Kristen M. Budd

Kristen M. Budd
The Sentencing Project

PhD

About

43
Publications
18,008
Reads
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197
Citations
Citations since 2016
30 Research Items
188 Citations
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Introduction
Kristen M. Budd's research focuses on interpersonal violence, law, and policy including how they intersect with perpetrator and victim sociodemographic characteristics. Currently, she researches patterns and predictors of offending behavior in relation to sexual assault, public perceptions in relation to criminal behavior, law, and criminal justice policy and practice, and social and legal responses to interpersonal violence and other social problems.
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - present
Miami University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2014 - June 2019
Miami University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2012 - May 2014
Indiana University South Bend
Position
  • Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice
Education
August 2004 - May 2011
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Sociology

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Institutes of higher education have been called to action to address and prevent sexual violence perpetrated against college students. Based on legislation, one potential pathway is the extension of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) to the campus community. No research has assessed public perceptions of extending SORN, and in partic...
Article
Recreational marijuana legislation (RML) has been enacted at the state-level but not federally. Given the link between public opinion and RML, we examine 2021 national poll ( N = 995) data that assessed views about different types of proposed federal actions concerning cannabis. Less than half of Americans preferred full legalization, 21% approved...
Article
ABSTRCT Background Drunkorexia includes calorie restriction, excessive exercise, and/or purging in combination with alcohol consumption. Exploring drunkorexia by gender could inform potential intervention to address varying rates of drunkorexia, blood alcohol concentrations, and alcohol-related consequences. Purpose The purpose of this systematic...
Article
Strikingly, federal data sources tracking the nature and extent of sexual assaults that occur aboard airlines are incomplete and typically not released to the public. In order to better understand this relatively hidden social phenomenon, we conducted a content analysis of media reports published over approximately a 20-year period (2000–2020). Wit...
Article
Full-text available
Arrest warrants are an important and pervasive aspect of crime and justice in the United States. There are nearly three million arrest warrants active on any given day, of which several hundred thousand were issued for serious violent crimes (SVCs) such as aggravated assault, robbery, forcible sexual assault, and homicide. In more than a third of t...
Chapter
In the United States, individuals convicted of sex crimes are arguably one of the most highly monitored groups of offenders in contemporary times. This chapter focuses on the ways persons convicted of sex crimes are monitored by detailing what we know on two mechanisms of data-driven social control: sex offender registration and notification (SORN)...
Article
We live in a pre-crime society. Within this society, information technology strategies and techniques such as predictive policing, actuarial justice and surveillance penology are used to achieve hyper-securitization. However, such securitization comes at a cost. In this new people-making society, the criminalisation of everyday life is guaranteed,...
Article
Throughout the United States, sex offender registration laws in many states and the federal government have expanded to include juveniles. Once juveniles are registrants, they can potentially be subjected to required or discretionary public notification (PN). Given the documented detrimental effects of PN on juveniles and the prevalence of sexual o...
Chapter
What Do We Know About the Problem? As COVID-19 started to spread throughout the United States, organizations like Human Rights Watch warned that custodial settings, such as federal and state prisons and immigration detention centers, would be particularly vulnerable to outbreaks. The number of people criminally incarcerated or civilly detained in t...
Article
Sexual assault perpetrated against older adults remains understudied. This research examined sexual assault incidents perpetrated against older women and men (aged 60+) reported to law enforcement. It compared these sexual assault incidents with those committed against middle-age (aged 40–59) and younger (aged 18–39) women and men. National Inciden...
Article
Full-text available
A key goal of sex offender registration is to assist law enforcement in sexual assault investigations; to identify potential suspects when the perpetrator's identity is unknown. To date, however, no research has assessed the utility of sex offender registries in closing cases of sexual assault when the incident involved stranger perpetrators. Addre...
Article
