Kouji Urushihara

Kouji Urushihara
Health Sciences University of Hokkaido · Department of Clinical Psychology

About

29
Publications
1,383
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583
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2002 - March 2005
Binghamton University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
Full-text available
Superconditioning refers to supernormal responding to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that sometimes occurs in classical conditioning when the CS is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) in the presence of a conditioned inhibitor for that US. In the present research, we conducted 4 experiments to investigate causal superlearning, a phenomenon in h...
Article
Reports an error in "Backward blocking in first-order conditioning" by Kouji Urushihara and Ralph R. Miller (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2010[Apr], Vol 36[2], 281-295). In the article "Backward Blocking in First-Order Conditioning" by Kouji Urushihara and Ralph R. Miller (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal...
Article
Full-text available
Three lick suppression experiments with rats investigated backward blocking in first-order conditioning. As has been suggested in prior studies, the experiments demonstrated that backward blocking is difficult to obtain in conventional first-order conditioning situations. However, the authors demonstrate here that backward blocking is observed in f...
Article
Full-text available
Three conditioned suppression experiments with rats investigated contrasting predictions made by the extended comparator hypothesis and acquisition-focused models of learning, specifically, modified SOP and the revised Rescorla-Wagner model, concerning retrospective revaluation. Two target cues (X and Y) were partially reinforced using a stimulus r...
Article
Full-text available
Several associative learning theories explain cue competition as resulting from the division of a limited resource among competing cues. This leads to an assumption that behavioral control by 2 cues competing with each other should always reflect a tradeoff, resulting in apparent conservation of total reinforcer value across all competing cues. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments used rats in a conditioned lick suppression preparation to investigate how the conditioned stimulus (CS)-duration and partial-reinforcement effects (i.e., weakened responding due to conditioning with a CS of longer duration and presenting nonreinforced CSs intermingled with CS-unconditioned stimulus [US] pairings, respectively) inte...
Article
Full-text available
Three conditioned lever-press suppression experiments with rats investigated the interaction between overshadowing and outcome-alone exposure effects. Experiment 1 found in first-order conditioning that combined overshadowing and outcome-preexposure treatments attenuate the response deficit produced by either treatment alone. Experiments 2 and 3 in...
Article
Full-text available
Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats were performed to assess the influence, following compound training of two stimuli (A and X) with the same outcome (AX-O trials), of extending training of the blocking association (i.e., A-O) on responding to the target stimulus (X) at test. In Experiment 1, backward blocking was attenuated w...
Article
Full-text available
Forward blocking is one of the best-documented phenomena in Pavlovian animal conditioning. According to contemporary associative learning theories, forward blocking arises directly from the hardwired basic learning rules that govern the acquisition or expression of associations. Contrary to this view, here the authors demonstrate that blocking in r...
Article
Full-text available
This article demonstrates and analyzes spontaneous recovery of stimulus control following both forward and backward blocking in a conditioned suppression preparation with rats. Experiment 1 found, in first-order conditioning, robust forward blocking and an attenuation of it following a retention interval. Experiment 2 showed, in sensory preconditio...
Article
Full-text available
Three conditioned taste aversion experiments with rats investigated superconditioning. In each experiment, alternate exposures of 2 flavor compounds with a common element (i.e., AB/AS) were administered to establish an inhibitory relationship between the 2 unique elements, B and S, and prior to testing, S was paired with lithium chloride (LiCl). In...
Article
Four experiments were conducted to examine appetitive backward conditioning in a conditioned reinforcement preparation. In all experiments, off-line classical conditioning was conducted following lever-press training on two levers. Presentations of a sucrose solution by a liquid dipper served as an unconditioned stimulus (US) and two auditory stimu...
Article
Effects of outcome-alone pretraining and posttraining exposure were investigated in conditioned suppression experiments conducted within a sensory preconditioning preparation with rats. Experiment 1 found that interference by outcome postexposure was stronger than that by outcome preexposure, suggesting a recency effect. Experiment 2 found that aft...
Article
The cue-duration effect (i.e., longer cues result in less conditioned responding than shorter cues) was examined as a function of whether cues were trained alone or in compound. Compound (AX) or elemental (X) cues of either long or short duration were paired with the unconditioned stimulus. In testing with X alone, the cue-duration effect was obser...
Article
Renewal of operant performance formerly eliminated by omission or noncontingency training was explored in two experiments with rats. When pressing a lever was trained with food reinforcement in one context (A) and then eliminated in a second context (B), responding was renewed by returning the rats to the original context (A). This ABA renewal effe...
Article
Confinement of a rat in a running wheel results in the rat's subsequent avoidance of the taste consumed before the confinement. This phenomenon has been ascribed to taste aversion conditioned by spontaneous wheel running. As a first step toward clarification of the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, we manipulated two parameters of the taste-...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments with rats explored renewal effects in operant conditioning preparations. When pressing a lever was trained in one context and then extinguished in a second context, the responding was renewed by returning to the original context (ABA renewal) in Experiment 1. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2 with discriminative operant pe...
Article
Previous research with keylight conditioned stimuli has revealed that pigeons failed to show inhibition by Stimulus B over Stimulus C in BC versus C testing after A+, AB–, ABC+ training where Stimulus A and Stimulus Compound ABC had signaled food, and Stimulus Compound AB had signaled no food. Indeed, B slightly facilitated responding to C on the B...
Article
In the classical conditioning, the temporal relationship between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) has an effect on the strength of elicited conditioned responding (CR). The present study explored the effect of temporal relationship between a first-order CS (CS1) and an US on CR to the CS1 and a second-order CS (CS2) in...
Article
近年,自閉症児に対しては様々な療育的アプローチが試みられている。本論文では,そのような取り組みのうちのひとつ,イルカ介在活動について,ある自閉症児を対象に行われた事例を報告し考察することを通じて,その効果の検証を試みる。事例は重度知的障害を有する自閉症児が,5日間のプログラムに二度にわたり参加した時のものである。参加時の経過の詳細に加え,セッションにおける行動課題の達成度や発達検査結果の推移などを対象に考察した。本事例では,5日間のプログラムの間に顕著な進歩が見られ,イルカ介在活動による療育効果,特に,コミュニケーション能力の発達促進,対人関係の改善の効果が示唆されたといえる。 The effectiveness of dolphin assisted activity was examin...
Article
イメージ先行型といわれる心理学をいかに教育すれば学習効果が高まるかに関心が集まっている。本論文では,実地での参加・観察体験が学習に対する動機づけにどのような効果をもたらすかを,学生による観察体験報告をもとに検討した。学生は専攻生向け授業で動物介在療法を学んだのちに,イルカ介在活動(DAA)の実施現場で,イルカとの伴泳及び自閉症児を対象としたイルカ介在活動プログラムを体験・観察した。伴泳体験では,動物の大きさや,学生の予想を超えた敏捷な水中移動に圧倒され,イルカを知的動物と受け止めつつも攻撃的であるとの否定的回答が目立った。多くの学生はイルカ介在活動を心理学的介入の一手法としての意義を認めるが,イルカを介する積極的意義については確信が持てないようであった。一方,参加者全員が今回の実地体験・観察...