Klaus Jaffe

Klaus Jaffe
Simon Bolívar University sites.google.com/view/kjaffe

PhD

About

265
Publications
70,972
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4,566
Citations

Publications

Publications (265)
Book
Full-text available
An exploration of the workings of synergy in the natural and social sciences focusing on empirical quantitative research
Preprint
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Based on what we know about thermodynamics of synergy, we explored the relationship between countries socio-cultural order (negentropy), estimated through their constitutions, indicators of Rule of Law and their academic development; with countries indicators of Free Energy (amount of useful work, productivity, socioeconomic health). The analysis o...
Article
Full-text available
Based on what we know about the thermodynamics of synergy, we explored the relationship between countries’ sociocultural order (negentropy), as estimated by their constitutions, academic development, and national indicators of their rule of law and free energy (specifically, their amount of useful work, productivity, and socioeconomic health). An a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Synergy, emerges from synchronized reciprocal positive feedback loops between a network of diverse actors. For this process to proceed, compatible information from different sources synchronically coordinates the actions of the actors resulting in a nonlinear increase in the useful work or potential energy the system can manage. In contrast noise i...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Research productivity has been linked to a country’s intellectual and economic wealth. Further analysis is needed to assess the association between the distribution of research across disciplines and the economic status of countries. Methods By using 55 years of data, spanning 1962 to 2017, of Elsevier publications across a large set...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the factors underpinning COVID-19 infection and mortality rates is essential in order to implement actions that help mitigate the current pandemic. Here we evaluate how a suit of 15 climatic and socioeconomic variables influence COVID-19 exponential growth-phase infection and mortality rates across 36 countries. We found that imports...
Article
Full-text available
Latin America was fundamental in the intellectual formation of the founders of modern biology (e.g. Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, Henry Bates and William D. Hamilton), but these pioneers directed their findings primarily to a European audience. Only later did European ethological influence reach Argentina, Brazil, M...
Preprint
Full-text available
For the first time, empirical evidence allowed to construct the frequency distribution of an index related to the degree of genetic relatedness between the parents of about 0.5 million humans living in the UK. The results show that a large proportion of the population is not the product of parents choosing a mate randomly. Assortative mating leadin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Integrating new data with older reports on the behavior of small land-birds in the Galapagos archipelago reveal that geographic isolation of population together with behavioral segregation of populations produce a synergy that is more likely to produce speciation than any of those factors on its own. This result expands our understanding of assorta...
Article
Full-text available
The accumulation of knowledge required to produce economic value is a process that often relates to nations economic growth. Some decades ago many authors, in the absence of other available indicators, used to rely on certain measures of human capital such as years of schooling, enrollment rates, or literacy. In this paper, we show that the predict...
Preprint
Full-text available
Integrating new data with older reports on the behavior of small land-birds in the Galapagos archipelago reveal that geographic isolation of population together with behavioral segregation of populations produce a synergy that is more likely to produce speciation than any of those factors on its own. This result expands our understanding of assorta...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed bird flocks are very diverse in size, number of species, habitats, and interactions between members, however there are few reports about which morphological characteristics of species lead to flocking behavior. We conducted a literature search in order to test the effect of body weight on flocking behavior, and performed an ordinal regression...
Article
Full-text available
Computer experiments, testing features proposed to explain the evolution of sexual recombination, show that this evolution is better described as a network of interactions between possible sexual forms, including diploidy, thelytoky, facultative sex, assortation, bisexuality, and division of labor, rather than a simple transition from parthenogenes...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance tes...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance tes...
Preprint
Full-text available
The accumulation of knowledge required to produce economic value is a process that often relates to nations economic growth. Such a relationship, however, is misleading when the proxy of such accumulation is the average years of education. In this paper, we show that the predictive power of this proxy started to dwindle in 1990 when nations schooli...
Article
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significan...
Article
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significan...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance tes...
Article
Full-text available
Inspired by Adam Smith and Friedrich Hayek, economists promoting free markets postulate the existence of invisible forces that drive economic growth. Simulations with Sociodynamica allowed the emergence of market forces in virtual economies, showing that the synergistic working of division of labor in complex settings favors a stable state where al...
Chapter
Full-text available
KJ Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. KJ include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergie...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that depending on p-values to reject null hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level for statistical significance from .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable criterion levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense...
