Krishna Pacifici

Krishna Pacifici
North Carolina State University | NCSU · Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources

Ph.D. Wildlife Ecology

About

63
Publications
10,671
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1,331
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - February 2021
North Carolina State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
Broad‐scale ecological research on species distributions commonly presumes that the correlative relationships discovered are stationary over space. This is an assumption of most species distribution models (SDMs) that combine observations of species occurrence with environmental characteristics to understand current ecological correlates and to pre...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Decades of research on species distributions has revealed geographic variation in species‐environment relationships for a given species. That is, the way a species uses the local environment varies across geographic space. However, the drivers underlying this variation are contested and still largely unexplored. Niche traits that are conserved...
Article
Wildlife management areas (WMAs) provide a wide range of ecosystem services. Among these services, hunting and fishing often make the most obvious contribution to local and state economies through the expenditures of the hunters and anglers. However, the total economic contributions of WMAs also include other forms of recreation that are generally...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species threaten island biodiversity globally. For example, the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) parasitizes many of Puerto Rico’s endemic species, particularly in the open forests in the island’s southwest. Less is known, however, about cowbird parasitism in the agro-ecological highlands, which contain a patchwork of forests, shaded-...
Article
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that cause chronic pulmonary disease (PD). NTM infections are thought to be acquired from the environment; however, the basal environmental factors that drive and sustain NTM prevalence are not well understood. The highest prevalence of NTM PD cases in the United States is reported from...
Article
Full-text available
Although quality control for accuracy is increasingly common in citizen science projects, there is still a risk that spatial biases of opportunistic data could affect results, especially if sample size is low. Here we evaluate how well the sampling locations of North Carolina’s Candid Critters citizen science camera trapping project represented ava...
Article
Acquisition of public land is critical for wildlife conservation and can impact local tax bases and property values. Those impacts reflect the capitalized value of benefits (e.g., recreational opportunities) and costs (e.g., nuisance wildlife) of living near protected areas. We employed the hedonic price framework to determine how proximity and adj...
Article
Repeated prescribed fire can create and maintain areas with sparse overstory tree cover and a dense grass‐forb‐shrub understory, providing habitat for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite). Despite potential benefits of prescribed fires for conserving bobwhite habitat, burning during the nesting season may destroy bobwhite ne...
Article
Conducting managed species translocations and establishing climate change refugia are adaptation strategies to cope with projected consequences of global warming, but successful implementation requires on-the-ground validation of demographic responses to transient climate conditions. Here we estimated the effect of nine abiotic and biotic factors o...
Article
Identification and conservation of genetic diversity within and among freshwater fish populations are important to better manage and conserve imperiled species. The Carolina Madtom Noturus furiosus is a small, nongame catfish that is endemic to the Tar and Neuse River basins of North Carolina. Genetic structure has not been studied in the species,...
Article
In wildlife communities composed of federally endangered species, there are often several species of conservation concern that have not yet warranted federally mandated protection. These species often need continued monitoring to inform the direction of future management. While recovering endangered species is an important conservation goal, practi...
Article
An important problem in modern forensic analyses is identifying the provenance of materials at a crime scene, such as biological material on a piece of clothing. This procedure, which is known as geolocation, is conventionally guided by expert knowledge of the biological evidence and therefore tends to be application specific, labour intensive and...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological occupancy modeling has historically relied on high‐quality, low‐quantity designed‐survey data for estimation and prediction. In recent years, there has been a large increase in the amount of high‐quantity, unknown‐quality opportunistic data. This has motivated research on how best to combine these two data sources in order to optimize in...
Article
Full-text available
The North American river otter ( Lontra canadensis) is the largest mustelid in North Carolina, USA, and was once extirpated from the central and western portions of the state. Over time and after a successful reintroduction project, otters are now abundant and occur throughout North Carolina. However, there is a concern that diseases may have an im...
Article
Full-text available
Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well‐established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic apex predators are vulnerable to environmental contaminants due to biomagnification. North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) populations should be closely monitored across their range due to point and nonpoint pollution sources. Nonetheless, no information exists on environmental contaminants in the North Carolina otter population. M...
Article
The rise of the Panamanian Isthmus 3–4 million years ago enabled the first dispersal of mammals between North and South America in what is known as the Great American Biotic Interchange. Modern deforestation threatens the historic forest connectivity and creates new habitat for open-country species, as documented by recent expansions of North Ameri...
Article
The spatial distribution of land available for hunting has received scant attention in the literature, but it fundamentally affects the feasibility of wildlife management. Modeling the distribution of hunting lands can be logistically difficult because of data requirements and the dynamic nature of landscapes and landowner preferences. We describe...
Article
