Krasimir Kolev

Krasimir Kolev
Semmelweis University | SOTE · Department of Medical Biochemistry

Professor

About

95
Publications
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Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Purpose of review: In the past 5 decades, heparins have been widely used as anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. Subsequent development of heparin variants of various size and charge facilitated the discovery of their multiple biological actions and nonanticoagulant benefits. Platelet-derived or microbial polyphosphates, a...
Article
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Introduction Beyond the three-dimensional fibrin network, the mechanical and lytic stability of thrombi is supported by the matrix of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of polyanionic DNA meshwork with attached proteins including polycationic histones. Polyphosphates represent another type of polyanions, which in their linear form are k...
Article
Data science and machine learning are buzzwords of the early 21st century. Now pervasive through human civilization, how do these concepts translate to use by researchers and clinicians in the life-science and medical field? Here, we describe a software toolkit, just large enough in scale, so that it can be maintained and extended by a small team,...
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Introduction The composition of thrombi determines their structure, mechanical stability, susceptibility to lysis, and consequently, the clinical outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Fibrin forms the primary matrix of thrombi intertwined with DNA, derived from neutrophil extrace...
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Introduction: Management of vascular infections represents a major challenge in vascular surgery. The use of cryopreserved vascular allografts could be a feasible therapeutic option, but the optimal conditions for their production and use are not precisely defined. Aims: To evaluate the effects of cryopreservation and the duration of storage on...
Article
In the classical leave-one-out procedure for outlier detection in regression analysis, we exclude an observation and then construct a model on the remaining data. If the difference between predicted and observed value is high we declare this value an outlier. As a rule, those procedures utilize single comparison testing. The problem becomes much ha...
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Background: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) containing DNA and histones are expelled from neutrophils in infection and thrombosis. Heparins, anticoagulant polyanions, can neutralize histones with a potential therapeutic advantage in sepsis. Polyphosphates, procoagulant polyanions, are released by platelets and microorganisms. Objectives: T...
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Staphylococcus aureus causes localized infections or invasive diseases (abscesses or endocarditis). One of its virulence factors is staphylocoagulase (SCG), which binds prothrombin to form a complex with thrombin-like proteolytic activity and leads to uncontrolled fibrin generation at sites of bacterial inoculation. The aim of this study was to cha...
Article
Purpose: In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of an inflammatory component in keratoconus. A key gene in inflammatory processes is the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). NF-κB is a transcription factor for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is involved with the competing enzyme arginase (Arg) in inflammatory processes. The a...
Article
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) containing DNA and histones is an essential mechanism in the neutrophil-mediated innate immunity. In thrombi the polyanionic DNA confers mechanical and lytic resistance to fibrin and heparins interfere with the effects of NET components. Heparins are polyanions used not only as therapeutic agents...
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Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA and histone-based networks enriched with granule-derived proteins cast out by neutrophils in response to various inflammatory stimuli. Another molecular network, fibrin is the primary protein scaffold that holds both physiological blood clots and pathological thrombi together. There is mounting evidence...
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Pancreatic cancer is associated with high incidence of venous thromboembolism. Neutrophils have been shown to contribute to thrombosis in part by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). A recent study showed that increased plasma levels of the NET biomarker, citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), are associated with venous thromboembolism in pa...
Article
Introduction The ultrastructure and cellular composition of thrombi has a profound effect on the outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), coronary (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Activated neutrophils release a web-like structure composed mainly of DNA and citrullinated histones, called neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) that modify the...
Article
Technical maintenance of machines and equipment in processing industry requires elaborate technical diagnostics systems to recognize the current state and forecast their future state. Creating such a system is a complex task due to multiple factors, with aging in aggressive exploitation environment being an important one. Statistical pattern recogn...
Article
Introduction: Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with healthy individuals. Pancreatic cancer has one of the highest rates of VTE. We are interested in elucidating the pathways that contribute to cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) particularly in pancreatic cancer. A recent study reported an association b...
