Kristen Jennifer Williams

Kristen Jennifer Williams
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation | CSIRO · Land & Water National Research Flagship

PhD

About

127
Publications
42,348
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Introduction
Dr Kristen Williams is a principal research scientist at CSIRO Land and Water with extensive experience in research management, coordination and delivery. As an Ecological Geographer, she specialises in the integration of ecosystem and landscape sciences through multi-disciplinary team coordination to generate data and knowledge products informing systems of ecologically sustainable land management. She has extensive experience co-designing research with end users.

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
A cost‐effective way of undertaking comprehensive, continental‐scale, assessments of ecological condition is needed to support large scale conservation planning, monitoring, reporting and decision making. Currently, cross‐jurisdictional inconsistency in assessment methods limits the capacity to scale‐up monitoring. Here we present a novel way to bu...
Article
Full-text available
A globally relevant and standardized taxonomy and framework for consistently describing land cover change based on evidence is presented, which makes use of structured land cover taxonomies and is underpinned by the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework. The Global Change Taxonomy currently lists 246 classes based on the notation...
Article
Full-text available
Graph-theoretic approaches are commonly used to map landscape connectivity networks to inform environmental management priorities. We developed the new General Landscape Connectivity Model (GLCM), as a operationally practical way of evaluating and mapping habitat networks to inform conservation priorities and plans. GLCM is built on two complementa...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic trait data play a central role in ecology and evolutionary research. The quality of trait data, and the findings of subsequent analyses, depend on the quality of measurement. However, most studies overlook measurement accuracy in their study designs. We investigated the repeatability of five frequently used linear measurements of avian t...
Article
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Globally, collapse of ecosystems—potentially irreversible change to ecosystem structure, composition and function—imperils biodiversity, human health and well‐being. We examine the current state and recent trajectories of 19 ecosystems, spanning 58° of latitude across 7.7 M km2, from Australia's coral reefs to terrestrial Antarctica. Pressures from...
Article
Full-text available
Field-based sampling of terrestrial habitats at continental scales is required to build ecosystem observation networks. A key challenge for detecting change in ecosystem composition, structure, and func- tion within these observatories is to obtain a representative sample of habitats. Representative sampling across a continent contributes to ecolog...
Article
1. Effective ecosystem management requires spatially distributed measurements that are representative of ecological diversity. When considering which sites complement existing conservation or monitoring networks, there are many strategies for optimising ecological coverage in the absence of ground observations. However, such optimisation is often i...
Article
Global biodiversity indicators are often derived by intersecting observed or projected changes in anthropogenic pressures with underlying patterns in the distribution of biodiversity. However these patterns are typically delineated at a coarser resolution than the key ecological processes shaping both land-use and biological distributions. The ‘Bio...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. When considering which sites or land parcels complement existing conservation or monitoring networks, there are many strategies for optimising ecological coverage in the absence of ground observations. However, such optimisation is often implemented theoretically in conservation prioritisation frameworks and real-world implementation is rarely a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
• Ecological condition measures the general quality of habitat for biodiversity at each location. • Ecological connectivity measures the value that the general quality of habitat at each location contributes to habitat connectivity. • Ecological carrying capacity measures the ability of habitats to support the persistence of their original biodiver...
Technical Report
Full-text available
It is well understood that the state of healthy natural systems fluctuates, sometimes dramatically, through the natural effects of storms, drought, fire, disease and predation (e.g. see Thapa et al. 2015). Species and population requirements vary in terms of the extent of habitat needed, and in how this habitat is arranged or connected. To properly...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The concepts ‘Ecological Integrity’ (EI) and ‘Biodiversity’ (living variation) are founding principles of ecologicallysustainable development under NSW environmental legislation, including NSW’s Biodiversity Conservation Act (2016). Ecological Integrity is a high-level goal for biodiversity conservation requiring integration of habitat repair and m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Field-based sampling of terrestrial habitats at continental scales is required to build ecosystem observation networks. However, a key challenge for detecting change in ecosystem composition, structure and function is to obtain a representative sample of habitats. Representative sampling contributes to ecological validity when analysing large spati...
