying ecological traits and prioritizing surveillance of likely zoonotic reservoirs, but these often employ different types of...
Article
Full-text available
Micro- and macroparasites are a leading cause of mortality for humans, animals, and plants, and there is great need to understand their origins, transmission dynamics, and impacts. Disease ecology formed as an interdisciplinary field in the 1970s to fill this need and has recently rapidly grown in size and influence. Because interdisciplinary field...
Article
Full-text available
Rodents are known reservoir hosts for a number of pathogens that can spillover into humans and cause disease. These threats are likely to be elevated in informal urban settlements (i.e., slums), where rodent and human densities are often high, rodents live in close proximity to humans, and human knowledge of disease risks and access to health care...
Article
Full-text available
In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rodents are reservoirs for several zoonotic pathogens that can cause human infectious diseases, including orthohantaviruses, mammarenaviruses and orthopoxviruses. Evidence exists for these viruses circulating among rodents and causing human infections in the Americas, but much less evidence exists for their presence in wild rodents in...
Preprint
Full-text available
In light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programs will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. Our capacity to identify which viruses are capable of zoonotic emergence depends on the existence of a technology—a m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying reservoir host species is crucial for understanding the risk of pathogen spillover from wildlife to people. Orthohantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens primarily carried by rodents that cause the diseases hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans. Given their diversity and abundan...
Article
Full-text available
Previously identified only in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and southeastern Kenya, Bombali virus-infected Mops condylurus bats were recently found »750 km away in western Kenya. This finding supports the role of M. condylurus bats as hosts and the potential for Bombali virus circulation across the bats' range in sub-Saharan Africa.
Article
Full-text available
In focus: Becker, D. J., Albery, G. F., Kessler, M. K., Lunn, T. J., Falvo, C. A., Czirják, G. Á., Martin, L. B., & Plowright, R. K. (2020). Macroimmunology: The drivers and consequences of spatial patterns in wildlife immune defence. Journal of Animal Ecology, 89, 972-995. Ecoimmunology seeks to identify and explain natural variation in immune fu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Disease ecology is an interdisciplinary field that has recently rapidly grown in size and influence. We described the composition and educational experiences of disease ecology practitioners and identified changes in research foci. We combined a global survey with a literature synthesis involving machine-learning topic detection. Disease ecology pr...
Article
Full-text available
The number of documented American orthohantaviruses has increased significantly over recent decades, but most fundamental research has remained focused on just two of them: Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of American orthohantaviruses are known to cause disease in humans, and most of these pathogenic strains were not des...
Article
Full-text available
: Orthohantaviruses are globally emerging zoonotic pathogens. While the reservoir host role of several rodent species is well-established, detailed research on the mechanisms of host-othohantavirus interactions has been constrained by the lack of an experimental system that is able to effectively replicate natural infections in controlled settings....
Article
Full-text available
Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a global public health threat, exemplified by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Using fecal samples collected from five bat species between 2014 and 2016 in Finland and RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and NGS, we identified CoVs in 10 of 79 (13%) samples, including tw...
Preprint
Full-text available
Orthohantaviruses are globally emerging zoonotic pathogens. Human infections are characterized by an overt immune response that is efficient at counteracting virus replication but can also cause severe tissue damage. In contrast, orthohantavirus infections in rodent reservoir hosts are persistent and asymptomatic. The mechanisms facilitating asympt...
Article
Full-text available
Bombali virus (genus Ebolavirus) was identified in organs and excreta of an Angolan free-tailed bat (Mops condylu-rus) in Kenya. Complete genome analysis revealed 98% nucleotide sequence similarity to the prototype virus from Sierra Leone. No Ebola virus-specific RNA or antibodies were detected from febrile humans in the area who reported contact w...
Article
Mosquitoes are vectors for numerous pathogens, which are collectively responsible for millions of human deaths each year. As such, it is vital to be able to accurately predict their distributions, particularly in areas where species composition is unknown. Species distribution modeling was used to determine the relationship between environmental, a...
Article
Full-text available
While urban expansion increasingly encroaches on natural habitats, many wildlife species capitalize on anthropogenic food resources, which have the potential to both positively and negatively influence their responses to infection. Here we examine how food availability and key nutrients have been reported to shape innate and adaptive immunity in wi...
Article
Human-provided resource subsidies for wildlife are diverse, common and have profound consequences for wildlife–pathogen interactions, as demonstrated by papers in this themed issue spanning empirical, theoretical and management perspectives from a range of study systems. Contributions cut across scales of organization, from the within-host dynamics...
Article
Hantaviruses are primarily hosted by mammalian species of the orders Rodentia, Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Spillover to humans is common, and understanding hantavirus maintenance and transmission in reservoir host populations is important for efforts to curtail human disease. Recent field research challenges traditional phases of virus shedding ki...
Article
Full-text available
Norway spruce is one of the most important commercial forestry species in Europe, and is commonly infected by the bark beetle-vectored necrotrophic fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica. Spruce trees display a restricted capacity to respond to environmental perturbations, and we hypothesized that water limitation will increase disease severity in this...