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In the course of thrombosis, platelets are exposed to a variety of activating stimuli classified as ‘strong’ (e.g. thrombin and collagen) or ‘mild’ (e.g. ADP). In response, activated platelets adhere to injured vasculature, aggregate, and stabilise the three-dimensional fibrin scaffold of the expanding thrombus. Since ‘strong’ stimuli also induce o...
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Protease encapsulation and its targeted release in thrombi may contribute to the reduction of haemorrhagic complications of thrombolysis. We aimed to prepare sterically stabilized trypsin-loaded liposomes ( SSLT ) and characterize their structure and fibrinolytic efficiency. Hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine-based SSLT were prepared and thei...
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Purpose: Keratoconus (KC) is a disease characterized by thinning and deformation of the cornea, but its etiology remains unknown. Seventy percent of the corneal stroma consists of collagen, which is composed of three intertwined polypeptide chains with glycine-hydroxyproline-proline repeats along their sequence. Arginase is a cytoplasmatic enzyme...
Data
Modelling of liposome structure based on SAXS measurements.
Article
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a large, non-sulfated glucosaminoglycan abundantly present at sites where fibrin is also formed (during wound healing, in arterial restenotic lesions and eroded atherosclerotic plaques). The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of composite fibrin-HA clots with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pressu...
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Upon platelet activation, free fatty acids are released at the stage of thrombus formation, but their effects on fibrin formation are largely unexplored. Our objective was to characterize the kinetic effects of fatty acids on thrombin activity, as well as the structural and mechanical properties of the resultant fibrin clots. Thrombin activity on f...
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The components and reactions of the fibrinolysis system are well understood. The pathway has fewer reactants and interactions than coagulation, but the generation of a complete quantitative model is complicated by the need to work at the solid-liquid interface of fibrin. Diagnostic tools to detect disease states due to malfunctions in the fibrinoly...
Article
Background: Recently, high prevalence of cryofibrinogenaemia has been observed in plasma of untreated dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) patients, and the pathological IgA and TG3 deposits in the papillary dermis were found to co-localize with fibrin and fibrinogen. Objective: To study the fibrinolytic potential in plasma of untreated, dapsone and or...
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This paper aims to statistically test the null hypothesis H-0 for identity of the probability distribution of one-dimensional (1D) continuous parameters in two different populations, presented by fuzzy samples of i.i.d. observations. A degree of membership to the corresponding population is assigned to any of the observations in the fuzzy sample. T...
Article
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed primarily of DNA and histones are a link between infection, inflammation and coagulation. NETs promote coagulation and approaches to destabilise NETs have been explored to reduce thrombosis and treat sepsis. Heparinoids bind histones and we report quantitative studies in plasma and purified systems to...
Article
Fibrinolysis appears in many diverse physiological situations, and the components of the system are well established, along with mechanistic details for the individual reactions and some high-resolution structures. Key questions in understanding the regulation of fibrinolysis surround mechanisms of initiation and propagation, the localization of fi...
Article
To report the surgical treatment of 3 eyes of 2 patients with bilateral anterior lenticonus due to Alport syndrome using femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). Two patients with Alport syndrome presented to our department due to anterior lenticonus in both eyes. We performed FLACS with posterior chamber lens implantation in both eyes...
Article
In response to various inflammatory stimuli, neutrophils secrete neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), web-like meshworks of DNA, histones and granular components forming supplementary scaffolds in venous and arterial thrombi. Isolated DNA and histones are known to promote thrombus formation and render fibrin clots more resistant to mechanical for...
Article
To evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of anterior capsule opening performed with femtosecond laser capsulotomy at different energy settings in ex vivo porcine anterior lens capsule specimens. Twenty-five fresh porcine eyes per group were included in the study. Femtosecond laser capsulotomy was performed with three different pulse energy...
