Klaus McDonald-Maier

Klaus McDonald-Maier
University of Essex · School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering

About

282
Publications
49,167
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2,777
Citations

Publications

Publications (282)
Article
Motivation Data normalization is an essential step to reduce technical variation within and between arrays. Due to the different karyotypes and the effects of X chromosome inactivation, females and males exhibit distinct methylation patterns on sex chromosomes, thus it poses a significant challenge to normalise sex chromosome data without introduci...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of new nanoscale technologies has imposed significant challenges to designing reliable electronic systems in radiation environments. A few types of radiation like Total Ionizing Dose (TID) can cause permanent damages on such nanoscale electronic devices, and current state-of-the-art technologies to tackle TID make use of expensive rad...
Preprint
Background DNA methylation (DNAm) based age clocks have been studied extensively as a biomarker of human ageing and risk factor for age-related diseases. Despite different tissues having vastly different rates of proliferation, it is still largely unknown whether they age at different rates. It was previously reported that the cerebellum ages slowl...
Article
Full-text available
Knee joint moments are commonly calculated to provide an indirect measure of knee joint loads. A shortcoming of inverse dynamics approaches is that the process of collecting and processing human motion data can be time-consuming. This study aimed to benchmark five different deep learning methods in using walking segment kinematics for predicting in...
Article
Full-text available
Weather prediction from real-world images can be termed a complex task when targeting classification using neural networks. Moreover, the number of images throughout the available datasets can contain a huge amount of variance when comparing locations with the weather those images are representing. In this article, the capabilities of a custom buil...
Article
Full-text available
Most modern mobile cyber-physical systems such as smartphones come equipped with multi-processor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) with variant computing capacity both to cater to performance requirements and reduce power consumption when executing an application. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) on...
Preprint
VPR is a fundamental task for autonomous navigation as it enables a robot to localize itself in the workspace when a known location is detected. Although accuracy is an essential requirement for a VPR technique, computational and energy efficiency are not less important for real-world applications. CNN-based techniques archive state-of-the-art VPR...
Article
Full-text available
Food waste is an important social and environmental issue that the current society faces, where one third of the total food produced is wasted or lost every year while more than 820 million people around the world do not have access to adequate food. However, as we move towards a decentralized Web 3.0 enabled smart city, we can utilize cutting edge...
Article
Full-text available
State-of-the-art visual place recognition performance is currently being achieved utilizing deep learning based approaches. Despite the recent efforts in designing lightweight convolutional neural network based models, these can still be too expensive for the most hardware restricted robot applications. Low-overhead visual place recognition techniq...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of new nanoscale technologies has imposed significant challenges to designing reliable electronic systems in radiation environments. A few types of radiation like Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects often cause permanent damages on such nanoscale electronic devices, and current state-of-the-art technologies to tackle TID make use of exp...
Article
Full-text available
A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is the second commonest cause of death in the world. If it is not fatal, it can result in paralysis, sensory impairment and significant disability. Rehabilitation plays an important role to help survivors relearn lost skills and assist them to regain independence and thus ameliorate their quality of life. With t...
Article
Visual Place Recognition (VPR) is the ability to correctly recall a previously visited place using visual information under environmental, viewpoint and appearance changes. An emerging trend in VPR is the use of sequence-based filtering methods on top of single-frame-based place matching techniques for route-based navigation. The combination leads...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate weed mapping is a prerequisite for site-specific weed management to enable sustainable agriculture. This work aims to analyse (spectrally) and mapping blackgrass weed in wheat fields by integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), multispectral imagery and machine learning techniques. 18 widely-used Spectral Indices (SIs) are generated from...
Conference Paper
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further high-lighted the need for improving tele-rehabilitation systems. One of the common methods is to use wearable sensors for monitoring patients and intelligent algorithms for accurate and objective assessments. An important part of this work is to develop an efficient evaluation algorithm that provides a high-...
Article
Achieving high result-accuracy in approximate computing (AC) based real-time applications without violating power constraints of the underlying hardware is a challenging problem. Execution of such AC real-time tasks can be divided into the execution of the mandatory part to obtain a result of acceptable quality, followed by a partial/complete execu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Motivation Data normalization is an essential step to reduce technical variation within and between arrays. Due to the different karyotypes and the effects of X chromosome inactivation, females and males exhibit distinct methylation patterns on sex chromosomes, thus it poses a significant challenge to normalise sex chromosome data without introduci...
Article
The Integrated Circuit Metric (ICMetric) technology is a novel trust basis that uses the system features to create an identification of a device. The ICMetric of the device is used for the provision of security services, thereby addressing the issue of trust associated with device identity. The ICMetric technology can be adapted to function with va...
Preprint
