Kou Murayama

Kou Murayama
University of Reading · School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences

PhD

About

180
Publications
126,103
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9,609
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Publications

Publications (180)
Article
The ability to engage in internal thoughts without external stimulation is a unique characteristic in humans. The current research tested the hypothesis that people metacognitively underestimate their capability to enjoy this process of "just thinking." Participants (university students; total N = 259) were asked to sit and wait in a quiet room wit...
Chapter
Humans constantly search for and use information to solve a wide range of problems related to survival, social interactions, and learning. While it is clear that curiosity and the drive for knowledge occupies a central role in defining what being human means to ourselves, where does this desire to know the unknown come from? What is its purpose? An...
Article
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Three studies on the relationship between curiosity and interest were reported. The first study was a meta-analysis that examined the Pearson correlations between scales assessing curiosity and interest. Based on 24 studies (31 effect sizes), we found that the curiosity scales correlated with the interest scales at a moderate level (r = .53), but t...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether engaging in physical exercise during a university class would have beneficial effect on students’ learning motivation. One hundred and forty-nine participants took part in a psychology class over nine weeks (one lesson per week); for each lesson, participants engaged in a three-minute physical activity (low-intensity aer...
Preprint
In psychology, researchers often predict a dependent variable (DV) consisting of multiple measurements (e.g., scale items measuring a concept, or reaction times to stimuli). To analyze the data, researchers typically aggregate (sum/average) scores across items and use this as a DV. Alternatively, they may define the DV as a common factor using stru...
Preprint
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Mastery-approach (MAP) goals, focusing on developing competence and acquiring task mastery, is posited to be the most optimal, beneficial type of achievement goal for academic and life outcomes. Although there is meta-analytic evidence supporting this finding, such evidence does not allow us to conclude that the extant MAP goal findings generalize...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers studying curiosity and interest note a lack of consensus in whether and how these important motivations for learning are distinct. Empirical attempts to distinguish them are impeded by this lack of conceptual clarity. Following a recent proposal that curiosity and interest are folk concepts, we sought to determine a non-expert consensus...
Article
Entomophagy – the consumption of insects – is often rejected by Western society despite its benefits over traditional animal-based proteins. While several factors have been identified as potential predictors of people's willingness to try insect foods, this study introduced an under-explored factor: curiosity, which is a powerful motivator of behav...
Article
Nested data structures create statistical dependence that influences the effective sample size and statistical power of a study. Several methods are available for dealing with nested data, including the summary-statistics approach and multilevel modelling (MLM). Recent publications have heralded MLM as the best method for analysing nested data, cla...
Preprint
A simulation experiment to confirm the validity of summary-statistics approaches for analysing nested data
Article
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The purpose of this study was to critically examine how people perceive the definitions, differences and similarities of interest and curiosity, and address the subjective boundaries between interest and curiosity. We used a qualitative research approach given the research questions and the goal to develop an in-depth understanding of people’s mean...
Article
Emotional public events, relative to nonemotional ones, are typically remembered more accurately, more vividly, and with more confidence. However, the majority of previous studies investigating this have focused on negative public events and less is known about positive ones. The current study examined whether positive and negative public events we...
Preprint
While studies have documented the importance of basic psychological need satisfaction in parent-child relationships, a gap remains in understanding how parental and adolescent need satisfactions are associated. Using two longitudinal intergenerational datasets (200 parent-adolescent dyads and 408 mother-adolescent dyads; two waves), the study exami...
Article
Researchers studying curiosity and interest note a lack of consensus in whether and how these important motivations for learning are distinct. Empirical attempts to distinguish them are impeded by this lack of conceptual clarity. Following a recent proposal that curiosity and interest are folk concepts, we sought to determine a non-expert consensus...
