Klaus Schneider

Klaus Schneider
Research and Advisory Institute for Hazardous Substances | FoBiG · Freiburg

PhD

About

94
Publications
10,716
Reads
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1,901
Citations
Introduction
Since 30 years now I am working in the field of regulatory toxicology. Current main working areas are developing/improving methods for risk assessment and providing REACH-related services to chemical companies. In January 2012 I took over the position of general manager of FoBiG, which I handed over to my colleague and company partner Jan Oltmanns in July 2020.
Additional affiliations
January 1995 - December 2006
Research and Advisory Institute for Hazardous Substances
Position
  • Development of risk assessment methodology
Description
  • projects for regulatory authorities: improved methods for interspecies extrapolation (allometric scaling), time extrapolation, consideration of vulnerable population groups, dose-response modelling (benchmark method), probabilistic hazard assessment
Education
October 2002
American Board of Toxicology
Field of study
  • Toxicology
October 1986 - February 1990
Albrecht-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
Field of study
  • Chemistry
October 1979 - October 1986
Albrecht-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
Field of study
  • Chemistry

Publications

Publications (94)
Article
Background, Aim and Scope. Implementation of the European Union White Paper on chemicals policy shall provide more safety and more transparency in chemicals use. In the past, when assessing existing commercial substances there was often a lack of information in the fields of application of the chemicals and the exposures arising in those contexts....
Article
Full-text available
This work aimed at improving the empirical database of time (i.e., exposure duration), inter- and intraspecies extrapolation when deriving occupational exposure limits (OELs). For each extrapolation step a distribution was derived, which can be used to model the associated uncertainties. For time- and interspecies extrapolation, distributions of ra...
Article
Full-text available
Frameworks for deriving occupational exposure limits (OELs) and OEL-analogue values (such as derived-no-effect levels, DNELs) in various regulatory areas in the EU and at national level in Germany were analysed. Reasons for differences between frameworks and possible means of improving transparency and harmonisation were identified. Differences bet...
Chapter
The chapter was inadvertently published with an incorrect city “Berlin” in the affiliation of the author Klaus Schneider. This has been updated to reflect the correct city as “Freiburg”.
Article
Full-text available
As the final part of a Europe-wide study on the risk from synthetic turf infill consisting of rubber granules derived from end-of-life tyres (ELT), exposure of sportspeople was assessed and compared with health-based reference values for various chemical substances. Based on information from previous project phases, exposure scenarios were establis...
Article
Full-text available
End-of-life tyre (ELT)-derived rubber granules are used as synthetic turf infill on sports fields. They contain various chemical substances and there are concerns that exposure to these substances might be harmful for human health. In this second part of a Europe-wide study to address these concerns migration of substances from rubber granules to a...
Article
End-of-life tyre (ELT)-derived rubber granules are used as synthetic turf infill on sports fields. They contain various chemical substances and there are concerns that exposure to these substances might be harmful for human health. This Europe-wide risk assessment study addresses these concerns. As the first part, chemical substances in samples fro...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating chemical exposures from consumer products is an essential part of chemical safety assessments under REACH and may also be important to demonstrate compliance with consumer product legislation. Modelling of consumer exposure needs input information on the substance (e.g. vapour pressure), the product(s) containing the substance (e.g. conc...
Chapter
This part is directed to the general instruments that are needed for an appropriate consumer exposure assessment. It is based on the recommendations of international organisations for risk assessment. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of the WHO (2004) has proposed the basic requirements for exposure assessment. Every exposure a...
Article
Background: Substances with endocrine disrupting properties are under special consideration in European Union regulations. In 2014 the European Commission published a roadmap which presented four possible
Article
Unter Reach erfordert ein Antrag auf die Zulassung eines als kritisch angesehenen Stoffs viel Zeit und Einsatz. Dabei sind der Stoffsicherheitsbericht und die Analyse von Alternativen ebenso zu berücksichtigen wie die sozioökonomische Analyse.
Article
Lead is a highly toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II, NVS II) with about 20,000 participants (15,371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the German population. Based...
Article
Cadmium Sis a very toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II, NVS II) with about 20,000 participants (15371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the German population. Base...
Article
Abstract Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) exposure from food were estimated using new food consumption data from the recent German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II, NVS II). Based on these comprehensive data, information on consumption of 545 individual food...
Chapter
Only rarely is sufficient toxicological knowledge available on a risk of interest. In cases where toxicological data are incomplete for a specific quantitative risk assessment, the assessment may also draw on general scientific knowledge gained from experience with other chemical substances. However, this approach of extrapolation, using default fa...
Chapter
Toxicological evaluations are based on information derived from scientific studies. Use of high quality of data is crucial for that purpose. Definition of evaluation criteria allows for an examination of the quality of toxicological studies.
Article
Full-text available
Products containing biocides are used for a variety of purposes in the home environment. To assess potential health risks, data on products containing biocides were gathered by means of a market survey, exposures were estimated using a worst case scenario approach (screening), the hazard of the active components were evaluated, and a preliminary ri...
Data
Table S2. Overview of the toxicity of selected active substances.
Data
Spreadsheet_hypotheticum. Printout of the spreadsheet used for exposure calculation (includes used assumptions and default values per scenario)
Data
Table S1. Product categories, product groups and exposure scenarios.
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of the reliability of toxicological data is of key importance for regulatory decision-making. In particular, the new EU Regulations concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) and classification, labelling and packaging (CLP) according to the new globally harmonised system (GHS) rely on the...
Article
Full-text available
Inorganic arsenic, which is extensively metabolised in humans into even more toxic methylated arsenicals, is a potent carcinogen, causing tumours of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, and other organs. It also induces a number of non-cancer effects. Consumption of drinking water highly contaminated by arsenic causes serious health problems in some co...