Article
Full-text available
Documenting effects of climate change is an important step towards designing mitigation and adaptation responses. Impacts of climate change on terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystems have been well-documented in the Northern Hemisphere, but long-term data to detect change in the Southern Hemisphere are limited, and some types of change are generall...
Article
Full-text available
Essential biodiversity variables (EBV) are information products for assessing biodiversity change. Species populations EBVs are one class of EBVs that can be used to monitor the spread of invasive species. However, systematic, reliable, repeatable procedures to process primary data into EBVs do not yet exist, and environmental research infrastructu...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in the Earth's climate are accelerating, prompting increasing calls to ensure that investments in ecological restoration and nature conservation accommodate such changes. To acknowledge this need, we propose the term ‘ecological renovation’ to describe ecological management and nature conservation actions that actively allow for environment...
Article
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Aim A key ecological debate is whether ecosystem functions are distinctly influenced by biological diversity across broad scales. Although recent work has emphasized the importance of links between ecosystem functions and measures of ecological specialization as proxies of biodiversity, few studies have analysed macroecological relationships empiri...
Article
Aim Conservation assessment and planning across extensive regions rely on the use of mapped or modelled surrogates because direct field‐based inventories of biodiversity rarely provide complete spatial coverage. Surrogates are assumed to represent spatial patterns in the distribution of biodiversity, yet the validity of this assumption is rarely ev...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim Global indicators of change in the state of terrestrial biodiversity are often derived by intersecting observed or projected changes in the distribution of habitat transformation, or of protected areas, with underlying patterns in the distribution of biodiversity. However the two main sources of data used to account for biodiversity patterns in...
Chapter
Full-text available
Remote sensing (RS)—taking images or other measurements of Earth from above—provides a unique perspective on what is happening on the Earth and thus plays a special role in biodiversity and conservation applications. The periodic repeat coverage of satellite-based RS is particularly useful for monitoring change and so is essential for understanding...
Article
Recognition of a trajectory of climate change has raised concerns over implications for the conservation of biodiversity. Quantifying the severity of the issue and informing adaptation measures presents a challenge to ecological modelling. We undertook a study of biodiversity impacts and adaptation using spatial modelling across south-eastern Austr...
Article
Full-text available
Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and standardize biodiversity data from disparate sources to...
Article
Full-text available
Forest ecosystems and their associated natural, cultural and economic values are highly vulnerable to climate driven changes in fire regimes. A detailed knowledge of forest ecosystem responses to altered fire regimes is a necessary underpinning to inform options for adaptive responses under climate change, as well as for providing a basis for under...
Article
Full-text available
In the article 'Introducing BASE: the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments soil microbial diversity database GigaScience 2016 5:21' [1] the authorship list should have included Leon Court, who was responsible for sample collection and preparation, sampling design and sequencing method design. The authors regret this omission.
Article
Full-text available
An emerging planning framework for climate adaptation focuses on interactions among societal values, institutional rules and scientific and experiential knowledge about biophysical impacts of climate change and adaptation options. These interactions shape the decision context that can enable or constrain effective adaptation. To illustrate the oper...
Article
Principles underpinning the goals of nature conservation and ecological restoration have traditionally involved preventing ecological change or restoring ecosystems or populations towards preferred historical states. Under global climate change, it is increasingly recognised that this may no longer be achievable, but there has been limited debate r...
Article
Full-text available
Background Microbial inhabitants of soils are important to ecosystem and planetary functions, yet there are large gaps in our knowledge of their diversity and ecology. The ‘Biomes of Australian Soil Environments’ (BASE) project has generated a database of microbial diversity with associated metadata across extensive environmental gradients at conti...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores what the virtual biodiversity e-infrastructure will look like as it takes advantage of advances in ‘Big Data’ biodiversity informatics and e-research infrastructure, which allow integration of various taxon-level data types (genome, morphology, distribution and species interactions) within a phylogenetic and environmental framew...
Article