Article
Fibrin structure and cellular composition of thrombi profoundly affect the clinical outcomes in ischemic coronary and peripheral artery disease. Our study addressed the interrelations of structural features of thrombi and routinely measured laboratory parameters. Thrombi removed by thromboaspiration following acute myocardial infarction (n=101) or...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of anterior capsule openings performed with the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) technique and femtosecond laser capsulotomy (FLC) in ex vivo porcine lens capsule specimens. Methods: Fresh porcine eyes were included in the study (CCC group, n = 50; FLC group, n = 30). The capsu...
Article
Intravascular fibrin clots are resolved by plasmin acting at the interface of gel-phase substrate and fluid-borne enzyme. The classic Michaelis Menten kinetic scheme cannot describe satisfactorily this heterogeneous-phase proteolysis because it assumes homogeneous well-mixed conditions. A more suitable model for these spatial constraints, known as...
Chapter
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This chapter summarizes the current state of the role of neutrophil extracellular traps in the modulation of fibrin assembly and the consequences regarding plasminogen activation and plasmin action.
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Removal of C-terminal lysine residues that are continuously exposed in lysing fibrin is an established anti-fibrinolytic mechanism dependent on the plasma carboxypeptidase TAFIa, which also removes arginines that are exposed at the time of fibrinogen clotting by thrombin. To evaluate the impact of alterations in fibrin structure mediated by constit...
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Purpose: Thrombus architecture is an important determinant of thrombus stability and may affect the clinical outcome in acute myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Here we address the potential correlations between routinely available clinical data and the structure of thrombi removed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or...
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Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA and associated proteins produced by nucleosome release from activated neutrophils in response to infection stimuli and have recently been identified as key mediators between innate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. The interaction of DNA and histones with a number of hemostatic factors has be...
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Background Proteases expressed in atherosclerotic plaque lesions generate collagen fragments, release glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate [CS] and dermatan sulfate [DS]) and expose extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g. decorin) at sites of fibrin formation. Objective Here we address the effect of these vessel wall components on the lysis o...
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Introduction Platelet adhesion to collagen under high shear rates depends on the optimal size of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, which is determined by their limited proteolysis. The present study attempts to identify the role of hemostatic-fibrinolytic enzymes (thrombin, plasmin) and leukocyte-derived proteases (matrix metalloproteinase...
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Matrix metalloproteinases play a crucial role in the remodelling of the extracellular matrix through direct degradation of its structural proteins and control of extracellular signalling. The most common cause of ischemic brain damage is an atherothrombotic lesion in the supplying arteries. The progress of the atherosclerotic plaque development and...
Article
Arterial thrombi contain variable amounts of red blood cells (RBCs), which interact with fibrinogen through an eptifibatide-sensitive receptor and modify the structure of fibrin. In this study, we evaluated the modulator role of RBCs in the lytic susceptibility of fibrin. If fibrin is formed at increasing RBC counts, scanning electron microscopy ev...
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Recent data indicate that stretching forces cause a dramatic decrease in clot volume accompanied by gross conformational changes of fibrin structure. The present study attempts to characterize the lytic susceptibility of fibrin exposed to mechanical stress as a model for fibrin structures observed in vivo. The relevance of stretched fibrin models w...
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Regulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) depends on fibrin binding and fibrin structure. tPA structure/function relationships were investigated in fibrin formed by high or low thrombin concentrations to produce a fine mesh and small pores, or thick fibers and coarse structure, respectively. Kinetics studies were performed to investigat...
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Leukocytes invade newly formed thrombi through interactions with platelets and fibrin and later contribute to the removal of fibrin deposits mainly through the action of neutrophil elastase. The present study attempts to express in quantitative terms the impact of neutrophils on the lytic processes in obliterative thrombi based on the local presenc...
Article
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Under high shear stress platelets adhere preferentially to the adventitia layer of the arterial vessel wall in a von Willebrand factor (VWF)-dependent manner. The present study was undertaken in an attempt to characterize the structural background of the relative thromboresistance of the media and the impact of neutrophil leukocyte-derived protease...