Article
Biocides are used to prevent attacks and disintegration of products by harming organisms. Many widespread products contain biocides. Depending on the application area (product to be protected, human health or the area of living) the added biocides have different chemical qualities and different toxicologic characteristics. For most biocidal product...
Article
Full-text available
Biocides are used to prevent attacks and disintegration of products by harming organisms. Many widespread products contain biocides. Depending on the application area (product to be protected, human health or the area of living) the added biocides have different chemical qualities and different toxicologic characteristics. For most biocidal product...
Article
Biocides are used to prevent attacks and disintegration of products by harming organisms. Many widespread products contain biocides. Depending on the application area (product to be protected, human health or the area of living) the added biocides have different chemical qualities and different toxicologic characteristics. For most biocidal product...
Article
Full-text available
Biocides are used to prevent attacks and disintegration of products by harming organisms. Many widespread products contain biocides. Depending on the application area (product to be protected, human health or the area of living) the added biocides have different chemical qualities and different toxicologic characteristics. For most biocidal product...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental contaminants originate from diverse sources and, owing to their ubiquitous presence in the environment, may appear in foods. Setting standards in food is increasingly important within the European Union and world-wide to protect consumers' health and to avoid trade barriers. This paper analyses how maximum levels for environmental con...
Article
An oral dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day is mentioned in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and European Union (EU) guidelines as a default maximum dose in limit tests for studies on reproductive toxicity. This paper investigated whether upper range human exposure data from the workplace are supportive of this limit dose...
Article
The roots of Rubia tinctorum L. have a long tradition of being used in dyeing processes of textiles from centuries ago until the present time. The colouring principles belong to the class of hydroxyanthraquinones. Concern arose because several of these compounds were recognised as mutagenic in vitro and even carcinogenic in rodents. To assess the p...
Article
A major problem in risk assessment is the quantification of uncertainties. A probabilistic model was developed to consider uncertainties in the effect assessment of hazardous substances at the workplace. Distributions for extrapolation factors (time extrapolation, inter- and intraspecies extrapolation) were determined on the basis of appropriate em...
Article
Nine textile companies from 8 European countries and 4 research institutes participated in the project 'Identification and Substitution of Mutagenic Dyes in Textile finishing (QLK4-CT-2000-70158)'. The objective of the participating companies was to identify mutagenic products, replace them, and develop a generally valid strategy to avoid the use o...
Article
The presented overview concerning health relevant effects caused by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) resumes the current state of results from animal experiments and human studies (epidemiology and short-term chambers studies). NO2 concentrations applied in animal experiments were mostly considerably higher than in ambient air. Therefore, short- and long-ter...
Article
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of toxicants that are ubiquitous in the environment. These contaminants generate considerable interest, because some of them are highly carcinogenic in laboratory animals and have been implicated in breast, lung, and colon cancers in humans. These chemicals commonly enter the human body through i...
Article
Textile dyes used within the European Union (EU) were examined for available published and unpublished mutagenicity data. Fifty-three dye products that had so far not been investigated for mutagenicity were tested in the bacterial reverse mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) according to a modification of the OECD 471 guidelines (...
Article
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a new test method which allows for the quantitative assessment of sensitizing potency in the mouse. Here, we investigate the quantitative correlation between results from the LLNA and two human sensitization tests--specifically, human repeat insult patch tests (HRIPTs) and human maximization tests (HMTs). Data f...
Article
Four types of data (toxicokinetic data of pharmaceuticals from six species including humans, LD(50) values from eight animal species, long-term NOAEL values of pesticides from mice, rats, and dogs, and toxicity data on anti-neoplastic agents from six species including humans) were used for interspecies comparisons. Species differences with regard t...
Article
Within an EU-funded research project, 281 textile dye products in use at nine textile finishing companies from eight European countries were assessed for potential mutagenic properties. Most of the dyes belonged to the so-called existing substances. Data sources considered were data published in the literature, unpublished industrial data provided...
Article
Die Umsetzung des EU Weißbuches zur Chemikalienpolitik soll mehr Sicherheit und mehr Transparenz beim Umgang mit Chemikalien bewirken. Bisher fehlten bei der Altstoffbewertung oft Informationen zu den Anwendungsfeldern der Chemikalien und den hier auftretenden Expositionen. Im Weißbuch wird deshalb die ‘geteilte Verantwortung’ gefordert. Die Weiter...
Article
Uncertainty in risk assessment results from the lack of knowledge on toxicity to the target population for a substance. Currently used deterministic risk assessment methods yield human limit values or margins of safety (MOS) without quantitative measurements of uncertainty. Qualitative and quantitative uncertainty analysis would enable risk manager...
Article
Carcinogenic air contaminants are assigned to emission classes with different emission limits on the basis of their inhalation carcinogenic potency within the revised form of the German First General Administrative Regulation Pertaining to the Federal Emission Control Law (Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control-TA Luft). Accordingly, compoun...
Article
Full-text available
This literature study examines the quantitative differences between experimental animals and humans. Specifically, the extent to which allometric concepts of body weight scaling and caloric demand scaling, respectively, are in agreement with the species differences found in various data analyses is investigated. The following data sets with informa...
Article
In the case of substances with a limited toxicological data base there is often (i) a lack of qualified human toxicological data; and (ii) a paucity of studies with adequate exposure duration. Hence, several extrapolations have to be performed to arrive at appropriate risk assessments or derive occupational exposure limits. The present paper deals...
Article
Cancer risk estimates for oral uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) currently are based on risk estimates for benzo[a]pyrene (BAP). The potency of PAH mixtures often is calculated using relative potency values (BAP equivalency factors). We used recent oral carcinogenicity studies with BAP and coal tar mixtures, as well as older studies...