Article
Full-text available
After you make a decision, it is sometimes possible to seek information about how things would be if you had acted otherwise. We investigated the lure of this counterfactual information, namely, counterfactual curiosity. In a set of five experiments (total N = 150 adults), we used an adapted Balloon Analogue Risk Task with varying costs of informat...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that focused attention meditation not only improves our cognitive and motivational functioning (e.g., attention, mental health), it influences the way our brain networks [e.g., default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN), and sensory-motor network (SMN)] function and operate. However, surprisingly little attention h...
Preprint
Friends are sometimes similar in their academic motivation. The current study examines the mechanisms underlying similarity by disentangling selection and influence processes in adolescent friendship networks, using longitudinal data. A total of 495 adolescents from an independent school for girls were assessed for their academic motivation (includ...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are known to seek non-instrumental information, sometimes expending considerable effort or taking risks to receive it, for example, ‘curiosity killed the cat’. This suggests that information is highly motivationally salient. In the current article, we first review recent empirical studies that demonstrated the strong motivational lure of cur...
Preprint
Full-text available
The relationships and differences between curiosity and interest have received considerable attention and discussions. Yet, most of the discussions so far draw from little direct empirical evidence. In this set of three studies, the relationship between curiosity and interest were examined. The first study was a meta-analysis that examined the Pear...
Preprint
The ability to engage in internal thoughts without external stimulation is one of the hallmarks of unique characteristics in humans. The current research tested the hypothesis that people metacognitively underestimate their capability to positively engage in just thinking. Participants were asked to sit and wait in a quiet room without doing anythi...
Article
Full-text available
Social rewards are a broad and heterogeneous set of stimuli including for instance smiling faces, gestures, or praise. They have been widely investigated in cognitive and social neuroscience as well as psychology. Research often contrasts the neural processing of social rewards with non-social ones, with the aim to demonstrate the privileged and un...
Preprint
The ability to engage in internal thoughts without external stimulation is one of the hallmarks of unique characteristics in humans. The current research tested the hypothesis that people metacognitively underestimate their capability to positively engage in just thinking. Participants were asked to sit and wait in a quiet room without doing anythi...
Article
Full-text available
There has been considerable interest in empirical research on epistemic emotions, i.e., emotions related to knowledge-generating qualities of cognitive tasks and activities such as curiosity, interest, and surprise. One big challenge when studying epistemic emotions is systematically inducting these emotions in restricted experimental settings. The...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining emotional well-being in late life is crucial for achieving successful and healthy aging. While previous research from Western cultures has documented that emotional well-being improves as individuals get older, previous research provided mixed evidence on the effects of age on well-being in Eastern Asian cultures. However, previous stud...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that the proximity of individuals in a social network predicts how similarly their brains respond to naturalistic stimuli. However, the relationship between social connectedness and brain connectivity in the absence of external stimuli has not been examined. To investigate whether neural homophily between friends exists a...
Preprint
Researchers studying curiosity and interest note a lack of consensus in how these important concepts that motivate learning are defined. One proposal is that curiosity and interest are naïve concepts, intuitively and subjectively constructed by people to express underlying psychological processes to which they lack introspective access. Thus, there...
Article
Full-text available
Curiosity is often portrayed as a desirable feature of human faculty. However, curiosity may come at a cost that sometimes puts people in harmful situations. Here, using a set of behavioural and neuroimaging experiments with stimuli that strongly trigger curiosity (for example, magic tricks), we examine the psychological and neural mechanisms under...
Preprint
Emotional public events, relative to non-emotional ones, are typically remembered more accurately, more vividly and with more confidence. Such memories are referred to as flashbulb memories. However, the majority of previous studies on this phenomenon have focused on negative public events and less is known about positive ones. The current study ex...
Article
Full-text available
Interest is an important motivational element for learning in the school environment. However, little research has directly addressed how interest changes over time as knowledge accumulates. To gain a better understanding of how knowledge acquisition influences intraindividual change of interest, we developed a novel paradigm in which participants...