The arguments for criminalizing prostitution surround public concerns—moral order, public health, and safety. For this reason, an understanding of attitudes about the nature and consequences of the practice, particularly among American males, the presumed consumers of sex-related exchanges, is needed. Specifically, how do contextual beliefs about t...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the federal government and colleges have sought new remedies to combat campus sexual assault (CSA). Additionally, there have been calls for shifts in college culture. For this reason, an understanding of attitudes about these policies and reforms is needed. To that end, the study examines three questions. First, to what extent does the pu...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines sexual offending behaviour of juvenile females and juvenile males who come to the attention of the police. Using victim age as an analytical tool and more than 20 years of incident-level crime data, perpetrator, victim, and offense characteristics are compared to assess if the offending behaviours of juvenile females and juvenil...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, certain laws restrict those convicted of sexually offending from accessing social spaces where youth congregate such as parks and playgrounds. However, empirical work to date has rarely described sexual assaults in these locations or tested the assumptions of these laws explicitly. To address these gaps in the literature, we d...
Book
The Global Agenda for Social Justice provides accessible insights into some of the world's most pressing social problems and proposes international public policy responses to those problems. Written by a highly respected team of authors brought together by the Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP), chapters examine topics such as criminal...
Chapter
Full-text available
“Women don’t do such things!" (Wijkman, Bijleveld, & Hendriks, 2010) is a declaration that accurately captures societal and cultural resistance to recognizing that women commit sex crimes. Historically, sexual offending has largely been associated with men for various reasons. In part, this association is driven by public panics that stem from inte...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of studying sexual assaults perpetrated by women, the field knows very little about female sexual offenders’ (FSOs) use of violence or physical injury resulting from these assaults. This study draws more than 20 years of National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data reported to police (1992-2014) to identify factors t...
Article
Full-text available
Research on campus sexual assault (CSA) has almost exclusively drawn on self-report data, examined undergraduates (i.e., students aged 18-24), and focused on female victimization. The few studies which included male CSA victims generally had fewer than 100 male subjects, which makes important statistical analyses difficult. To build upon prior lite...
Article
Full-text available
Over recent decades, social scientists have documented a fluctuation in community members’ perceptions of the appropriate social and legal responses to intimate partner violence. A lack of response to the social problem was followed by a punitive response during the 1980s and 1990s. A therapeutic response in the early 21st century followed. In this...
Article
Full-text available
Research on campus sexual assault (CSA) has almost exclusively drawn on self-report data, examined undergraduates (i.e., students aged 18-24), and focused on female victimization. The few studies which included male CSA victims generally had fewer than 100 male subjects, which makes important statistical analyses difficult. To build upon prior lite...
Article
Some crime control policies are ineffective, yet still draw substantial public support. Such laws, labeled “crime control theater” (CCT), derive their unquestioned public support from moral panics involving mythic narratives, yet little research has actually linked these criteria to support for a theater law. This study draws on the concept of CCT...
Article
Full-text available
Statutory rape is an important yet understudied topic. There is broad public support for the prosecution of older adults who engage in sexual relationships with minors regardless of perceptions of consent by either party. However, some scholars worry that expansive definitions within these laws have led to the widespread involvement of the justice...
Article
Full-text available
Convicted sex offenders released from prison compared to non-sex offenders face a unique reentry environment that is a challenging undertaking for the criminal justice and community agencies that manage them. In order to coordinate multi-agency sex offender management, some states have turned to the courts to bring together these agencies with disp...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convi...
Article
Full-text available
It is presumed that public opposition to sex offender treatment derives from the “nothing works” philosophy. However, few studies have systematically unpacked perceptions about sex offender treatment. Drawing on national poll data, this study uses multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of treatment views. Results indicate that mispe...
Article
Full-text available
Very little is known about co-offending by female sexual offenders (FSOs), especially in terms of diverse forms of offender groupings. To address this gap in the literature, this study uses 21 years (1992-2012) of National Incident-Based Reporting System data to analyze incidents of sexual offending committed by four female groupings: solo FSOs (n...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their c...
Article
Full-text available
The stigma of childhood obesity has the potential to affect psychological development during the early life course, but few studies examine whether experiencing stigma in childhood and adolescence has lasting ramifications for mental health during the transition to adulthood. Integrating modified labeling theory with a life course perspective, this...
Article
Dominant groups in society create "outsiders," which serve the purpose of separating "us" from "them." The "outsiders" are highly stigmatized deviant groups from which dominant social groups protect themselves. The perceived threat from "outsiders," which is influenced by the media, affects the intensity of social responses to stigmatized groups. O...

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