Article
Full-text available
Polyphonic music files were analyzed using the set of symbols that produced the Minimal Entropy Description, which we call the Fundamental Scale. This allowed us to create a novel space to represent music pieces by developing: (a) a method to adjust a textual description from its original scale of observation to an arbitrarily selected scale, (b) a...
Article
Full-text available
Synergy, emerges from synchronized reciprocal positive feedback loops between a network of diverse actors. For this process to proceed, compatible information from different sources synchronically coordinates the actions of the actors resulting in a nonlinear increase in the useful work or potential energy the system can manage. In contrast noise i...
Article
Full-text available
Classic economic science is reaching the limits of its explanatory powers. Complexity science uses an increasingly larger set of different methods to analyze physical, biological, cultural, social, and economic factors, providing a broader understanding of the socio-economic dynamics involved in the development of nations worldwide. The use of tool...
Article
Full-text available
W.D. Hamilton's Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortati...
Article
Full-text available
We measured entropy and symbolic diversity for English and Spanish texts including literature Nobel laureates and other famous authors. Entropy, symbol diversity and symbol frequency profiles were compared for these four groups. We also built a scale sensitive to the quality of writing and evaluated its relationship with the Flesch's readability in...
Article
Full-text available
Synergy is often defined as the creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. It is found at all levels of organization in physics, chemistry, biology, social sciences, and the arts. Synergy occurs in open irreversible thermodynamic systems making it difficult to quantify. Negative entropy or negentropy ( N) has been related to ord...
Article
Full-text available
Automotive traffic is a classical example of a complex system, being the simplest case the homogeneous traffic where all vehicles are of the same kind, and using different means of transportation increases complexity due to different driving rules and interactions between each vehicle type. In particular, when motorcyclists drive in between the lan...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the association of shame when children experience food insecurity and management strategies. The cross-sectional study assessed food insecurity in 404 children using 2 instruments with 10 and 11 items for food insecurity and management strategies. Food insecurity in children was associated with shame of others knowing that they were out...
Article
We evaluated the impact of changing the observation scale over the entropy measures for text descriptions. MIDI coded Music, computer code and two human natural languages were studied at the scale of characters, words, and at the Fundamental Scale resulting from adjusting the symbols length used to interpret each text-description until it produced...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Synergy is phenomenon found everywhere in nature at all levels of organization in physics, chemistry, biology, social sciences, and the arts. The English Wikipedia defines Synergy as "the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts. The term synergy comes from the Attic Greek word συνεργία synergia from synergos, συνεργός,...
Data
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Article
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Data mining revealed a cluster of economic, psychological, social and cultural indicators that in combination predicted corruption and wealth of European nations. This prosperity syndrome of self-reliant citizens, efficient division of labor, a sophisticated scientific community, and respect for the law, was clearly distinct from that of poor count...
Article
Full-text available
Inspired by Adam Smith and Friedrich Hayek, many economists have postulated the existence of invisible forces that drive economic markets. These market forces interact in complex ways making it difficult to visualize or understand the interactions in every detail. Here I show how these forces can transcend a zero-sum game and become a win-win busin...
Article
Inclusive Fitness Theory (IFT) was proposed half a century ago by W.D. Hamilton to explain the emergence and maintenance of cooperation between individuals that allows the existence of society. Contemporary evolutionary ecology identified several factors that increase inclusive fitness, in addition to kin-selection, such as assortation or homophily...
Article
Full-text available
Termites, like many social insects, build nests of complex architecture. These constructions have been proposed to optimize different structural features. Here we describe the nest network of the termite Nasutitermes ephratae, which is among the largest nest-network reported for termites and show that it optimizes diverse parameters defining the ne...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of the description of a system is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system's description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In texts written in artificial and natural languages, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structur...
Article
In complex systems, many different parts interact in non-obvious ways. Traditional research focuses on a few or a single aspect of the problem so as to analyze it with the tools available. To get an insight of phenomena that emerge from complex interactions, we need instruments that can analyze complex interactions of many parts simultaneously. Her...
Article
Full-text available
Do different field of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed different optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researcher...
Article
We compared entropy for texts written in natural languages (English, Spanish) and artificial languages (computer software) based on a simple expression for the entropy as a function of message length and specific word diversity. Code text written in artificial languages showed higher entropy than text of similar length expressed in natural language...