The essential biodiversity variables (EBV) framework was developed primarily to improve the detection of significant changes in global biodiversity. Its application at national level must support county-specific policy and management needs as well as allowing comparisons of estimates of biodiversity change between countries and their aggregation fo...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Ecosystem functions such as productivity may be influenced not only by the biological diversity at each location (alpha diversity) but also by the biological turnover between locations (beta diversity). We perform a continental-scale test of the strength and direction of relationships between gross primary productivity (GPP) and both alpha and...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly used services where ecosystems persist or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are imp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We developed spatial modelling that highlights ways to maximise the persistence of native biodiversity within the context of dynamic future climates in south-eastern Australia. Our models extend well-tested biodiversity benefits mapping, which already account for a range of critical, non-climate change considerations such as past disturbance and ha...
Article
Full-text available
1.Consistent and repeatable estimation of habitat condition for biodiversity assessment across large areas (i.e. regional to global) with limited field observations presents a major challenge for remote sensing (RS). RS can describe what a site looks like and how it behaves (using time series), but is unable to distinguish anthropogenic impacts fro...
Data
Figure S1. Global distribution of primary habitat predicted to occur at 30 arc sec resolution produced by downscaling the coarse grained (0.5°) Land‐use Harmonisation dataset. Colours are ramped light (low) to dark (high). Figure S2. Global distribution of secondary habitat predicted to occur at 30 arc sec resolution produced by downscaling the co...
Data
Figure S3. Plot of current, future, and biomass change (all in tonnes per ha−1) against current and future α‐ and β‐diversity. α‐diversity values are counts of species, and β‐diversity values are the Sørensen dissimilarity (between 0 and 1).
Data
Appendix S1. Additional table and figures for case study of MB–EF relationships for trees across an elevation gradient. Table S1. The 30 most common tree species in southeastern Australia used to create Fig. 3 in the main text, showing the number of georeferenced records from the Atlas of living Australia (ALA) with a spatial error <2 km, occurrin...
Data
Figure S1. Maps showing (A): the 1‐km extant vegetation mask for all of Australia in grey, (B): the Interim Biogeographic regions, and (C): the Major Vegetation Groups intersected by the 1 km × 500 km transect, centered on latitude −36.48 (red line in all three maps). Scale bar applies only to panels (B) and (C).
Data
Figure S2. Example plot of the convex hull fitted to the occurrence records for Eucalyptus sieberi, one of the 30 most common tree species in southeastern Australia used to create Fig. 3 in the main text. The x axis is annual precipitation (mm) divided by 100, so as to scale the values relative to the y axis for mean annual temperature (°C). Convex...
Article
Full-text available
Conserving different spatial and temporal dimensions of biological diversity is considered necessary for maintaining ecosystem functions under predicted global change scenarios. Recent work has shifted the focus from spatially local (α-diversity) to macroecological scales (β- and γ-diversity), emphasizing links between macroecological biodiversity...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use change is one of the biggest threats to biodiversity globally. The effects of land use on biodiversity manifest primarily at local scales which are not captured by the coarse spatial grain of current global land-use mapping. Assessments of land-use impacts on biodiversity across large spatial extents require data at a similar spatial grain...
Poster
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Climate change poses a significant but uncertain threat to biodiversity across the world and certainly to south-eastern Australia. However, communities and government agencies need clear, rigorously derived messages regarding risks and how to optimise adaptation efforts. We are implementing a program of intersecting global and regional climate futu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Species distribution modelling (SDM) typically analyses species’ presence together with some form of absence information. Ideally absences comprise observations or are inferred from comprehensive sampling. When such information is not available, then pseudo-absences are often generated from the background locations within the study region of intere...
Article
AimSpatial turnover in plant species composition reflects the interplay between species’ environmental requirements and their dispersal dynamics. However, its origins are also historical, arising from speciation, extinction and past range dynamics. Here, we test the effects of current environmental gradients and geographical distance on regional sp...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlas of Living Australia (ALA: http://www.ala.org.au) provides the largest free and open repository of integrated biological and environmental information in a consistent format for the Australian region. As of June 2015, the ALA contained over 55 million records (10% of Global Biodiversity Information Facility’s (GBIF’s) total), consisting of...