State-of-the-art visual place recognition performance is currently being achieved utilizing deep learning based approaches. Despite the recent efforts in designing lightweight convolutional neural network based models, these can still be too expensive for the most hardware restricted robot applications. Low-overhead VPR techniques would not only en...
Article
All-Programmable System-on-Chips (APSoCs) constitute a compelling option for employing applications in radiation environments thanks to their high-performance computing and power efficiency merits. Despite these advantages, APSoCs are sensitive to radiation like any other electronic device. Processors embedded in APSoCs, therefore, have to be adequ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sex is an important covariate of epigenome-wide association studies due to its strong influence on DNA methylation patterns across numerous genomic positions. Nevertheless, many samples on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) frequently lack a sex annotation or are incorrectly labelled. Considering the influence that sex imposes on DNA meth...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual navigation localizes a query place image against a reference database of place images, also known as a `visual map'. Localization accuracy requirements for specific areas of the visual map, `scene classes', vary according to the context of the environment and task. State-of-the-art visual mapping is unable to reflect these requirements by ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual place recognition (VPR) is the problem of recognising a previously visited location using visual information. Many attempts to improve the performance of VPR methods have been made in the literature. One approach that has received attention recently is the multi-process fusion where different VPR methods run in parallel and their outputs are...
Preprint
Full-text available
div> Food safety is an important issue in today’s world. Traditional agri-food production system doesn’t offer easy traceability of the produce at any point of the supply chain, and hence, during a food-borne outbreak, it is very difficult to sift through food production data to track produce and origin of the outbreak. In recent years, blockchain...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sex is an important covariate of epigenome-wide association studies due to its strong influence on DNA methylation patterns across numerous genomic positions. Nevertheless, many samples on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) frequently lack a sex annotation or are incorrectly labelled. Considering the influence that sex imposes on DNA methylation pat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual place recognition (VPR) is a robot's ability to determine whether a place was visited before using visual data. While conventional hand-crafted methods for VPR fail under extreme environmental appearance changes, those based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) achieve state-of-the-art performance but result in model sizes that demand a l...
Article
Full-text available
Perception reaction time and mental workload have proven to be crucial in manual driving. Moreover, in highly automated cars, where most of the research is focusing on Level 4 Autonomous driving, takeover performance is also a key factor when taking road safety into account. This study aims to investigate how the immersion in non-driving related ta...
Preprint
div> Side-channel attacks remain a challenge to information flow control and security in mobile edge devices till this date. One such important security flaw could be exploited through temperature side-channel attacks, where heat dissipation and propagation from the processing cores are observed over time in order to deduce security flaws. In this...
Preprint
div> Fruit and vegetable classification using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has become a popular application in the agricultural industry, however, to the best of our knowledge no previously recorded study has designed and evaluated such an application on a mobile platform. In this paper, we propose a power-efficient CNN model, FruitVegCNN,...
Preprint
div> Side-channel attacks remain a challenge to information flow control and security in mobile edge devices till this date. One such important security flaw could be exploited through temperature side-channel attacks, where heat dissipation and propagation from the processing cores are observed over time in order to deduce security flaws. In this...
Preprint
div> Fruit and vegetable classification using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has become a popular application in the agricultural industry, however, to the best of our knowledge no previously recorded study has designed and evaluated such an application on a mobile platform. In this paper, we propose a power-efficient CNN model, FruitVegCNN,...
Preprint
Full-text available
div> This paper proposes a novel human-inspired methodology called IRON-MAN (Integrated RatiONal prediction and Motionless ANalysis of videos) on mobile multi-processor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs). The methodology integrates analysis of the previous image frames of the video to represent the analysis of the current frame in order to perform Temporal...
Preprint
div> This paper proposes a novel human-inspired methodology called IRON-MAN (Integrated RatiONal prediction and Motionless ANalysis of videos) on mobile multi-processor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs). The methodology integrates analysis of the previous image frames of the video to represent the analysis of the current frame in order to perform Temporal...
Preprint
div> Food safety is an important issue in today’s world. Traditional agri-food production system doesn’t offer easy traceability of the produce at any point of the supply chain, and hence, during a food-borne outbreak, it is very difficult to sift through food production data to track produce and origin of the outbreak. In recent years, blockchain...
Preprint
div> Food safety is an important issue in today’s world. Traditional agri-food production system doesn’t offer easy traceability of the produce at any point of the supply chain, and hence, during a food-borne outbreak, it is very difficult to sift through food production data to track produce and origin of the outbreak. In recent years, blockchain...
Preprint
div> Modern mobile devices come equipped with heterogeneous multi-processor system-on-chip (MPSoC) consisting of different types of cores such as CPU and GPU to cater for performance requirement of different types of applications. These MPSoCs also supports dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) to reduce dynamic power consumption, which ret...
Preprint