Article
Full-text available
Shame has clear biological roots and its precise form of expression affects social cohesion and cultural characteristics. Here we explore the relative importance between shame and guilt by using Google Translate to produce translation for the words shame, guilt, pain, embarrassment and fear to the 64 languages covered. We also explore the meanings...
Article
Full-text available
Shame helps cement social cooperation, in part by triggering facial expressions that provide biological “honest signals” recovering trust. The variability of feelings of shame among children and its relationship with food insecurity and happiness were assessed using questionnaires filled by children. The strongest feeling of shame in children was b...
Article
Full-text available
We compare the likelihood of different socially relevant features to allow the evolutionary emergence and maintenance of cooperation in a generalized variant of the iterated Prisoners Dilemma game. Results show that the average costs/benefit balance of cooperation is the primary constraint for its establishment and maintenance. Behavior increasing...
Article
Full-text available
The present politically correct consensus is that increased exchange of scientific insight, knowledge, practitioners and skills at the global level brings significant benefits to all. The quantifiable scientometric changes during the last decade, however, suggest that many areas of knowledge are evolving in the opposite direction. Despite an increa...
Data
Source of economic indicators used for the cluster analysis in Table 1. Data were from the most recent years available, spanning from 2012 to 1010. (DOC)
Book
Full-text available
Despite efforts to increase renewables, the global energy mix is still likely to be dominated by fossil-fuels in the foreseeable future, particularly gas for electricity and oil for land, air and sea transport. The reliance on depleting conventional oil and natural gas resources and the geographic distribution of these reserves can have geopolitica...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results sho...
Article
Successful energy policy and energy security are dependent on political decision making based on a deep comprehension of the relationship between human behavior and energy use. Political and economic phenomena of society are the emergent product of the interactions of individuals with different characteristics. Understanding the complexities of suc...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific knowledge and technical expertise promote the wealth of nations. The traditional view is that science allows the expansion of technology, which, in turn, promotes economic development. This chapter shows that: 1) the scientific productivity of a country correlates more strongly with gross national income per capita than its technological...
Article
Statistical analyses focused on the difference in the contribution of scientific knowledge and technical expertise in promoting the wealth of nations, showed that both types of knowledge are tightly related to the wealth of nations, but in distinct ways. Scientific productivity correlates stronger with Gross National Income than technological sophi...
Article
Full-text available
Non-linear dynamics is probably much more common in the epigenetic dynamics of living beings than hitherto recognized. Here we report a case of global bifurcation triggered by gender that affects higher cognitive functions in humans. We report a cross-cultural study showing deviations in time perception, as assessed by estimating the duration of br...
Article
A common use of urban traffic simulation models is to explore ways of minimizing travel time, by emphasizing physical variables such as speed or gaps. Here we focus on the interactive nature of traffic as a social phenomenon, exploring behavioral heuristics such as maneuvers. Stepwise regressions through frame-by-frame analyses of two sample videos...
Article
Full-text available
All termites secrete trail pheromones from their sternal gland, whereas ants use a variety of glands for this purpose. This and the diversity of chemical compounds that serve as trail pheromones among ants, and the uniformity of chemicals among termite trails, suggest a different evolutionary historical dynamics for the development of chemical mass...
Article
Full-text available
Studying the 62 countries producing most papers reported in the SCImago data base in the period 1996-2008, it was found that countries with low per capita publication numbers show variable rates of self-citations and produce publications with lower citation impact. In contrast, countries with larger numbers of citations per paper have also high per...
Article
Full-text available
Ants in the tribe Cephalotini are exceptional in that they maintain microorganisms in their digestive tract. To understand what these microorganisms mean to the ants, we observed the feeding habits of Cephalotes pusillus and Cephalotes atratus, finding that in nature they feed on extrafloral nectars, homopteran secretions, and bird droppings. Feedi...
Article
Full-text available
What are the benefits of society? What are the adaptive advantages of social behavior? The fact that societies exist suggest that society favors synergies in the interactions between individuals. One such synergy or adaptive advantage might be the increased efficiency in the use of scarce resources. This has been postulated to occur in the “metabol...
Article
Full-text available
At six different forest sites in Venezuela, we estimated the diversity and abundance of ants and nymphalid butterflies on the ground and in the canopy, and of plants. Statistical analysis using eight different diversity indices for each species group revealed large variations among them. Ground ants appeared to be the most reliable bioindicators, e...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY In order to study the presumed existence of specialized skills and attitudes related to scientists, questionnaires sent to authors publis- hing during the last three years in academic journals from different disciplines, and to elected members of Latin American parliaments, were analyzed. To correlate skills and attitudes with success in sc...