Article
Full-text available
Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigati...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to...
Article
Full-text available
Humanised landscapes are causing population declines and even extinctions of wildlife, whereas a limited number of species are adapting to the new niches and resources within these modified habitats. Synanthropy is widespread among many vertebrates and often causes co-habitation conflicts between humans and wildlife species. Bats often roost in ant...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical mountain ranges are known to support high biodiversity. In addition to their role as refuge habitat, complex topography within these ecosystems promotes the development of diverse species traits and evolutionary divergence. However, species within these environments also face severe anthropological threats, most notably from habitat loss a...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical mountain ranges are known to support high biodiversity. In addition to their role as refuge habitat, complex topography within these ecosystems promotes the development of diverse species traits and evolutionary divergence. However, species within these environments also face severe anthropological threats, most notably from habitat loss a...
Article
Full-text available
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs t...
Article
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs t...
Article
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs t...
Article
Full-text available
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure exper...
Article
Full-text available
An expedition to a remote area of Morocco's Atlantic Sahara region was undertaken from February 13 to 26, 2015. The main aim of the expedition was to evaluate the occurrence of winter breeding in desert rodents in this region. In this short communication we provide new data of winter breeding on Jaculus jaculus (Linnaeus, 1758), a Saharan desert sp...
Article
Full-text available
Processes limiting the growth of cyclic vole populations have stimulated considerable research and debate over several decades. In Fennoscandia, the peak density of cyclic vole populations occurs in fall, and is followed by a severe winter decline. Food availability and intestinal parasites have been demonstrated to independently and synergisticall...
Article
Full-text available
Tularemia outbreaks in humans have been linked to fluctuations in rodent population density, but the mode of bacterial maintenance in nature is unclear. Here we report on an experiment to investigate the pathogenesis of Francisella tularensis infection in wild rodents, and thereby assess their potential to spread the bacterium. We infected 20 field...
Article
Full-text available
Grasses have been considered to primarily employ tolerance in lieu of defense in mitigating damage caused by herbivory. Yet a number of mechanisms have been identified in grasses, which may deter feeding by grazers. These include enhanced silicon uptake, hosting of toxin-producing endophytic fungi and induction of secondary metabolites. While these...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In northern Europe, rodent populations display cyclic density fluctuations that can be correlated with the human incidence of zoonotic diseases they spread. During density peaks, field voles (Microtus agrestis) become one of the most abundant rodent species in northern Europe, yet little is known of the viruses they host. We screened 709 f...
Article
Full-text available
Marked variation occurs in both seasonal and multiannual population density peaks of northern European small mammal species, including voles. The availability of dietary proteins is a key factor limiting the population growth of herbivore species. The objective of this study is to investigate the degree to which protein availability influences the...
Article
Full-text available
Virus host-switches have resulted in the emergence of numerous epidemic (including HIV, Wolfe et al. 2007) and epizootic diseases (such as Influenza A virus, Taubenberger and Kash 2010). Spillover is an obligatory first step to a pathogen host-switch (Parish et al. 2008), which is believed to occur far more frequently than sustained transmission wi...
Article
Full-text available
Realistic models of disease transmission incorporating complex population heterogeneities require input from quantitative population mixing studies. We use contact diaries to assess the relative importance of social settings in respiratory pathogen spread using three measures of person contact hours (PCH) as proxies for transmission risk with an ai...
Data
Sample diary cards and instructions as supplied to participants. (PDF)
Article
Background: Prostate cancer is a common cause of death in developed countries, yet the benefits of screening for prostate cancer still remain controversial. A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test result greater than 4 ng/mL (nanograms/millilitre) has commonly been used as the cut-off level for seeking further tests to diagnose the presence (or abs...
Article
Full-text available
Many medical schools teach the principles of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) as a subject within their medical curriculum. Few studies have explored the barriers and enablers that students experience when studying medicine and attempting to integrate EBM in their clinical experience. The aim of this study was to identify undergraduate medical student...
Article
Full-text available
Mathematical models of infection that consider targeted interventions are exquisitely dependent on the assumed mixing patterns of the population. We report on a pilot study designed to assess three different methods (one retrospective, two prospective) for obtaining contact data relevant to the determination of these mixing patterns. 65 adults were...
Data
Supplementary Material. Supplementary Material for Comparison of three methods for ascertainment of contact information relevant to respiratory pathogen transmission in encounter networks

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Association between bark beetles and fungi is one of the most fascinating examples of symbioses in nature. The most notable examples are the associations with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota), which mainly cause discoloration of wood, but include also serious tree pathogens. However, fundamental baseline information on the diversity of most insect-fungal associations is currently lacking. Such information is important for recognizing associations which have the potential to cause serious forest damage. The aim of this project is to explore fungal diversity associated with bark and ambrosia beetles and other wood-boring insects, and potential risks related to these interactions.
Project
See project leader Otso Huitu https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Otso_Huitu