div> Modern mobile devices come equipped with heterogeneous multi-processor system-on-chip (MPSoC) consisting of different types of cores such as CPU and GPU to cater for performance requirement of different types of applications. These MPSoCs also supports dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) to reduce dynamic power consumption, which ret...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a cognition-inspired agnostic framework for building a map for Visual Place Recognition. This framework draws inspiration from human-memorability, utilizes the traditional image entropy concept and computes the static content in an image; thereby presenting a tri-folded criteria to assess the 'memorability' of an image for visua...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual Place Recognition (VPR) is the process of recognising a previously visited place using visual information, often under varying appearance conditions and viewpoint changes and with computational constraints. VPR is a critical component of many autonomous navigation systems ranging from autonomous vehicles to drones. While the concept of place...
Article
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) beam emitters with compact structure and high performance are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. Here, we propose a compact emitter that only consists of a ring resonator and a feed line. Continuously-variable-mode OAM beams are generated by adjusting the wavelength and transmission path...
Article
Full-text available
Electromagnetic waves carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM) are of great interest. However, most OAM antennas present disadvantages such as a complicated structure, low efficiency, and large divergence angle, which prevents their practical applications. So far, there are few papers and research focuses on the problem of the divergence angle. H...
Preprint
Full-text available
div> Analyzing video for traffic categorization is an important pillar of Intelligent Transport Systems. However, it is difficult to analyze and predict traffic based on image frames because the representation of each frame may vary significantly within a short time period. This also would inaccurately represent the traffic over a longer period of...
Preprint
div> Analyzing video for traffic categorization is an important pillar of Intelligent Transport Systems. However, it is difficult to analyze and predict traffic based on image frames because the representation of each frame may vary significantly within a short time period. This also would inaccurately represent the traffic over a longer period of...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study is to extend the guarantees provided by the secure transmission protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) and apply them to the application layer. This paper proposes a comprehensive scheme that allows the unification of multiple security mechanisms, thereby removing the burden of authenti...
Preprint
Visual Place Recognition (VPR) is a fundamental yet challenging task for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The core reasons are the extreme viewpoint changes, and limited computational power onboard a UAV which restricts the applicability of robust but computation intensive state-of-the-art VPR methods. In this context, a viable approach is to u...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, modern communication system relies on the designs of high-performance devices to enhance communication effect for high quality of life and smart city system. As a crucial signal processing step, microwave filter removes unwanted frequency components away from the received signal and enhances the useful ones. However, large loss, bulky siz...
Preprint
Full-text available
High operating temperature and frequent thermal cycles in a multi-processor system-on-chip, which is now popularly utilized in mobile/Edge devices, harm the overall lifespan and reliability of such devices. In this paper, we propose an intelligent software agent that works alongside other resource mapping and partitioning mechanism in order to moni...
Article
Full-text available
Two novel image denoising algorithms are proposed which employ goodness of fit (GoF) test at multiple image scales. Proposed methods operate by employing the GoF tests locally on the wavelet coefficients of a noisy image obtained via discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) respectively. We next formulat...
Data
Standard Input test images (a) Lena (b) Barbara (c) Peppers (d) Plane (e) Cameraman (g) Brain MRI. (TIF)
Data
Comparison of the denoising performance of the proposed GoFShrink-DT against the NLM method on Multifocus and MRI datasets, whereby first column displays the noisy input images (at σ = 20 & 30) while second and third columns show denoised images by the NLM and the GoFShrink-DT respectively. In addition, PSNR values of each image have also been repo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Every year millions of men, women and children are forced to leave their homes and seek refuge from wars, human rights violations, persecution, and natural disasters. The number of forcibly displaced people came at a record rate of 44,400 every day throughout 2017, raising the cumulative total to 68.5 million at the years end, overtaken the total p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual Place Recognition (VPR) has seen significant advances at the frontiers of matching performance and computational superiority over the past few years. However, these evaluations are performed for ground-based mobile platforms and cannot be generalized to aerial platforms. The degree of viewpoint variation experienced by aerial robots is compl...
Preprint
Machine learning based methods achieves impressive results in object classification and detection. Utilizing representative data of the visual world during the training phase is crucial to achieve good performance with such data driven approaches. However, it not always possible to access bias-free datasets thus, robustness to biased data is a desi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Heterogeneous Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) are progressively becoming predominant in most modern mobile devices. These devices are required to perform processing of applications within thermal, energy and performance constraints. However, most stock power and thermal management mechanisms either neglect some of these constraints or rely on...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years there has been significant improvement in the capability of Visual Place Recognition (VPR) methods, building on the success of both hand-crafted and learnt visual features, temporal filtering and usage of semantic scene information. The wide range of approaches and the relatively recent growth in interest in the field has meant that...