Instream habitat degradation and loss are major threats to freshwater fishes and critical conservation issues among nongame species due to a lack of research and knowledge concerning their habitat requirements. Instream physical cover is an important component of fish habitat, especially for benthic species that require cover for reproduction and s...
Preprint
An important problem in forensic analyses is identifying the provenance of materials at a crime scene, such as biological material on a piece of clothing. This procedure, known as geolocation, is conventionally guided by expert knowledge of the biological evidence and therefore tends to be application-specific, labor-intensive, and subjective. Pure...
Article
Despite the acknowledged importance of prescribed fire in creating northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) breeding cover, little research has investigated bobwhite breeding season habitat selection relative to time since fire. In 2016 and 2017, we monitored radio‐tagged bobwhite on a 17,000‐ha portion of a military installation managed with freque...
Preprint
There is increasing interest in using streaming data to inform decision making across a wide range of application domains including mobile health, food safety, security, and resource management. A decision support system formalizes online decision making as a map from up-to-date information to a recommended decision. Online estimation of an optimal...
Article
Full-text available
Rising sea levels dramatically alter the vegetation composition and structure of coastal ecosystems. However, the implications of these changes for coastal wildlife are poorly understood. We aimed to quantify responses of avian communities to forest change (i.e., ghost forests) in a low-lying coastal region highly vulnerable to rising sea level. We...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in species distribution modeling continue to be driven by a need to predict species responses to environmental change coupled with increasing data availability. Recent work has focused on development of methods that integrate multiple streams of data to model species distributions. Combining sources of information increases spatial coverag...
Article
Full-text available
With the advance of methods for estimating species distribution models has come an interest in how to best combine datasets to improve estimates of species distributions. This has spurred the development of data integration methods that simultaneously harness information from multiple datasets while dealing with the specific strengths and weaknesse...
Article
Full-text available
A key component in controlling the spread of an epidemic is deciding where, when and to whom to apply an intervention. We develop a framework for using data to inform these decisions in realtime. We formalize a treatment allocation strategy as a sequence of functions, one per treatment period, that map up‐to‐date information on the spread of an inf...
Article
Full-text available
Defining units that can be afforded legal protection is a crucial, albeit challenging, step in conservation planning. As we illustrate with a case study of the red wolf (Canis rufus) from the southeastern United States, this step is especially complex when the evolutionary history of the focal taxon is uncertain. The US Endangered Species Act (ESA)...
Article
Traditional surveys used to create species distribution maps and estimate ecological relationships are expensive and time consuming. Citizen science offers a way to collect a massive amount of data at negligible cost and has been shown to be a useful supplement to traditional analyses. However, there remains a need to conduct formal surveys to firm...
Article
Full-text available
Documenting the evolving processes associated with habitat restoration and how long it takes to detect avian demographic responses is crucial to evaluate the success of restoration initiatives and to identify ways to improve their effectiveness. The importance of this endeavor prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the USDA Natural Resourc...
Article
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Many predominant spatial methods for binary data use a latent Gaussian process to capture spatial dependence. However, this may not be appropriate for rare data because these methods based on Gaussian processes are asymptotically independent as the event probability goes to zero. In this paper, we propose a method for rare binary data that builds o...
Article
Shaded coffee plantations are of conservation value for many taxa, particularly for resident avifauna in the face of extensive landscape changes. Yet, little is known about the value of coffee plantations for amphibians because there are scant demographic data to index their value among species with different habitat preferences. We estimated the p...
Article
Full-text available
The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the use of species distribution models (SDMs) to characterize patterns of species' occurrence and abundance. Efforts to parameterize SDMs often create a tension between the quality and quantity of data available to fit models. Estimation methods that integrate both standardized and non-standardized da...
Article
The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the use of species distribution models (SDMs) to characterize patterns of species’ occurrence and abundance. Efforts to parameterize SDMs often create a tension between the quality and quantity of data available to fit models. Estimation methods that integrate both standardized and non-standardized da...
Chapter
Human-caused climate change is predicted to affect the frequency of hazard-linked extremes. Unusually large wildfires are a type of extreme event that is constrained by climate and can be a hazard to society but also an important ecological disturbance. This chapter focuses on changes in the frequency of extreme monthly area burned by wildfires for...
Article
Spatially clustered populations create unique challenges for conservation monitoring programmes. Advances in methodology typically are focused on either the design or the modelling stage of the study but do not involve integration of both. We integrate adaptive cluster sampling and spatial occupancy modelling by developing two models to handle the...
Article
Conservation of freshwater unionid mussels presents unique challenges due to their distinctive life cycle, cryptic occurrence and imperilled status. Relevant ecological information is urgently needed to guide their management and conservation. We adopted a modelling approach, which is a novel application to freshwater mussels to enhance inference o...
Article
Full-text available
When evaluating the ecological value of land use within a landscape, investigators typically rely on measures of habitat selection and habitat quality. Traditional measures of habitat selection and habitat quality require data from resource intensive study designs (e.g., telemetry or mark-recapture). Often, managers must evaluate ecological value d...