Preprint
Humans are known to seek non-instrumental information, sometimes expending considerable effort or taking risks to receive it, e.g. “curiosity killed the cat”. This suggests that information is highly motivationally salient. In the current article, we first review recent empirical studies that demonstrated the strong motivational lure of curiosity –...
Preprint
Social rewards are a broad and heterogeneous set of stimuli, which have been widely investigated in cognitive and social neuroscience/psychology. Research often contrasts the neural processing of social rewards with non-social ones, with the aim to demonstrate the privileged and unique nature of social rewards or to examine shared neural processing...
Article
Full-text available
Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging is a popular technique for increasing acquisition speed in echo-planar imaging (EPI) fMRI. However, SMS data are prone to motion sensitivity and slice leakage artefacts, which spread signal between simultaneously acquired slices. Relevant to motion sensitivity, artefacts from moving anatomic structures propaga...
Article
Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a popular framework to understand and improve students' motivation. Unfortunately, limited research has verified whether EVT predictions generalize to students with low levels of cognitive ability. This study relies on Grade 5 and 8 data from 177 students with low levels of cognitive ability and a matched sample of...
Preprint
Curiosity - the drive for information - is often perceived as a dangerous trait. This is exacerbated by the perception that when something is forbidden, curiosity towards it increases. Surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms by which this forbidden fruit effect occurs. In a series of five experiments (total N = 2,141), we used a novel car...
Article
Full-text available
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolesc...
Preprint
Recent years have seen considerable interest in empirical research on epistemic emotions, i.e. emotions related to knowledge-generating qualities of cognitive tasks and activities such as curiosity, interest, and surprise. One big challenge when studying epistemic emotions is systematically inducting these emotions in restricted experimental settin...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents’ depressive symptoms are affected by a number of factors including life stress, gender, socio-economic status, and parental depression symptoms. However, little is known about whether adolescent depressive symptoms are also affected by parental motivational characteristics. The current study explores the relationship between parental mo...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies suggested roles for curiosity and interest in knowledge acquisition and exploration, but there has been a long-standing debate about how to define these concepts and whether they are related or different. In this paper, we address the definition issue by arguing that there is inherent difficulty in defining curiosity and interest,...
Article
The study described here developed a short surrogate index for the children’s socioeconomic status (SES) using house possessions and investigated its validity. In Study 1, 192 pairs of parents and their middle school-aged children participated in a questionnaire survey. Based on the results, three items regarding possessions at home were selected f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Economic and decision-making theories suppose that people would disengage from an extremely difficult task, because such a task does not implicate any normative utility values (i.e. success probability is almost zero). However, humans are often motivated for an extremely challenging task with little chance of success, even without any extrinsic inc...
Article
Full-text available
Research has started to acknowledge the importance of emotions for complex learning and cognitive performance. However, research on epistemic emotions has only recently become more prominent. Research in educational psychology in particular has mostly focused on examining achievement emotions instead of epistemic emotions. Furthermore, only few stu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that the proximity of individuals in a social network predicts how similarly their brains respond to naturalistic stimuli. However, the relationship between social connectedness and brain connectivity in the absence of external stimuli has not been examined. To investigate whether neural homophily between friends exists a...
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal designs provide a strong inferential basis for uncovering reciprocal effects or causality between variables. For this analytic purpose, a cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) has been widely used in medical research, but the use of the CLPM has recently been criticized in methodological literature because parameter estimates in the CLPM con...
Preprint
After making a decision, it is sometimes possible to seek information about how things would be if one had acted otherwise. In the current study we investigated the seductive lure of this counterfactual information, namely counterfactual curiosity. We demonstrate in a set of five experiments using an adapted Balloon Analogue Risk Task with varying...
Preprint
While traditional literature in psychology emphasized the critical distinction between interest (or curiosity) and extrinsic rewards (e.g. monetary rewards), this view has been challenged by recent neuroscientific evidence that the function of interest is little different from extrinsic rewards. In addition, researchers conceptualize curiosity and...