Article
The formation of platelet-rich thrombi under high shear rates requires both fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor (VWF) as molecular adhesives between platelets. We attempted to describe the role of VWF as a potential substrate and modulator of the fibrinolytic system using binding assays, as well as kinetic measurements on the cleavage of fibrin(og...
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Progress curve analysis is a convenient tool for the characterization of enzyme action: a single reaction mixture provides multiple experimental measured points for continuously varying amounts of substrates and products with exactly the same enzyme and modulator concentrations. The determination of kinetic parameters from the progress curves, howe...
Article
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases continue to be a major public health burden worldwide. According to the WHO data the mortality related to atherothrombosis is the leading cause of death responsible for 22.3% of the total deaths in the world preceding infectious diseases (19.1%) and neoplasms (12.5%) [1]. Some of the improvements in death...
Article
Thrombi, which are dissolved primarily by plasmin (EC 3.4.21.7.), contain up to millimolar concentrations of fatty acids and these are known to affect the action of the protease. In the present study the modulation of plasmin activity was characterized quantitatively in a continuous amidolytic assay based on synthetic plasmin substrate (Spectrozyme...
Article
Because both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and phospholipids interfere with fibrinolysis, their combined modulating effects were investigated in experimental models of three consecutive steps of the fibrinolytic process [diffusion of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) into the clot, plasminogen activation on fibrin surface and fibrin dissolution by p...
Article
Thrombolysis is conventionally regarded as dissolution of the fibrin matrix of thrombi by plasmin, but the structure of clots in vivo includes additional constituents (proteins, phospholipids) that modulate their solubilization. We examined the presence of free fatty acids in thrombi and their effects on distinct stages of fibrinolysis (plasminogen...
Article
Certain denatured proteins function as cofactors in the activation of plasminogen by tissue-type plasminogen activator. The present study approached the structural requirements for the cofactor activity of a model protein (human serum albumin). Heat denaturation of 100-230 microM albumin (80 degrees C and 60-90 min) reproducibly yielded aggregates...
Article
Thrombolysis is conventionally regarded as dissolution of the fibrin matrix of thrombi by plasmin, a protease generated by plasminogen activators from its inactive precursor, plasminogen. Typically plasminogen activation occurs on the surface of the clot, where fibrin behaves as a cofactor in this process, and plasmin also initiates its proteolytic...
Article
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) isolated from the blood plasma of a patient with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) expresses fibrinogen-clotting and amidolytic activity (the thrombin activity in 20 micromole IgG is equivalent to approximately 5 nmole pure thrombin), and activates factor XIII. Hirudin (1 microM) decreases the intrinsic thrombin activ...
Article
1. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induce several changes on the endothelial cells at the microcirculatory level. 2. Vasogenic brain edema due to compromised blood–brain barrier, transformation of the endothelial cell surface from an anticoagulant to a procoagulant property are important factors in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. 3. Release...
Article
The contribution of neutrophil leukocyte elastase (NE) to in vivo thrombolysis is still an open question. The present study examines the impact of variable levels of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) (the major plasma inhibitor of NE) on fibrinolysis within the setting of thromboembolic diseases. Blood samples were taken from 56 patients with...
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The massive presence of phospholipids is demonstrated in frozen sections of human arterial thrombi. Purified platelet phospholipids and synthetic phospholipids retard in vitro tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced fibrinolysis through effects on plasminogen activation and plasmin function. The inhibition of plasminogen activation on the s...
Article
The haemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke involves disruption of the integrity of the microvascular beds, partially based on the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of microvascular endothelial cells from human brain (HBECs) to MMPs' expression and regulation under...
Article
The haemorrhagic transformation in ischermic stroke involves disruption of the integrity of the microvascular beds, partially based on the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of microvascular endothelial cells from human brain (HBECs) to MMPs' expression and regulation unde...