Article
Full-text available
We spend the majority of our lives indoors; yet, we currently lack a comprehensive understanding of how the microbial communities found in homes vary across broad geographical regions and what factors are most important in shaping the types of microorganisms found inside homes. Here, we investigated the fungal and bacterial communities found in set...
Article
Full-text available
There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of...
Article
Research in structural monitoring has focused primarily on drawing inference about the health of a structure from the structure’s response to ambient or applied excitation. Knowledge of the current state can then be used to predict structural integrity at a future time and, in principle, allows one to take action to improve safety, minimize ownersh...
Article
Full-text available
It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develo...
Article
Full-text available
Recent methodological advances permit the estimation of species richness and occurrences for rare species by linking species-level occurrence models at the community level. The value of such methods is underscored by the ability to examine the influence of landscape heterogeneity on species assemblages at large spatial scales. A salient advantage o...
Data
Individual species occurrence probabilities (posterior means with 95% credible intervals) in the four different habitat types (Agriculture, Forest, Urban, and Edge) of the study area in southwestern Puerto Rico for four important species (ANMA, Antillean mango, Anthra- cothorax dominicus; PRVI, Puerto Rican vireo, Vireo latimeri; PRSP, Puerto Rican...
Data
Mean marginal occurrence probabilities for four priority conservation species (VESP, Vesper sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus; CERW, Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulean; BTBW, Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens; and SCTA, Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea) in relation to forest fragment area in the Hudson River Valley.
Data
Posterior mean occurrence probabilities for four priority conservation species (Vesper sparrow, VESP: two detections at two sites; Cerulean warbler, CERW: seven detections at six sites; Black-throated blue warbler, BTBW: 20 detections at nine sites; and Scarlet tanager, SCTA: 141 detections at 56 sites) at individual sites in the Hudson River Valle...
Data
Total number of detections by species for the Puerto Rico and Hudson River Valley data sets.
Data
Posterior mean estimates of species richness with 95% posterior credible intervals for the full community model and each of the three different classification approaches for the Puerto Rico (top) and Hudson River Valley (bottom) data sets at each site.
Data
Individual observed species and their group classifications (PR: H – Habitat, M – Microhabitat, D – Diet; Hudson River Valley: Nest location – N, Habitat – H, D – Diet, see Table 1) for both the Puerto Rico and Hudson River Valley data sets.
Data
Table S2. Model performance for each group classification approach (italics and bold; PR: H – Habitat, M – Microhabitat, D – Diet; Hudson River Valley: Nest location – N, Habitat – H, D – Diet, see Table 1) and subgroup within each group classification approach calculated by computing the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristi...
Data
Movements of the endangered shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum in the Ogeechee River (Georgia, USA) may be limited by unsuitable habitat conditions during June–September. The re-search objective was to determine if habitat quality is likely to impede movements and spawning of shortnose sturgeon in this system. We inserted ultra-sonic transmi...
Article
Full-text available
Movements of the endangered shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum in the Ogeechee River (Georgia, USA) may be limited by unsuitable habitat conditions during June–September. The re-search objective was to determine if habitat quality is likely to impede movements and spawning of shortnose sturgeon in this system. We inserted ultra-sonic transmi...
Article
Reintroduction programs often face the challenge of sustaining multiple populations, each with unique demographic rates. Decision makers must determine how to allocate a finite number of captive-reared animals among these populations to achieve the fundamental objective of the program. We explored the optimal allocation of captive-reared Puerto Ric...
Article
1. Occupancy estimation is a commonly used tool in ecological studies owing to the ease at which data can be collected and the large spatial extent that can be covered. One major obstacle to using an occupancy-based approach is the complications associated with designing and implementing an efficient survey. These logistical challenges become magni...
Chapter
Full-text available
Avian point counts vary over space and time due to actual differences in abundance, differences in detection probabilities among counts, and differences associated with measurement and misclassification errors. However, despite the substantial time, effort, and money expended counting birds in ecological research and monitoring, the validity of com...
Article
Full-text available
We used a bird-song simulation system to experimentally assess the effects of habitat, vegetation structure, and background noise on detection probability in aural avian point counts. We simulated bird songs of seven species in two habitats (mixed pine–hardwood forest and deciduous forest) and two leaf conditions (leaves on and leaves off) with two...
Article
Summary 1. The validation of field sampling techniques is a concern for applied ecologists due to the strong model assumptions implicit in all methods. Computer simulations make replication easy, but they do not give insights into how much bias occurs in real populations. Testing sampling methods on populations of known size can establish directly...
Article
Full-text available
The time-of-detection method for aural avian point counts is a new method of estimating abundance, allowing for uncertain probability of detection. The method has been specifically designed to allow for variation in singing rates of birds. It involves dividing the time interval of the point count into several subintervals and recording the detectio...
Article
We used a bird-song simulation system to experimentally assess the effects of habitat, vegetation structure, and background noise on detection probability in aural avian point counts. We simulated bird songs of seven species in two habitats (mixed pine-hardwood forest and deciduous forest) and two leaf conditions (leaves on and leaves off) with two...

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