Article
Full-text available
Inferring reciprocal effects or causality between variables is a central aim of behavioral and psychological research. To address reciprocal effects, a variety of longitudinal models that include cross-lagged relations have been proposed in different contexts and disciplines. However, the relations between these cross-lagged models have not been sy...
Article
Some epistemic emotions, such as surprise and curiosity, have attracted increasing scientific attention, whereas others, such as confusion, have yet to receive the attention they deserve. In addition, little is known about the relations between these emotions, their joint antecedents and outcomes, and how they differ from other emotions prompted du...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on the self-conscious achievement emotion pride introduces the Achievement Pride Scales (APS) that illustrate the relation of self-based pride and social comparison-based pride with frames of reference, achievement goals, and achievement values. The present study (N = 354) extends those results with regard to explicit achievement,...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Motivation and Learning - by K. Ann Renninger February 2019
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Full-text available
Growth curve modeling (GCM) has been one of the most popular statistical methods to examine participants’ growth trajectories using longitudinal data. In spite of the popularity of GCM, little attention has been paid to the possible influence of time-specific errors, which influence all participants at each timepoint. In this article, we demonstrat...
Article
A theoretical model linking achievement and emotions is proposed. The model posits that individual achievement promotes positive achievement emotions and reduces negative achievement emotions. In contrast, group-level achievement is thought to reduce individuals' positive emotions and increase their negative emotions. The model was tested using one...
Article
This longitudinal study examined a multitude of early childhood predictors of anxiety symptoms and disorders over an 8-year period. The purpose of the study was to identify early life predictors of anxiety across childhood and early adolescence in a sample of at-risk children. The sample included 202 preschool children initially identified as behav...
Preprint
Full-text available
Longitudinal designs provide a strong inferential basis for uncovering reciprocal effects or causality between variables. For this analytic purpose, a cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) has been widely used in medical research, but the use of the CLPM has recently been criticized in methodological literature because parameter estimates in the CLPM con...
Preprint
Full-text available
Curiosity is often portrayed as a desirable feature of human faculty. For example, a meta-analysis revealed that curiosity predicts academic performance above and beyond intelligence, corroborating findings that curiosity supported long-term consolidation of learning. However, curiosity may come at a cost of strong seductive power that sometimes pu...
Article
Research on self-regulation has primarily focused on how people exert control over their thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which people manage their motivational states in the service of achieving valued goals. In this article, we explore an emerging line of research that focuses on people’s beliefs about...
Preprint
Full-text available
Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS; multiband) imaging has become an increasingly popular technique owing to vast improvements in acquisition speed and spatial resolution of echo-planar (EPI) and diffusion-weighted images. However, SMS data are prone to motion sensitivity as well as slice leakage artefacts, which spread signal between simultaneously acq...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the short Japanese version of Children’s Anxiety Scale (Short-CAS), which was developed based on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Two hundred students (95 boys and 105 girls; mean age=14.01, SD=0.87) and their parents completed a questionnaire including the scales o...
Preprint
Curiosity is a powerful source of motivation and allows us to explore and acquire knowledge without relying on extrinsic incentives. So far, studies have mostly focused on the curiosity felt towards a specific object. Using a paradigm that sequentially activates curiosity on a trial-by-trial basis with trivia questions, we showed that the curiosity...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of research on social contagion in the context of education. We highlight the importance of students' social interactions in school, considering contagion between peers and contagion from teachers to students, using a motivation perspective. The framework of contagion is introduced broadly, followed by a focused re...
Preprint
Interest is an important motivational element for learning in the school environment. However, little research has directly addressed how interest develops over time as knowledge accumulates. To gain a better understanding of interest development, we developed a paradigm where participants gain step-by-step information about lesser known countries....
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We conducted meta-analyses to assess risk of anxiety disorders among offspring of parents with anxiety disorders and to establish whether there is evidence of specificity of risk for anxiety disorders as opposed to depression in offspring, and whether particular parent anxiety disorders confer risks for particular child anxiety disorders...