Knut Blind

Knut Blind
Technische Universität Berlin | TUB · Institut für Technologie und Management (ITM)

Professor

About

280
Publications
63,614
Reads
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5,080
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - present
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Head of Business Unit Innovation and Regulation
April 2010 - September 2019
Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems FOKUS
Position
  • Senior Researcher
May 2008 - April 2016
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Position
  • Chair of Standardization

Publications

Publications (280)
Article
Full-text available
Firms use a variety of practices to disclose the knowledge generated by their R&D activities, including, but not limited to, publishing findings in scientific journals, patenting new technologies, and contributing to developing standards. While the individual effects of engaging in the listed practices on firm innovation are well-understood, the ex...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic posed new and manifold challenges to organizations and their operations worldwide. Conformity assessment bodies (CABs), such as testing or medical laboratories, certification, and inspection bodies, were also affected by the associated disruptions. Their role in this crisis is highly relevant, as CABs are essential pillars of...
Article
Full-text available
Formal standards codify knowledge. Next to patents representing the generation of innovative knowledge, standards can hence be used to proxy the diffusion of innovative knowledge in macroeconomic growth models. Previous work mainly investigates the positive impact of in particular patents, but also standards on economic growth in short term, single...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies investigating the trade effects of standardization have found a positive impact of the number of international standards in a country on its trade volumes. While international standards have so far been considered as exogenous, we investigate what drives countries to take over leading roles, i.e. secretariats, in committees of the I...
Article
The 5G ecosystem in the EU is highly complex and multi-faceted with a range of competing interests and stakeholders and hence, makes the assessment of policy measures quite difficult. This paper attempts to clarify and make more accessible as well as tangible, which innovation ‘failures’ are applicable to the case of the roll-out of 5G in the EU an...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between patenting and formal standardization participation. We review the existing literature on the motivations and barriers to patenting and participation in formal standardization. Based on conceptual considerations derived in the literature review, propositions regarding the relations between patenting and s...
Article
Full-text available
Global supply chains rely on the compliance and safety of their products, processes, and facilities. These vital services (often referred to as ‘quality assurance’ or ‘conformity assessment’ services) are provided by Conformity Assessment Bodies (CABs). This empirical study explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CABs as well as their respo...
Article
This paper aims at mapping machinery value chains in Brazil to check the validity of the smiling curve and the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis, investigating opportunities for upgrading. The empirical methodology is based on qualitative research among 50 machinery manufacturing companies in three steps: online survey, interviews, and poll. The main...
Article
Publications, patents, standard-essential patents (SEPs), and standard contributions are important indicators for the drivers in the technology development of 5G. However, current 5G technology reports predominately draw on patent data to identify technology developing organizations, ignoring the importance of publications and standard contribution...
Article
Full-text available
Standard-setting organizations (SSOs) establish goal-directed networks for innovators to jointly shape technology and markets through standards. The degree to which this can succeed depends to a large extent on network characteristics, which may differ substantially between SSOs. Many technological fields face intense competition between SSOs. Choo...
Article
This paper employs the concept of ‘Gold’ (financial rewards), ‘Ribbon’ (reputational/career rewards) and ‘Puzzle’ (intrinsic satisfaction) to structure engineers’ motivation for pursuing scientific publications, patenting and contributing to standardization. This study is based on the responses to a survey of engineers employed by two German Origin...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents a framework for the systematic monitoring of the global hydrogen economy, suggesting data sources and indicators to systematically survey the most important trends and developments. Monitoring based on this framework could provide an important knowledge base for the continuous review of policy measures related to the German and...
Article
Full-text available
This policy brief outlines the potential benefits and challenges of including international quality standards as technical requirements in the design of public auctions, highlighting the crucial role of the Quality Infrastructure (QI) system in newcomer countries. Key lessons learnt are synthesised from international experiences with technical requ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces the concept of standard-relevant publications, complementary to standard-essential patents and framed by the concept of knowledge utilization. By analyzing the reference lists of the around 20,000 standards released by ISO, authors of scientific papers cited in standards who are working at German institutions were identified....
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has expressed concerns about firms engaging less in basic research. We contribute to this debate by studying trends in the scientific publishing activities of firms located in Germany. Our results indicate that the firms’ aggregate volume of scientific publications stayed constant between 2008 and 2016. However, the number and sha...
Article
Full-text available
Patents in information and communication technologies (ICTs) are important instruments for protecting companies’ inventions and to appropriate the value of the related inventions. However, the increasing dynamics and complexity in ICTs are challenging the effectiveness of patents. Based on a review of the literature and interviews with relevant sta...
Chapter
Der Beitrag zeigt nach einem einleitenden Kapitel mit den wichtigsten Definitionen zunächst die verschiedenen innovationsfördernden Effekte von Standards auf. Anschließend werden die wichtigsten Markt- und Systemversagensgründe bezüglich Innovation vorgestellt und die Potenziale der Standardisierung zu deren Behebung herausgearbeitet. Abschließend...
Chapter
Full-text available
