Kristen Crandell

Kristen Crandell
Bangor University · School of Biological Sciences

PhD

About

19
Publications
4,845
Reads
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334
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - June 2015
University of Montana
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Ornithology
August 2009 - September 2015
University of Montana
Position
  • Research & Teaching Assistant
August 2009 - May 2014
University of Montana
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Labs include: diversity of life, ornithology, and vertebrate anatomy

Publications

Publications (19)
Article
Full-text available
Slow flight is extremely energetically costly per unit time, yet highly important for takeoff and survival. However, at slow speeds it is presently thought that most birds do not produce beneficial aerodynamic forces during the entire wingbeat: instead they fold or flex their wings during upstroke, prompting the long-standing prediction that the up...
Article
Full-text available
While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural sta...
Article
Full-text available
Transitions to and from the air are critical for aerial locomotion and likely shaped the evolution of flying animals. Research on take-off demonstrates that legs generate greater body accelerations compared to wings, and thereby contribute more to initial flight velocity. Here, we explore coordination between wings and legs in two species with diff...
Article
Full-text available
During slow flight, bird species vary in their upstroke kinematics using either a 'flexed wing' or a distally supinated 'tip-reversal' upstroke. Two hypotheses have been presented concerning the function of the tip-reversal upstroke. The first is that this behavior is aerodynamically inactive and serves to minimize drag. The second is that the tip-...
Article
Piscivorous birds have a unique suite of adaptations to forage under the water. One method aerial birds use to catch fish is the plunge dive, wherein birds dive from a height to overcome drag and buoyancy in the water. The kingfishers are a well-known clade that contains both terrestrially foraging and plunge-diving species, allowing us to test for...
Article
Full-text available
The natural world is filled with substrates of varying properties that challenge locomotor abilities. Birds appear to transition smoothly from aerial to terrestrial environments during take-offs and landings using substrates that are incredibly variable. It may be challenging to control movement on and off compliant (flexible) substrates such as tw...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphologic...
Article
Full-text available
The environmental conditions animals experience during development can have sustained effects on morphology, physiology, and behavior. Exposure to elevated levels of stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) during development is one such condition that can have long-term effects on animal phenotype. Many of the phenotypic effects of GC exposure durin...
Article
Full-text available
Frogs are the most species-rich and ecologically diverse group of amphibians and are characterized by a unique body plan including long legs, elongated ilia, and fused caudal vertebrae. Stem anurans such as Triadobatrachus or Czatkobatrachus have been suggested to have used jumping or hopping as part of their locomotor repertoire based on their ana...
Article
Full-text available
Frogs are the most species rich and ecologically diverse group of amphibians and are characterized by a unique body plan including long legs, elongated ilia, and fused caudal vertebrae. Stem anurans such as Triadobatrachus or Czatkobatrachus have been suggested to use jumping or hopping as part of their locomotor repertoire based on their anatomy....
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how organisms adapt requires linking performance and microhabitat. However, measuring performance, especially maximum performance, can sometimes be difficult. Here we describe an improvement over previous techniques of only considering the largest observed values as maxima. Instead, we model expected performance observations via the W...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic anoles present an interesting ecomorphological puzzle. On the one hand, the link between habitat use and morphology is well established as convergent within the Caribbean anole radiation. On the other hand, aquatic anoles do not appear to form an ecomorphological group - rather, it appears that there may be several ways to adapt to aquatic...
Article
Full-text available
Take-off mechanics are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of flying animals. Recent research reveals that initial take-off velocity in birds is driven mostly by hindlimbs forces. However, the contribution of the wings during the transition to air is unknown. To investigate this transition, we integrated measures of both leg and wing forces du...
Article
Full-text available
Until very recently, the horned anole of Ecuador, Anolis proboscis, was known from only six male specimens, the last collected in 1966. The species was rediscovered in 2005 and in subsequent years additional specimens have been collected in the general vicinity of the type locality. These include several females, which lack the conspicuous rostral...

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