As tecnologias em rápido crescimento que estão mudando os paradigmas produtivos mundiais (manufatura avançada, indústria 4.0, internet das coisas (IoT), robotização, inteligência artificial, digitalização etc.) estão associadas a cadeias de valor de máquinas e equipamentos (M&E) (HALLWARD-DRIEMEIER; NAYYAR, 2018). Inicialmente consideradas como cad...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents factors influencing the hazard rate of spin-offs, which emerged from Fraunhofer Venture, the venture capitalist of the Fraunhofer Society. To identify these survival factors, we conduct a cox proportional hazard analysis on the full set ofall 106 spin-offs that Fraunhofer Venture had in its portfolio at the time our research was...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing dependence of companies on information technology and the increasingly negative impact of security incidents worldwide, there is little research on the management of information security at the company level. This paper seeks to expand knowledge on the implementation of an information security management system based on the wide...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The German Standardization Panel (DNP) is a survey that collects data on the standardization activities of companies on an annual basis. The indicator report summarizes findings on key topics, such as standardization activities, perceptions of the role of standardization and different types of standards, or the relationship between formal standardi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this study commissioned by the European Commission, DG CONNECT, is to conduct an in-depth analysis of possible development pathways of the 5G equipment and services supply market. Departing from the baseline analysis of the 5G supply market trends a foresight exercise on key trends influencing the further development of 5G has been devel...
Article
Full-text available
Patents, standards and their combination, standard-essential patents (SEPs), are important in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector, in particular in mobile communication. We argue that SEPs are relevant in macroeconomic development and estimate the effect of a country's SEP portfolio on its value-added trade in global ICT value...
Chapter
Issues of dominance in the market place, “standards wars,” and “battles for dominance” between large companies are frequently addressed by researchers and the business press alike. The existence of companies that could establish internationally dominant solutions to customers' problems within a few years after their founding is quite unknown and th...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to investigate if the world top manufacturing corporations' cost structures are moving from tangible to intangible activities and their impact on profitability. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical approach is interdisciplinary, combining global value chains, international manufacturing networks, cost management lite...
Article
The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces a new right to data portability, which allows users to move their personal data to other platforms, potentially affecting competition between rival platforms offering similar (homogeneous/substitute) products or services within the European Union. However, it is still unclear what effects...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The German Standardization Panel (DNP) is a survey that collects data on the standardization activities of companies on an annual basis. The indicator report summarizes findings on key topics, such as standardization activities, perceptions of the role of standardization and different types of standards, or the relationship between formal standard...
Article
*** English summary below *** Nicht erst seit der Corona-Krise wird deutlich, wie wichtig technologische Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Unabhängigkeit für Europa sind. Wachsende geopolitische Unsicherheiten und drohende globale Handelskonflikte stellen über Jahrzehnte gewachsene Handelsbeziehungen zunehmend in Frage. Auch die Debatte um die Einführung d...
Article
Full-text available
Globalization has been a main driver for firms’ entry into standard-setting organizations (SSOs). These global multifirm settings have caught attention due to tensions arising from simultaneous collaboration and competition among firms as well as due to the increasing geographical complexity of the standardization process. SSOs present one form of...
Article
Full-text available
There is a significant potential to improve the benefits from public procurement through a better understanding of drivers in company success at the micro-level, an area that has received little study to date. To increase these impacts on innovation and markets, policy makers have opened procurement to innovation, including the strategic incorporat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the wake of digitalization, organizations are increasingly exposed to risks associated with security breaches and must take measures to preserve the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information, and to ensure business continuity. The international standard ISO/IEC 27001 assists organizations in setting up, maintaining and continuo...
Article
Full-text available
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) poses multiple challenges to traditional standardization, due to the complexity, dynamics, and accelerating speed of technological progress. The need for a timely availability of standards calls for new approaches and tools to enhance standardization processes for smart manufacturing. Industry and standards...
Article
Full-text available
In the light of digitalization and recent EU policy initiatives, information is an important asset that organizations of all sizes and from all sectors should secure. However, in order to provide common requirements for the implementation of an information security management system, the internationally well-accepted ISO/IEC 27001 standard has not...
Article
Full-text available
Corporate R&D engineers, being usually the initiators of a patent, are important contributors to the patenting performance of their employers. Hence, patenting motives of R&D engineers encompass an interesting and promising research field. However, the literature on patenting motivation of the engineers in the corporate context is scarce. We apply...
Article
Full-text available
The role of company standards as a strategic tool for the optimisation of internal processes and governance of inter-firm relationships has only recently received researchers’ attention. This paper adds to the very limited body of literature by providing empirical evidence of the motives to implement company standards in general and their importanc...
Chapter
Companies’ actions are increasingly influenced by standards which, for various reasons, are becoming more important. Against this background, the requirements on employees have increased, as standards influence ever further reaching areas of their tasks. On the one hand, products and processes need to be designed according to standards, and on the...
Article
Full-text available
While many data-driven businesses have seen rapid growth in recent years, their business development might be highly contingent upon data protection regulation. While it is often claimed that stricter regulation penalizes firms, there is only scarce empirical evidence for this. We therefore study how data protection regulation affects startup innov...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standards and open source development are both processes widely adopted in the ICT industry to develop innovative technologies and drive their adoption in the market. Innovators and policy makers assume that a closer collaboration between standards and open source software development would be mutually beneficial. The interaction between the two is...
Preprint
The paper presents factors influencing the hazard rate of spin-offs, which emerged from Fraunhofer Venture, the venture capitalist of the Fraunhofer Society. To identify these survival factors, we conduct a cox proportional hazard analysis on the full set of all 106 spin-offs that Fraunhofer Venture had in its portfolio at the time our research was...
Article
Full-text available
R&D stands for Research and Development and while research is essential for new product development in biotechnology, the development and its integration with research (the transfer from research to development) is underexplored. Without efficient and successful process development, biotech companies would not sustain in the long run as process dev...
Article
A vast literature documents a positive relationship between patents and companies stock market performance. Nevertheless, evidence on the influence of patents on companies’ debt capacity remains sparse. In this article, we examine the relationship between companies’ patent portfolios and their credit rating, providing relevant, albeit indirect, evi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Based on representative data of German companies engaged in standardization and, increasingly, companies that only apply standards, this 2019 indicator report of the German Standardization Panel (German: Deutsches Normungspanel, acronym “DNP”) provides information on several aspects of standardization. The contribution of innovations to the competi...
Article
We analyse the geographic proximity of innovative firms to different types of knowledge sources in an urban environment on a microgeographic scale. Based on a comprehensive panel data set of manufacturing and service firms in the German capital city Berlin, we investigate the characteristics of firms’ knowledge environment while differentiating by...
Article
Full-text available
Management standards serve as an effective knowledge diffusion channel, considering that they offer comprehensive scientific and practical knowledge for many different stakeholders. This research aims to study the potential of management standards to diffuse knowledge, especially within the scientific community. Therefore, it analyzes the relations...
Article
In the context of the public policy debate, we explore firm-level characteristics that influence firms’ preferences related to alternatives to harmonize standards within the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). The options are the implementation of common standards, developed internationally or bilaterally, and mutual recognition....
Chapter
An earlier study finds that standard-essential patents (SEPs) enhance trade and additionally lead to a phenomenon of global cross-licensing; that is, global value chains (GVCs) arise along those countries in which companies will act as both the licensor and licensee of SEPs. This, however, simultaneously leads to the situation that SEP-induced GVCs...
Article
Full-text available
How to evaluate innovations, especially in the beginning of new product development, is a question constantly posed by academics, managers, and policymakers. One reason for this is that improved front-end decisions greatly affect company performance. To find the answers to this question, this review article analyzes scientific publications on innov...
Article
This research explores the factors underpinning the international diffusion of environmental management standards (EMSs), focusing on how macro-level institutions explain differences in the extent to which ISO 14001 has penetrated into each country. We argue that macro-level institutions affect the diffusion of ISO 14001 by shaping both how manager...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present initial results from an analysis of the references contained in the text of current ISO standards. By parsing these references and linking them, where possible, to the Web of Science dataset, we are able to characterise the knowledge base of these international standards. As a whole, only a quarter of ISO standards include...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we analyze the motives and barriers of researchers to engage in standardization in comparison with publishing and patenting. We conduct a survey on 129 researchers at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, one of Germany's largest federal research institutes. The resultant dataset enables us to study not only the r...
Chapter
Innovations have been significant to economic development for centuries. In recent decades innovations have become the drivers of economic growth and hence also generators of employment. The importance of innovation has increased in economies with stagnating populations because process innovations have made it possible to improve productivity on th...
Article
Full-text available
Companies use standards as a tool to signal their investments in quality upgrading and performance. We argue that the impact of this signal depends on the trust in the accreditation system and the development status of a country. Representing the workhorse of research in international trade, we use a gravity model to examine the trade effects of IS...
Chapter
Full-text available
Issues of dominance in the market place, “standards wars,” and “battles for dominance” between large companies are frequently addressed by researchers and the business press alike. The existence of companies that could establish internationally dominant solutions to customers' problems within a few years after their founding is quite unknown and th...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the impact of formal standards on trade in global value chains (GVCs) in Europe. Using a gravity model approach for panel data, we estimate the influence of national, European and international standards on trade in value-added and gross trade flows within Europe. We find that national standards on their own hamper trade in European valu...
Article
With the Lisbon agenda, the EU recognizes the important role of an economy driven by innovation in tackling contemporary societal challenges. This transition to innovative and sustainable modes of production and consumption is being shaped by policy efforts and policy instruments, including regulations, certifications, standards and sustainability...
Book
Full-text available
Innovation and standardization might seem polar opposites, but over many years various scholars have noted close connections between the two. This Handbook assembles a broad range of thinking on this subject, with contributions from several disciplinary perspectives by over 30 leading scholars and experienced practitioners. Collectively, they summa...
Article
Full-text available
Standardisation is key to shaping new technologies and supporting major ongoing trends, such as the increased importance of platforms, developing ‘smart’ technologies and innovating large-scale complex systems. Standardisation plays a key role in shaping the rules that govern these developments and their effects on society. Due to the large variety...